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Thread: Medical conditions and risk factors associated with mtDNA haplogroups

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    Post Medical conditions and risk factors associated with mtDNA haplogroups



    Genetic diseases are obviously caused by our genes. The progress in the field of genetics is constantly giving us new clues regarding the correlations between certain genetic types and a risk to develop some diseases.

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) only represents a tiny fraction of a person's DNA. However, it plays an important role in the energy production within cells, and are hence referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell. About 2 billion mitochondria are made every second throughout a person’s life, each having an average life of around 100 days.

    MtDNA is exclusively inherited through the mother, and remains unchanged for many generations. Mutations occur randomly after anything between 10 and 50 generations. This makes it possible to classify human beings into haplogroups sharing a same number of mutations. Each individual thus belongs to a definite mtDNA haplogroup. Haplogroups can be further divided into more precise subclades, sharing more mutations and therefore a more recent common ancestor than with the whole haplogroup.

    MtDNA subclades are mostly determined by mutations in the coding region of the DNA (i.e. having medical functions). Consequently, it is possible that one or several mutations found in a particular haplogroup or subclade have a positive or negative effect on health. For instance, one's haplogroup can influence cancer risk either protectively or detrimentally (see examples below).

    The Mitomap website has a list of mtDNA mutations in associated with diseases. They can be sorted by Coding & Control Region mutations and rRNA/tRNA mutations.

    These mutations are not revealed by the common HVR1 and HVR2 tests for genealogical purposes, but require to test the full mtDNA sequence.

    Mitochondrial diseases are most often associated with energy-related conditions, such as myopathy (neuromuscular disease, leading to muscle paralysis) and cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease), single nerve paralysis (notably the optical nerve), exercise intolerance, but also more benign symptoms like fatigue, overall weakness, headaches, or loss of appetite.

    Other medical conditions related to mtDNA include osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsons's disease, etc.

    Examples of diseases associated with a haplogroup

    Among European populations

    The risks of developing Parkinson Disease have been found to be higher among mtDNA haplogroups H, but lower for haplogroups J and K.

    Men belonging to haplogroup H have the lowest risk of asthenozoospermia (reduced sperm motility), while those of hpg T have the highest.

    There is a correlation between haplogroup H and protection from sepsis.

    Haplogroups I, J1c, J2, K1a, U4, U5a1 and T have lower incidences of Parkison's Disease. I, J and T also have increased longevity. However, haplogroups J and T have been associated with increased risk for expression of a maternally inherited blindness disorder (Leber hereditary optic neuropathy). This is especially true for the J2 subclade.

    Haplogroup T is associated with coronary heart disease, but also a decreased risk of diabetes (source 1, source 2, source 3).

    Haplogroup N is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. This also applies to all its sub-haplogroups (H, T, U, V, W, X) except for hpg K.

    Mitochondrial haplogroup U is associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk of prostate cancer and renal cancer.

    Coskun et al. says that haplogroups J and UK are protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas haplogroup H is thought to increase the penetrance of AD. One of the mutations found in AD patient but not in controls was T414G.

    Haplogroup U and its subclade K are associated with higher risks of strokes and Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia.

    Haplogroup X has a defining mutation related to type-2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy and endometrial cancer risk.

    Studies have suggested haplogroup IWX to be highly protective against AIDS progression.

    The A10398G! (back mutation from macrohaplogroup N) has been associated with longevity, protection against PD, altered cell pH, metabolic syndrome, and increased risk of breast cancer. It is found in haplogroups J (except J1c8), K1, K2a11, N1a1 (including hg I), N8, W1e1a and W3a1d.


    Among East Asian populations

    Longevity is associated with haplogroup D. The mutations involved are C5178a (defining haplogroup D) and C8414T (defining D4/D1).

    Haplogroups D4a and D5a are associated with higher risk of esophageal cancer.

    Haplogroups F and A are genetic risk factors for diabetes, whereas haplogroup N9a was found to be a protective factor against Metabolic syndrome (cause of cardiovascular disease and diabetes), especially for women.

    Haplogroup M7b2 was found to be a genetic risk factor for leukemia.

    People belonging to haplogroups B4c, G1 and H4 are more predisposed to obesity.

    Members of haplogroup G (found in North-East Siberia) have increased risks of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    Such studies are still in their infancy. The years, and indeed decades to come will shed more light on the relation between diseases and genes. What is more, the results of these studies are not easily accessible to the general public, or are often too technical to be easily understood for lay people. But if you find some interesting data, feel free to post it here as a summary of the information jungle in which we live.
    Last edited by Maciamo; 16-03-14 at 13:44.
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    Two of the most common pathogenic mitochondrial mutations are A3243G and T14484C. (sources). The former is responsible for Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes, and the latter for Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Both are found in specific subclades of haplogroup J or independently in various haplogroups, notably H and T.
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    A new study contradicts the claim that haplogroup J is associated with centenarians. Among Ashkenazi Jews, there does not seem to be a significant difference between mtDNA haplogroups in centenarians and in the control group.
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    A new article on Dienekes' Blog mentions that AIDS progression is faster amongst haplogroups J and U5a, but slower for members of haplogroups UK, H3, and IWX. UK supposedly means all subclades of U and K, and IWX means hg I, W and X. This is contradictory though since U5a is associated with faster progression.
    Last edited by Maciamo; 19-03-09 at 12:26.
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    Mitochondrial DNA is a cause of acute intermittent porphyria. The disease has been linked with mtDNA 14484 mutation found in Dutch members of haplogroups J and K.
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    Mitochondrial Variants in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder

    Mitochondria provide most of the energy for brain cells by the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial abnormalities and deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) in transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies. Several mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence have been reported in SZ and BD patients.
    This study examines the association between brain pH and mtDNA alleles. The stronger association (highest pH) was found for haplogroups U and K. The A10398G polymorphism (defining hg I, J and K1) was found to be associated with an increased pH in cybrid cells.

    Higher pH confers a protective effect of the haplogroup U, K, J and T against Parkinson's disease and psychiatric disorders.

    Other studies suggested that a lower brain acidity (i.e. higher pH) has a protective effect against strokes.

    Research on intelligence point that people with higher IQ tend to have more alkaline brains. Higher pH is associated with better conductivity-transmission between neurons (source).

    On the other hand, the study found a tendency towards association of psychiatric disorders with H haplogroups (meaning lower pH).

    The most significant mutation associated with schizophrenia and depression is T10652C, found primarily in haplogroups pre-HV, N1b1 and D1. Three other mutations were typically present along with T10652C in affected individuals : T14783C, G15043A, and T9540C. The G15043A mutation is found in haplogroups N1a1 (which includes the whole haplogroup I), J1c2a3, T2f1a, U2c1a, U6a7.
    Last edited by Maciamo; 17-03-14 at 10:39.
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    Haplogroup H is strongly associated with increased lipoatrophy following a antiretroviral therapy, while haplogroup T is somewhat protective.
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    According to Petros et al. mtdna mutation T8993T is associated with a 7-fold increased risk for prostate cancer. This mutation does not define any haplogroup or common subclade.

    Coskun et al. found the C150T mutation to be associated with centenarians (longevity) and resistance to stress. C150T is found in various haplogroups. The study found cases in the European haplogroups N1b, HV, H, J, T and U.

    C150T defines haplogroups HV1a1, HV12b, H1e1a6, H1o, H1as1, H1av1, H6a1a7, I5a3, J1b7, J1c1c, K1a11, K3, R1b, T2b9, T2c1c1, T2e, U3, U5a1h, U5b, U6a3f, U6a4, U6a7a1b, U6c, V19, V22 and W5a2.

    Among non European or Mediterranean haplogroups C150T is also found in haplogroups B4c1b, B4c1c, B6 F1a3a2, F1e3, F3b1, N9a, N10b, N11b, N21, N22, R0a4, R8b2.
    Last edited by Maciamo; 17-03-14 at 10:49.
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    A new Spanish study found that haplogroup H was associated with a higher oxygen uptake compared to average. Haplogroup J, on the other hand, had the opposite association.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    A new Spanish study found that haplogroup H was associated with a higher oxygen uptake compared to average. Haplogroup J, on the other hand, had the opposite association.
    So this study somehow confirms that J have increased longevity.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E1b1b1a1c* V22+
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c

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    I like these results, J mtcdna balances and protects me from many evils.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    I1*
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    I have read That mtdna K can be protective against AIDS, but it's increase strokes, that's not a good news to me.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b1b2a1a2d
    MtDNA haplogroup
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    Okay, so my direct maternal Ancestors were british and all with depression 5 generations before me so that make me either mtdna H or V. Now the interesting thing is that my growth pattern seems to have origionated on my direct maternal ancestors side as well because at 13 we would usually grow a foot and then stop growing, are there any haplogroups or subclades that this insane fanally growthspurt? Thank you so much ^_^

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    The common T16189C polymorphism lowers the rate of mtDNA replication and consequently the number of mtDNA copies, reducing metabolic efficiency. It has been linked to maternally inherited thinness (Parker 2005), thinness at birth (Soini 2012) and increased body
    mass index (Liou 2007), and increased frequency of type 2 diabetes in the UK (Poulton 2002) and in Asia (Weng 2005 and Park 2008).

    This mutation defines haplogroups H1a6, H1b, H1f, H1g, H1j9, H1k, H1y, H1z, H1aa, H1ab, H1ac, H1ad, H1ap1, H1cc, H1c3b, H2a2a1g, H3av, H96, HV1b2, I1a1d, J1c8a1a, K1a2a1, K1b1a1b, K2a8, N1a1a1a1a, U1a, U2d, U2e, U3a3, U4d2, U5a1d2a, U5b1b, U5b2a, U5b2b4, U6a1a, U6a2, U6a3, U6a6a, U6a7c, U6a8, U6b1b, U6c, U8a1a4, U8b1, U8c, and X, among others.

    Soini 2012 suggest thatT16189C is only a risk factor for diabetes when accompanied by the G3010A polymorphism.

    Other mtDNA polymorphisms possibly associated with maternally inherited diabetes mellitus include (those in bold have over 90% probability of being damaging):

    - T593C
    - A3243G
    - G4659A (also linked to Parkinson’s disease)
    - G6480A (also linked to linked to prostate cancer)
    - C6489A (also linked to to epilepsia partialis continua)
    - A8344G
    - T9316C
    - T9903C
    - C11266T
    - G12613A
    - T13762G
    - C13948T (defining haplogroup R1a)
    - T14180C (defining haplogroup T2b26)
    - G14198A (defining haplogroup U5a2a1e)
    - C15904T
    - A15907G
    - A15924G
    - G15928A

    Haplogroup V, and especially V8, has been found to be more common among patients with maternally inherited diabetes in Finland.

    Achilli et al. 2011 also reported that Haplogroup V increased the risk of renal failure in patients with type 2 diabetes, while haplogroup cluster HV has been associated with retinopathy in these patients.
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    MtDNA haplogroup
    U3

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    Okay, so my direct maternal Ancestors were british and all with depression 5 generations before me so that make me either mtdna H or V. Now the interesting thing is that my growth pattern seems to have origionated on my direct maternal ancestors side as well because at 13 we would usually grow a foot and then stop growing, are there any haplogroups or subclades that this insane fanally growthspurt? Thank you so much ^_^
    Twilight; not sure if it applies to mtdna haplogroups or not; but it would be interesting to see?
    All of my siblings and I all had a final growth spurt in our early to mid 20s.
    between the ages of 23 and 26 I grew two inches (went from just under 5'3 to just under/abt 5'5). One of my brothers went off to the Navy at about 5'8 and came home from service some years later at 6'1.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    U152/R1B1B2A1A2D*
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    More amazing work Maciamo! Is the below info specific to T2f1a (and the others listed), or would T2f1 potentially be included (I assume not since T2f1a is "downstream" from T2f1)? Please forgive if my question shows a marked lack of understanding genetics... still learning (and always will be)!

    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post

    The most significant mutation associated with schizophrenia and depression is T10652C, found primarily in haplogroups pre-HV, N1b1 and D1. Three other mutations were typically present along with T10652C in affected individuals : T14783C, G15043A, and T9540C. The G15043A mutation is found in haplogroups N1a1 (which includes the whole haplogroup I), J1c2a3, T2f1a, U2c1a, U6a7.
    Last edited by mr_y82; 27-03-16 at 01:47.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    A study on Finnish endurance athletes (Niemi and Majamaa (2005)) showed that the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups differed significantly between sprint and endurance athletes. Most notably, none of the endurance athletes belonged to haplogroup K or subhaplogroup J2, both of which have previously been associated with longevity.

    Quote Originally Posted by Niemi et al.
    Most notably, the frequencies of haplogroups J and K were higher among the sprinters. Only one endurance athlete belonged to haplogroup J (1.9%), whereas the frequency of this haplogroup among the sprinters was 6.7%. Two of the sprinters belonged to subhaplogroup J2, while the remaining four sprinters and the endurance athlete belonged to subhaplogroup J1. None of the endurance athletes belonged to haplogroup K, whereas the frequency of this haplogroup among the sprinters was 9.0%. In addition, four endurance athletes (6.6%) belonged to haplogroup I, but none of the sprinters. The frequencies of mtDNA haplogroup clusters (HV, KU, IWX, JT) did not differ significantly between the groups. None of the Finnish athletes harboured 8794C>T in MTATP6.

    A similar study (Maruszak 2014) analysed the mtDNA of 395 elite Polish athletes (213 endurance athletes and 182 power athletes) and 413 sedentary controls and found that mtDNA haplogroup H and HV cluster influence endurance performance at the Olympic/World Class level of performance (P = 0.018 and P = 0.0185, respectively).

    Based on the percentages in the elite vs sedentary groups in the supplementary data, it appears that haplogroups I, K, V and W are less common among athletes, while HV, H, R0, U and X are more common. If we break down the results between endurance athletes vs power athletes, haplogroups H and X displays an overwhelming association with endurance types. Haplogroup H represented 50% of endurance athletes vs 42.78% for power athletes and 44.75% in sedentary controls, while haplogroup X was found in 1.9% of endurance types vs 1.1% of power types and 1.2% of controls. R0/HV and W are the most overrepresented among power athletes. R0/HV scored 2.7% for power vs 1.8% for endurance. Haplogroup W was found in 4.4% of power types vs only 1.4% of endurance types, with controls in the middle at 3.5%. Haplogroup U was slightly more common among power athletes (21.7%) than endurance ones (19%), but considerably more than in controls (17.5%).

    This study did not find any difference in frequency between athletes and controls for haplogroups N1/I, J and T, although some subclades contain mutations associated with greater athletic performance. Haplogroup K was the only one that was much less common among athletes (3%) than sedentary controls (6%).

    The authors reported that two mtDNA mutations were associated with achieving the elite performance level either in the total athlete's group as compared with controls (m.16362C, 3.8% vs 9.2%, respectively, P = 0.0025, odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.72), or in the endurance athletes as compared with controls (m.16080G, 2.35% vs 0%, respectively, P = 0.004).

    - 16362C defines haplogroups I1c, J1c2j, J2b1a1a, K1a1c, K1a5a, K1d, K1e, K1f, HV1d, H1b1 (subclades a, b, c, d and h only), H1c3b, H1bv1, H3ak, H6, H8, H13b, H20a1a, R0a'b, T1a13, T2b16, T2i, U1a1d, U2e, U3b2b, U4a2c1, U4a3, U4b1a1a1, U5a1a1c, U5a1b3, U5a1b4, U5a2e, U5b2b1a, U6a3e, V19 and W5a.

    - 16080G defines haplogroup H1b2 only.


    Eynon et al. 2011 reviewed the association between certain mtDNA lineages and aerobic performance, characterized by maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max). Here is a summary.

    Castro et al. (2007) found that mtDNA haplogroup T is negatively associated with elite endurance athletic status.

    Marcuello et al. (2008) found that haplogroup J was related with a lower efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC), diminished ATP and ROS production, and lower V̇o2max.

    Martínez-Redondo et al. (2010) confirmed that haplogroup H had the highest VO2max of any European haplogroup (but with significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage), while haplogroup J had the lowest. They point out that the variations in VO(2max) can explain some reported associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and mtOD with longevity, sperm motility, premature aging and susceptibility to different pathologies.

    Tamura et al. (2010) reported that the m.5178C genotype may be favorable for endurance running performance. However that polymorphism does not define any European haplogroup, but only the East Asian and Amerindian haplogroup D.

    Mikami et al. (2010) reported that haplogroups G1 and F are associated with elite endurance/middle-power and sprint/power athletic status, respectively.

    Murakami et al. (2002) had found that associations for V̇o2max at pretraining with sites 16298, 16325, and 199 and for the training responsiveness of V̇o2max with sites 16223 and 16362. These polymorphisms are found in:

    - 199C : J1b1a2, J1b5a, K1a4a1c1, K1a11, K1b1a1a, K1b1a1b, N1a1'2 (including all haplogroup I), N2a, T2b3d, U2d, U5a1f1a, U5b1d1b, W3a1c, W3a1d, W3b,
    - 16298C : HV0, H6a1a8, T2f1a
    - 16325C : H1an2, H5g, H6b2, H104a, R0a2k1, T1a1m, T1a8a, T3, U5b2a1b

    - 16223T : all haplogroups except R (HV, H, V, J, T, U, K), so essentially I, W and X. Back mutations from R happened in U4a2b and K1a1b1d.
    - 16362C : see above
    Last edited by Maciamo; 08-11-16 at 13:09.
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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Zapico & Uberlaker 2013 studied the role of mtDNA mutations in ageing and diseases.

    Apart from their role in mitochondrial disease, they reported that some mutations in the coding region of the mtDNA were associated with an increased risk for Parkison's disease and for Alzheimer's disease.

    Parkison's related mutations

    11778 : does not define any European haplogroup
    10398A : defines haplogroup N and therefore all European haplogroups, but reverse mutations took place in haplogroup J (but reversed again in J1c8), K1, K2a11, N1a1 (which includes all haplogroup I), U6a5c, U8c, W1e1a, W3a1d and X2f1.


    Alzheimer's related mutations

    4977 : does not define any European haplogroup
    10398A : same as above
    T414G : does not define any European haplogroup
    T477C : does not define any European haplogroup


    Therefore these are essentially private or de novo mutations, or even mutations caused by toxins, oxidative stress or ageing itself. All we can say based on this study is that members of mt-haplogroups I, J, K1, N1a1, U8c and a few deep clades have a slightly lower chance of developing Parkinson's disease.
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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Montiel Sosa et al. (2006) studied sperm motility and vitality within members of haplogroup U and K in Spain and found that the highest motility and vitality was found within haplogroup U5b and the lowest among haplogroup U4.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    A study on Finnish endurance athletes (Niemi and Majamaa (2005)) showed that the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups differed significantly between sprint and endurance athletes. Most notably, none of the endurance athletes belonged to haplogroup K or subhaplogroup J2, both of which have previously been associated with longevity.




    A similar study (Maruszak 2014) analysed the mtDNA of 395 elite Polish athletes (213 endurance athletes and 182 power athletes) and 413 sedentary controls and found that mtDNA haplogroup H and HV cluster influence endurance performance at the Olympic/World Class level of performance (P = 0.018 and P = 0.0185, respectively).

    Based on the percentages in the elite vs sedentary groups in the supplementary data, it appears that haplogroups I, K, V and W are less common among athletes, while HV, H, R0, U and X are more common. If we break down the results between endurance athletes vs power athletes, haplogroups H and X displays an overwhelming association with endurance types. Haplogroup H represented 50% of endurance athletes vs 42.78% for power athletes and 44.75% in sedentary controls, while haplogroup X was found in 1.9% of endurance types vs 1.1% of power types and 1.2% of controls. R0/HV and W are the most overrepresented among power athletes. R0/HV scored 2.7% for power vs 1.8% for endurance. Haplogroup W was found in 4.4% of power types vs only 1.4% of endurance types, with controls in the middle at 3.5%. Haplogroup U was slightly more common among power athletes (21.7%) than endurance ones (19%), but considerably more than in controls (17.5%).

    This study did not find any difference in frequency between athletes and controls for haplogroups N1/I, J and T, although some subclades contain mutations associated with greater athletic performance. Haplogroup K was the only one that was much less common among athletes (3%) than sedentary controls (6%).

    The authors reported that two mtDNA mutations were associated with achieving the elite performance level either in the total athlete's group as compared with controls (m.16362C, 3.8% vs 9.2%, respectively, P = 0.0025, odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.72), or in the endurance athletes as compared with controls (m.16080G, 2.35% vs 0%, respectively, P = 0.004).

    - 16362C defines haplogroups I1c, J1c2j, J2b1a1a, K1a1c, K1a5a, K1d, K1e, K1f, HV1d, H1b1 (subclades a, b, c, d and h only), H1c3b, H1bv1, H3ak, H6, H8, H13b, H20a1a, R0a'b, T1a13, T2b16, T2i, U1a1d, U2e, U3b2b, U4a2c1, U4a3, U4b1a1a1, U5a1a1c, U5a1b3, U5a1b4, U5a2e, U5b2b1a, U6a3e, V19 and W5a.

    - 16080G defines haplogroup H1b2 only.


    Eynon et al. 2011 reviewed the association between certain mtDNA lineages and aerobic performance, characterized by maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max). Here is a summary.

    Castro et al. (2007) found that mtDNA haplogroup T is negatively associated with elite endurance athletic status.

    Marcuello et al. (2008) found that haplogroup J was related with a lower efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC), diminished ATP and ROS production, and lower V̇o2max.

    Martínez-Redondo et al. (2010) confirmed that haplogroup H had the highest VO2max of any European haplogroup (but with significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage), while haplogroup J had the lowest. They point out that the variations in VO(2max) can explain some reported associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and mtOD with longevity, sperm motility, premature aging and susceptibility to different pathologies.

    Tamura et al. (2010) reported that the m.5178C genotype may be favorable for endurance running performance. However that polymorphism does not define any European haplogroup, but only the East Asian and Amerindian haplogroup D.

    Mikami et al. (2010) reported that haplogroups G1 and F are associated with elite endurance/middle-power and sprint/power athletic status, respectively.

    Murakami et al. (2002) had found that associations for V̇o2max at pretraining with sites 16298, 16325, and 199 and for the training responsiveness of V̇o2max with sites 16223 and 16362. These polymorphisms are found in:

    - 199C : J1b1a2, J1b5a, K1a4a1c1, K1a11, K1b1a1a, K1b1a1b, N1a1'2 (including all haplogroup I), N2a, T2b3d, U2d, U5a1f1a, U5b1d1b, W3a1c, W3a1d, W3b,
    - 16298C : HV0, H6a1a8, T2f1a
    - 16325C : H1an2, H5g, H6b2, H104a, R0a2k1, T1a1m, T1a8a, T3, U5b2a1b

    - 16223T : all haplogroups except R (HV, H, V, J, T, U, K), so essentially I, W and X. Back mutations from R happened in U4a2b and K1a1b1d.
    - 16362C : see above
    I've often wondered if the frequency of mtDna "H" has something to do with "fitness", and not just in terms of "endurance", either.


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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I've often wondered if the frequency of mtDna "H" has something to do with "fitness", and not just in terms of "endurance", either.
    Surely to some extent. Haplogroup H isn't just more common among athletes, but men with this mtDNA type also have better sperm motility. MtDNA seems to mobilise energy more efficiently within the cells. The drawback is faster ageing and greater rates of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. As often in genetics, you can't have it all.
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