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    Who invented what ?

    If asked to tell who invented everyday things like the TV, the camera, the automobile or the calculator, most people would be at a complete loss to give an answer (me included). I have therefore made a little research on the topic and found the following.

    Glasses (1280's, Italy)

    Mechanical clock (1335, Italy)

    Viol (viola da gamba) and Cello (late 15th and 16th century, Italy)

    Pocket watch (1510, Germany)

    Invented by Peter Henlein.

    Violin (Early 16th century, Italy)

    Thermometer

    - 1593 : Invented by Galileo (Italy)
    - 1714 : Mercury thermometer invented by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (Poland/Netherlands)

    Invented by Galileo Galilei.

    Microscope (1595, Netherlands)

    Invented by Zacharias Janssen.

    Telescope

    - late 11th century : astronomical lenses (Sweden)
    - 13th century : experimental telescopes built by Francis Bacon (UK)
    - 1595/1608 : refracting telescope (Netherlands)
    - 1609 : improved by Galileo (Italy)

    [B]Newspaper (1605, Belgium/France/Germany)

    The world's first printed newspapers were the Relation aller fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien published in Strasbourg (Germany at the time, now France), and the Nieuwe Tijdingen, published the same year in Antwerp (part of the Spanish Netherlands at the time, now Belgium).

    Calculator

    - 1623 : automatic calculator invented by Wilhelm Schickard (Germany)
    - 1642 : adding machine invented by Blaise Pascal (France)
    - 1954 : electronic calculator invented by IBM (USA)

    Barometer (1643, Italy)

    Invented by Evangelista Torricelli.

    Daily newspaper (1645, Germany)

    The Einkommende Zeitungen in Lepizing.

    Pendulum clock (1657, Netherlands)

    Invented by Christiaan Huygens.

    Clarinet (1690, Germany)

    Invented by Johann Christoph Denner.

    Steam engine (1698, UK)

    Invented by Thomas Savery in 1698, and improved by James Watt in 1769.

    Piano (early 1700's, Italy)

    Invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori in Florence.

    Magazine (England, 1731)

    The Gentleman's Magazine was the world's first general-interest magazine.

    Hot air balloon (France, 1782-83)

    Invented by the brothers Josef and Etienne Montgolfier.

    Parachute (1785, France)

    Invented by Jean Pierre Blanchard

    Steam boat (1786, USA)

    First built by John Fitch.

    Engine

    - 1791 : Gas turbine patented by John Barber (England).
    - 1826 : Reciprocating internal combustion engine patented by Samuel Morey (USA)
    - 1867 : Petrol engine developed by Nikolaus Otto (Germany)
    - 1892 : Diesel engine invented by Rudolph Diesel (Germany)
    - 1924-57 : Rotary engine developed by Felix Wankel (Germany)
    - 1936-39 : Jet engine developed simultaneously by Frank Whittle (England) and Hans von Ohain (Germany).

    Submarine (1800, USA/France)

    Invented by American Robert Fulton commissioned by Napoleon. First launched in France.

    Ambulance service (early 1800's, France)

    Modern method of army surgery, field hospitals and the system of army ambulance corps invented by Dominique Jean Larrey, surgeon-in-chief of the Napoleonic armies.

    Refrigerator

    - First refrigerator invented in 1805 by Oliver Evans (USA)
    - World's first practical refrigerator invented by James Harrison (Australia) in 1856.

    Railway (1820, UK)

    The idea of the railway dates back to Roman times, 2000 years ago, when horse-drawn vehicles were set on cut-stone tracks. In 1802, the first modern horse-drawn train appeared in England, and the first steam powered train was however launched in 1820, also in England.

    Comic strips (1820's, Switzerland)

    Swiss Rodolphe Toepffer was probably the first modern cartoonist.

    Photography

    - First photograph => 1825, France
    - Silver photo => 1840, France
    - Negative => 1840, UK
    - Colour photography => 1861 by James Clerk Maxwell (Scotland)

    Gas stove/cooker (1826, England)

    First patented and manufactured by James Sharp.

    Tramway :

    - first horse-drawn carriage on rail in 1828 in Baltimore, USA.
    - first cable-car in 1868 in New York.
    - first steam-powered tram in 1873
    - first electric tram in 1880 in St. Petersburg, Russia, and in 1881 in Berlin, Germany.

    Saxophone (1840's, Belgium

    Invented by Adolphe Sax.

    Telegraph (1844, USA)

    Invented by Samuel Morse

    Telephone (1849, Italy)

    The invention of the telephone has long been credited to the Scot Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. However, the Italian Antonio Meucci is now recognised to have invented the device as early as 1849.

    Dishwasher (1850-1886, USA)

    Steam-powered airship (1852, France)

    - Invented by Henri Giffard.

    Light bulb (1854, Germany)

    The first practical light bulb was invented in 1854 by Heinrich Goebel.

    Metro/Subway (1863, Britain)

    The London Underground was the first rapid transit network in the world.

    Vacuum cleaner (1865, USA)

    Wrist watch (1868, Switzerland => Patek Philippe & Co.)

    Radio

    - Radio waves => 1874, Scotland
    - Radio Transmission => 1893-96, USA

    Phonograph (1877, USA)

    Invented by Thomas Alva Edison, although based on France-born Leon Scott's 1857 phonautograph.

    Cash register (1879, USA)

    Invented by James Ritty.

    Television

    - First TV => 1884, Germany
    - TV tube => 1907, Russia
    - Electronic TV & Broadcast => 1927, USA

    Motorcycle (1885, Germany)

    First designed and built by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach

    Car/Automobile (1886, Germany)

    Developed independently and simultaneously by Carl Benz in Mannheim, amd Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart.

    Animation (1892, France)

    First animated film created by Emile Reynaud.

    Cinema (1894, France)

    Cinematograph invented by the Lumiere brothers.

    Electric stove/cooker (1896, USA)

    First patented by William S. Hadaway.

    Traffic lights (1914, USA)

    Parking meter (1935, USA)

    Helicopter (1939, Russia)

    Developed by Igor Sikorsky

    Microwave oven (1947, USA)

    Invented by Percy Spencer.

    Atomic clock (1949, USA)

    Charge/credit card (1950, USA => Diner's Club)

    Video Games (1951-58, USA/UK)

    Invention disputed between 3 people, 2 Americans and a Briton.

    Laserdisk (1958, USA; commercialised by MCA and Philips in 1972)

    Photocopier (1959, USA => Xerox)

    Soft contact lenses (1961, Czech)

    Invented by Otto Wichterle.

    Cassette tape (1967, Netherlands => Philips)

    LCD screen (1968, Germany)

    Quartz watch (1969, Japan => Seiko)

    Video tape (1972, Netherlands - Philips, later replaced by JVC's VHS)

    Walkman (1977, Germany => commercialised by the Japanese Sony from 1979)

    Compact Disk (1982, Netherlands/Germany - Philips)

    CD-ROM (1985, Netherlands/Japan => Philips/Sony)

    Minidisk (1991, Japan => Sony)

    -----------------------

    Let's now list inventions by countries.

    USA

    - Steam boat
    - Submarine
    - Regrigerator
    - Telegraph
    - Tramway
    - Dishwasher
    - Vacuum cleaner
    - Radio transmission
    - Phonograph
    - Cash register
    - Eletric stove/cooker
    - Electronic TV & TV Broadcast
    - Microwave oven
    - Atomic clock
    - Charge/credit card
    - Electronic calculator
    - Video games
    - Laserdisk
    - Photocopier
    - Traffic lights
    - Parking meter

    Australia

    - Refigerator

    UK

    - Magazine
    - Steam engine
    - Gas turbine
    - Railway
    - Gas stove/cooker
    - Negative & colour photography
    - Metro/Subway
    - Radio waves
    - Jet engine
    - Video Games

    France

    - Adding machine
    - Hot air balloon
    - Parachute
    - Submarine
    - Ambulance service
    - Photography
    - Airship
    - Animation
    - Cinema

    Italy

    - Glasses
    - Viol and cello
    - Mechanical clock
    - Violin
    - Thermometer
    - Barometer
    - Piano
    - Telephone

    Switerland

    - Comic strips
    - Wrist watch

    Czech Rep.

    - Soft contact lenses

    Germany

    - Newspaper
    - Clarinet
    - Pocket watch
    - Automated calculator
    - Light bulb
    - TV
    - Petrol/gasoline & Diesel engines
    - Automobile (+engine, differential gear...)
    - Motorcycle
    - Jet engine
    - LCD screen
    - Walkman

    Netherlands

    - Microscope
    - Telescope
    - Pendulum clock
    - Mercury thermometer
    - Audio tape
    - Video tape
    - CD
    - CD-ROM

    Belgium

    - Newspaper
    - Saxophone

    Japan

    - Quartz watch
    - CD-ROM
    - MD

    Russia

    - Tube TV
    - Helicopter
    Last edited by Maciamo; 10-01-06 at 14:58.

  2. #2
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    Those are cool inventions.

    Also,
    Cooked food: most important invention of all time. Probably discovered by women, but it could have been discovered by men also. Thousands of years ago when early people first discovered how to prepare cooked food, they made their food much more digestible and reduced wear on their teeth. This increased the life span an average of ten years.

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    As a historical rule of thumb: If Edison didn't invent it, then the Chinese did.

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    Quote Originally Posted by sabro
    As a historical rule of thumb: If Edison didn't invent it, then the Chinese did.
    A couple of years back the Chinese tried to claim that they had invented Football (soccer) and Golf. The latter much to the annoyance of the Scots. BTW Mary Queen of Scots was said to be a good golfer.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mycernius
    A couple of years back the Chinese tried to claim that they had invented Football (soccer) and Golf.
    If you'd believe some Chinese they invented pretty much everything worthwile in the past 5000 years (from human civilisation to space travel).

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    Yup, like the Chinese invented the yo-yo, fire works, the Chinese even introduced the orange. I think.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mycernius
    A couple of years back the Chinese tried to claim that they had invented Football (soccer) and Golf.
    As I explained in another thread (see post #44), it is interesting how the Chinese almost didn't invent anything unique or sunstantial in the last 1500 years. The Chinese oft mentioned inventions are alsways the same cast iron, fireworks/black powder (but not gunpowder, as they didn't invent guns), printing, and the others are controversial (compass, paper...). Many inventions are cultural (fans, kites, origami, fireworks, abacus, kanji, acupuncture...) are not 'necessary' contributions to the world. Most of the Chinese inventions date back to the Antiquity. There is hardly more connection between Ancient and Modern China as between Ancient and Modern Egypt, or Babylon and Iraq. And even so, Ancient China invented surpringly few things that have had a direct effect on the present world compared to Ancient Middle Eastern or Mediterranean countries.

    The latter much to the annoyance of the Scots. BTW Mary Queen of Scots was said to be a good golfer.
    The first reference of golf in 1353 was in fact in Flanders, Belgium. I read somewhere else that it was first invented in the Netherlands (Flanders was part of the Netherlands at that time) and exported to Scotland in the 15th century where it became popular.

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    Quote Originally Posted by No-name View Post
    As a historical rule of thumb: If a Scot didn't invent it, then the Chinese did.
    Fixed that for you. No need to thank me.

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    Quote Originally Posted by DavidCoutts View Post
    Fixed that for you. No need to thank me.
    I'm afraid modern inventions come from lands other than Scotland or China.


    In 2003 patents issued simultaneously in the USA, Japan and Europe gave:

    USA - 37pc
    Japan - 26pc
    Germany - 14pc
    France - 5pc
    UK - 4pc
    Others - 14pc

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    Quote Originally Posted by Vallicanus View Post
    I'm afraid modern inventions come from lands other than Scotland or China.


    In 2003 patents issued simultaneously in the USA, Japan and Europe gave:

    USA - 37pc
    Japan - 26pc
    Germany - 14pc
    France - 5pc
    UK - 4pc
    Others - 14pc
    Sorry, but these figures don't say anything about the quality, only about the quantity.

    For instance this British patent for a dog carrier.

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/djj_pictures/4178848145

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    WOW many things are from my country,,, SOOO SMALL BUT SO GREAT SOMETIMES... ( not with everything.... grrrr)

    im proud

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    Quote Originally Posted by dutch baka
    WOW many things are from my country,,, SOOO SMALL BUT SO GREAT SOMETIMES... ( not with everything.... grrrr)

    im proud


    Nah, it's nothing compared to other countries.

    In the ancient times it was China and Greece and China.

    older times, England, France, Germany, Italy

    Modern times, USA, Japan, Korea (look at those mobiles, wooot)

    kind of in general


    But Japan has a great musicscene, next to the american and british one.
    Chinese is good too.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Meiki
    In the ancient times it was China and Greece and China.

    older times, England, France, Germany, Italy
    China didn't invent so much, even in ancient times. Greece gave us geometry, philosophy, political science, democracy, physics, biology, etc. although these are not properly "inventions", but rather "knowledge" or academic disciplines.

    Don't forget the Romans, who invented the arch (extremely important to build high bridges, or high buildings like the Colloseum). In fcat, the Greek invented the arch, but it was refined and mostly used by the Romans. Some sources also mention that the Greeks invented the first flush toilets, floor heating or running water canalisations. Otherwise there were quite a few ancient inventions from the Middle/Near East (see list of inventions)

    Modern times, USA, Japan, Korea (look at those mobiles, wooot)
    Well, the Netherlands got more inventions, and more important ones than Japan in the list, and Japan is 10x bigger and 10x more populous. From about 1600 to 1867, the Japanese got their knowledge of science, medicine, etc. from the Dutch.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo
    China didn't invent so much, even in ancient times. Greece gave us geometry, philosophy, political science, democracy, physics, biology, etc. although these are not properly "inventions", but rather "knowledge" or academic disciplines.

    Don't forget the Romans, who invented the arch (extremely important to build high bridges, or high buildings like the Colloseum). In fcat, the Greek invented the arch, but it was refined and mostly used by the Romans. Some sources also mention that the Greeks invented the first flush toilets, floor heating or running water canalisations. Otherwise there were quite a few ancient inventions from the Middle/Near East (see list of inventions)



    Well, the Netherlands got more inventions, and more important ones than Japan in the list, and Japan is 10x bigger and 10x more populous. From about 1600 to 1867, the Japanese got their knowledge of science, medicine, etc. from the Dutch.


    Yeah, the Dutch got their knowledge from other countries. I think that a lot of things were invented in China, but they didn't cross the border.
    A lot of things were taken from the Greeks and Romans by the countries surrounding them. So I think Greeks and Romans contributed a lot. Without their influence a lot of countries in Europe would still be very ehm, barbaric.
    Oh, and if you study some things about China, you will know that they were active in those disciplines, like mathematics, biology and such.

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    Inventions

    A few British inventions to add to the list are the vending machine, caterpillar tracks, the artifical hand, the heavier than air flying machine and golf.
    One false discovery attribution seems to be Edward Jenner's smallpox innoculation. He was preceeded in the endeavour by Benjamin Jesty of Dorset (whose work was later acknowledged by some award), by the Welsh doctor Wright, by the American Cotton Mather, by attempts at perfecting the method in Germany, Denmark, Holland, Italy and France, plus, naturally, the Chinese, who were already trying this method of averting smallpox in the millenum BEFORE the last.
    Jesty and Wright had also both commented that it was well known by country people that if cowpox could be induced in an individual that person would generally become immune to smallpox. Jenner just seems to have picked up the ball and run with it.
    You can say that inventions come along in their proper time, but I find it interesting how some original ideas and unexpected inventions arose at precisely the same time in places far apart, whose inventors had proceeded upon their own lines of enquiry in isolation and were unaware of other investigations - the 'theory of evolution' from Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin is one, Walsharts and Heusinger steam locomotive valve gear is another, the theory of heredity is another.

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    As for the invention of video games dispute, it was actually one American who came up with it. He was in the army at the time, and was trying to come up with a training tool for soldiers in target practice. Not only that, but it was supposed to be for fun and hunting practice. He used a couple of old BB guns for what would be the very first light gun. Later he profected his techniques and later came out what would be a instant senstation around the world, Pong. Man I'm full of useless information.

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    This is not meant to be a double post, but you forgot to add one invention, the internet. The US military was the first to invent it during the 50's and it was known at the time as the intranet. Basically it was what we have now, only a little different. It was supercomputers connected to phonelines from around the country and were routed to one another, and would send information in and out from the Pentagon and then newly formed CIA. It wasn't until the early 90's when the internet was invented by Microsoft, the US government, and several other technology firms for commerical use. No one owns the internet and no one fully controls it. There are regulations and money to support it, but that's about it. Man I'm a geek.

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    Most of my favorite foods are ethnic American synergisms- foods that traveled here from somewhere else or were invented by immigrants, but changed a bit sometimes for the better: California Roll, Chop Suey, Pastrami Reuben (w/mustard not thousand island), the Fortune cookie, Hawaiian spam bowl, Hawaiian Bread, the Garbage Burrito, The Cheeseburger, Pizza, California pasta, Tex-mex, California fusion... Now I'm hungry...

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    Yes, but it seems Japan has taken most of those inventions to a higher level. Why is that?

    Look at what Bill Gates did for the Computer that IBM didn't want anything to do with. Or the copy machine that, I think, Kodak turned down. If they didn't do it, I think the Japanese would have.

    Why is it that there is not a single American TV manufaturer in the US anymore? Why is it that, if you look closely at the NASA boards during a shuttle launch, they are made by SONY? Why is it that the best copiers, cameras, cars and other technologically advanced products are made by the Japanese? Why is it that the best anime in the world is Japanese? (Maybe, in the not too distant future, by the Chinese.)

    I think it was an American Politician that once said back in the late 1800's, paraphrasing here, "Everything that needs to be invented, has already been invented." Heck, American scientists once assumed back in the 1800's that all the people on a train would be suffocated as the air would be pushed out of a train when it started moving.

    Even Ford Motor Company purchased the patent and rights to produce a hybrid vehicle from Toyota! (Considered the best in the world at the moment.) Why in hell didn't some American or European company do it?

    It just seems to me that the Japanese build on, and improve upon, the inventions, of others and it always bugged me as to why the original inventors didn't do the same. Maybe it has to do with the quarterly earnings report or something where American companies, and maybe most western ones, only look to the the next quarter and expect higher earnings and not much money is put into reasearch and development. Whereas the Japanese take a much longer term approach and don't look for profits for months or years ahead. They look for quality and market share.

    In reality, the Japanese really didn't invent anything including their own written language! (save for hiragana and katagana) But, most of your better products on the market today have Japanese brand names. Go figure.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pachipro
    the best copiers, cameras, cars and other technologically advanced products are made by the Japanese?
    That's disputable.

    Why is it that the best anime in the world is Japanese? (Maybe, in the not too distant future, by the Chinese.)
    Anime is Japanese, no wonder. For the quality of anime, well... that's probably a matter of taste.

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    http://www.crystalinks.com/chinainventions.html

    a large list of Chinese inventions, however it is true that the Chinese invented almost nothing in the past 1000 years or so

    there is this myth saying that the Chinese invented ice cream and spaghetti, and Marco Polo brought the ideas to Europe in the 13th century

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dream Time
    http://www.crystalinks.com/chinainventions.html

    a large list of Chinese inventions, however it is true that the Chinese invented almost nothing in the past 1000 years or so
    I wouldn't trust this website (of a psychic?) very much. Just having a 1st short look & already found one mistake:

    "The first to invent books"
    AFAIK, the 1st books (codices) were used in antiquity in Rome.

    Anyway, I have my problems with such lists. Many of the early inventions were made in different locations (simultaneously or at different times) independent from each other. Being the 1st doesn't really mean that much (being the 1st country even less). Sometimes it's interesting, though.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dream Time
    there is this myth saying that the Chinese invented ice cream and spaghetti, and Marco Polo brought the ideas to Europe in the 13th century
    If we include food, it's easy to find hundreds or thousands of inventions in almost any major country. As for the spaghetti, the Chinese probably invented noodles (like ramen), but the hundreds of variety of pasta in all their shape and colour (cappelini, spaghettoni, linguine, tagliatelle, macaroni, penne, farfalle, conchiglie, etc.) are Italian inventions. Lasagna could however have first been cooked in England!

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dream Time
    there is this myth saying that the Chinese invented ice cream and spaghetti, and Marco Polo brought the ideas to Europe in the 13th century
    I don't think the invention of ice-cream is from China.

    I don't think in Chinese deserts there is anything like ice-cream. Most of Chinese deserts are made from red beans, mung beans, sesame seeds, rice flours, glutinous rice, wheat flour, oil, eggs and sugar. Milk is hardly used in our cuisine. Some Cantonese restaurants today sell deep-fried ice-cream but I believe they either invented that dish after ice-cream is introduced by the West to Chinese or they adopted it from somewhere else. After all when Hong Kong was under the British rule they had all sorts of foreigners going there in comparison to say the mainland or Taiwan.

    With spaghetti, spaghetti is basically noodle and noodle comes from China.
    c50cm-long, yellow strands were found in a pot that had probably been buried during a catastrophic flood.Radiocarbon dating of the material taken from the Lajia archaeological site on the Yellow River indicates the food was about 4,000 years old. Scientists tell the journal Nature that the noodles were made using grains from millet grass - unlike modern noodles, which are made with wheat flour..

    The materials that are used to make the Chinese noodle are not the same kind as the ones they have used to make spaghetti or pasta. The Chinese noodle is usually made from wheat flour, rice flour or bean flour with salt and water and sometimes itfs added with eggs. The Italian pasta is made from Semolina, durum wheat (much harder and takes longer time to cook) and water or some are added with milled potatoes. The sauces to go with the Italian noodle (pasta) and the Chinese noodles are not the same. Hence dishes like spaghetti Bolognese or Chicken fettuccini (sp?) are definitely Italian inventions.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pachipro
    In reality, the Japanese really didn't invent anything including their own written language! (save for hiragana and katagana) But, most of your better products on the market today have Japanese brand names. Go figure.
    Some information about patent applications (these figures are from 1996:
    laser technology:
    USA: 365
    Germany: 381
    Japan: 3.481

    communication technology:
    Germany: 2.787
    USA: 6.379
    Japan: 33.391

    cars related:
    USA: 3.081
    Germany: 6.123
    Japan: 20.463

    computer science and storage technology:
    USA: 7.233
    Germany: 1.725
    Japan: 36.020

    And so on ...

    Many informations on Japan are based on biases, I suppose. It's the same in Germany. Most people here claim the Japanese can't invent things but only copy them. They can't explain how you can be the market leader by copying, but they claim it nevertheless. - Go figure.

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