Zauriel

13-10-05, 16:06

Ancient achievements

Louvre Museum antiquitySee Predynastic Egypt for inventions and other significant achievements in the Sahara region before the Protodynastic Period. For example the world's earliest known writing system dates to the predynastic era [8].

The art and science of engineering was present in Egypt, such as accurately determining the position of points and the distances between them (known as surveying). These skills were used to outline pyramid bases. The Egyptian pyramids took the geometric shape formed from a polygonal base and a point, called the apex, by triangular faces. Hydraulic Cement was first invented by the Egyptians. The Al Fayyum Irrigation (water works) was one of the main agricultural breadbaskets of the ancient world. There is evidence of ancient Egyptian pharaohs of the twelfth dynasty using the natural lake of the Fayyum as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons. From the time of the First dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai Peninsula.

The earliest evidence (circa 1600 BC) of traditional empiricism is credited to Egypt, as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri. The roots of the Scientific method may be traced back to the ancient Egyptians. The ancient Egyptians are also credited with devising the world's earliest known alphabet, decimal system [9] and complex mathematical formularizations, in the form of the Moscow and Rhind Mathematical Papyri. An awareness of the Golden ratio seems to be reflected in many constructions, such as the Egyptian pyramids.

Predynastic

See main article and timeline: Predynastic Egypt.

3500 BC - Faience, world's earliest known

Dynastic

3300 BC - Bronze works (see Bronze Age)

3200 BC - Egyptian hieroglyphs fully developed (see First dynasty of Egypt)

3200 BC - Narmer Palette, world's earliest known historical document

3100 BC - Decimal system, [10], world's earliest (confirmed) use

3100 BC - Wine cellars, world's earliest known [11]

3100 BC - Mining, Sinai Peninsula

3050 BC - Shipbuilding in Abydos, [12]

3000 BC - Exports from Nile to Israel: wine (see Narmer)

3000 BC - Copper plumbing (see Copper: History)

3000 BC - Medical Institutions

3000 BC - Papyrus, world's earliest known paper

3000 BC - Senet, world's oldest (confirmed) board game

2900 BC - possible steel: carbon-containing iron, [13]

2700 BC - Surgery, world's earliest known

2700 BC - precision Surveying

2600 BC - Sphinx, still today the world's largest single-stone statue

2600s-2500 BC - Shipping expeditions: King Sneferu and Pharaoh Sahure. See also [14], [15].

2600 BC - Barge transportation, stone blocks (see Egyptian pyramids: Construction)

2600 BC - Pyramid of Djoser, world's earliest known large-scale stone building

2600 BC - Menkaure's Pyramid & Red Pyramid, world's earliest known works of carved granite

2600 BC - Red Pyramid, world's earliest known "true" smooth-sided pyramid; solid granite work

2580 BC - Great Pyramid of Giza, the world's tallest structure until AD 1300

2500 BC - Beekeeping, [16]

2400 BC - Astronomical Calendar, used even in the Middle Ages for its mathematical regularity

2200 BC - Beer, [17]

1860 BC - possible Nile-Red Sea Canal (Twelfth dynasty of Egypt)

1800 BC - Alphabet, world's oldest known

1800 BC - Berlin Mathematical Papyrus, [18], 2nd order algebraic equations

1800 BC - Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, generalized formula for volume of frustum

1650 BC - Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: geometry, cotangent analogue, algebraic equations, arithmetic series, geometric series

1600 BC - Edwin Smith papyrus, medical tradition traces as far back as c. 3000 BC

1550 BC - Ebers Medical Papyrus, traditional empiricism; world's earliest known documented tumors (see History of medicine)

1500 BC - Glass-making, world's earliest known

1258 BC - Peace treaty, world's earliest known (see Ramesses II, [19])

1160 BC - Turin papyrus, world's earliest known geologic and topographic map

5th-4th century BC (or perhaps earlier) - battle games, petteia and seega; possible precursors to Chess (see Origins of chess)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt

The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. The months were divided into 3 "weeks" of ten days each.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_calendar

Suez Canal:

The Suez canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade. It not only played an important role in increasing European penetration and colonization of Africa but also brought Western ideas of liberty to the Spanish colony of Philippines as well as brought British families to India. Before the Suez Canal was modernized, ony British men went to India. Very few women and children have gone with their husbands and fathers because they had to travel the westward route which was the very longer one to India.

Louvre Museum antiquitySee Predynastic Egypt for inventions and other significant achievements in the Sahara region before the Protodynastic Period. For example the world's earliest known writing system dates to the predynastic era [8].

The art and science of engineering was present in Egypt, such as accurately determining the position of points and the distances between them (known as surveying). These skills were used to outline pyramid bases. The Egyptian pyramids took the geometric shape formed from a polygonal base and a point, called the apex, by triangular faces. Hydraulic Cement was first invented by the Egyptians. The Al Fayyum Irrigation (water works) was one of the main agricultural breadbaskets of the ancient world. There is evidence of ancient Egyptian pharaohs of the twelfth dynasty using the natural lake of the Fayyum as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons. From the time of the First dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai Peninsula.

The earliest evidence (circa 1600 BC) of traditional empiricism is credited to Egypt, as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri. The roots of the Scientific method may be traced back to the ancient Egyptians. The ancient Egyptians are also credited with devising the world's earliest known alphabet, decimal system [9] and complex mathematical formularizations, in the form of the Moscow and Rhind Mathematical Papyri. An awareness of the Golden ratio seems to be reflected in many constructions, such as the Egyptian pyramids.

Predynastic

See main article and timeline: Predynastic Egypt.

3500 BC - Faience, world's earliest known

Dynastic

3300 BC - Bronze works (see Bronze Age)

3200 BC - Egyptian hieroglyphs fully developed (see First dynasty of Egypt)

3200 BC - Narmer Palette, world's earliest known historical document

3100 BC - Decimal system, [10], world's earliest (confirmed) use

3100 BC - Wine cellars, world's earliest known [11]

3100 BC - Mining, Sinai Peninsula

3050 BC - Shipbuilding in Abydos, [12]

3000 BC - Exports from Nile to Israel: wine (see Narmer)

3000 BC - Copper plumbing (see Copper: History)

3000 BC - Medical Institutions

3000 BC - Papyrus, world's earliest known paper

3000 BC - Senet, world's oldest (confirmed) board game

2900 BC - possible steel: carbon-containing iron, [13]

2700 BC - Surgery, world's earliest known

2700 BC - precision Surveying

2600 BC - Sphinx, still today the world's largest single-stone statue

2600s-2500 BC - Shipping expeditions: King Sneferu and Pharaoh Sahure. See also [14], [15].

2600 BC - Barge transportation, stone blocks (see Egyptian pyramids: Construction)

2600 BC - Pyramid of Djoser, world's earliest known large-scale stone building

2600 BC - Menkaure's Pyramid & Red Pyramid, world's earliest known works of carved granite

2600 BC - Red Pyramid, world's earliest known "true" smooth-sided pyramid; solid granite work

2580 BC - Great Pyramid of Giza, the world's tallest structure until AD 1300

2500 BC - Beekeeping, [16]

2400 BC - Astronomical Calendar, used even in the Middle Ages for its mathematical regularity

2200 BC - Beer, [17]

1860 BC - possible Nile-Red Sea Canal (Twelfth dynasty of Egypt)

1800 BC - Alphabet, world's oldest known

1800 BC - Berlin Mathematical Papyrus, [18], 2nd order algebraic equations

1800 BC - Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, generalized formula for volume of frustum

1650 BC - Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: geometry, cotangent analogue, algebraic equations, arithmetic series, geometric series

1600 BC - Edwin Smith papyrus, medical tradition traces as far back as c. 3000 BC

1550 BC - Ebers Medical Papyrus, traditional empiricism; world's earliest known documented tumors (see History of medicine)

1500 BC - Glass-making, world's earliest known

1258 BC - Peace treaty, world's earliest known (see Ramesses II, [19])

1160 BC - Turin papyrus, world's earliest known geologic and topographic map

5th-4th century BC (or perhaps earlier) - battle games, petteia and seega; possible precursors to Chess (see Origins of chess)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt

The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. The months were divided into 3 "weeks" of ten days each.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_calendar

Suez Canal:

The Suez canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade. It not only played an important role in increasing European penetration and colonization of Africa but also brought Western ideas of liberty to the Spanish colony of Philippines as well as brought British families to India. Before the Suez Canal was modernized, ony British men went to India. Very few women and children have gone with their husbands and fathers because they had to travel the westward route which was the very longer one to India.