|Widespread Ancient Word for FortThere is a word which has spread all over Europe, Africa, and Asia which dates to very ancient times. It originally meant pen or fenced in place, and gradually came to mean village, fort, town and city.Here are a few modern versions of the word. Belgrade
means White City. "Grad" means city. The Russian word "gorod" also means city. The Hebrew word "qiryat" means village.The ancient city of Carthage was Qart Hadasht or New city. Qart meant city. In India, the names of many towns end in -garh. In Scandinavian, "gard" means fenced in area or garden. For example Kierkegaard means church yard. Our words yard and garden also are cognates.Let's look at 199 of ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDO-EUROPEAN CULTURE. The original Indo-European word is said to be *ghordhos, meaning 'fence, hedge; enclosure, pen, fold.
Welsh "garth" means 'pen, fold'.
Latin hortus = garden. This is the origin of the English word "court."
Greek khortos = 'enclosed place, feeding place'
Old Norse garðar = 'fence, hedge, court'
Gothic gards = house, household, court
Lithuanian gardas = fence, hold, pen
Old Church Slavonic gradu = town, city
Phrygian gordum = city
Hittite gurtas = citadel
Luvian gurta = citadel
Avestan garada = cave housing demons
Sanskirt grha = house, habitation, home
Tocharian B kerciyi = palacesIt was borrowed by Finno-Ugric languages.
Udmurt gurt = village, settlement
Komi gort = houseNow, let us look at THE NOSTRATIC MACROFAMILY, A STUDY IN DISTANT LINGUISTIC RELATIONSHIP, edited by Allan R. Bomhard and John C. Kerns. New York, Mouton de Gruyter, 1994.
Proto-Nostratic *gur-/*gor- 'to stand out, to jut, to
Welsh garth = promotory, hillProto-Nostratic *gyir-/*gyer- 'to enclose, to gird'
Egyptian d-ri to constrain, to enclose, to fortify,
Dravidian--Telugu cera = prison, imprisonment
Sumerian gir = girdleFinally, let us look at HAMITO-SEMITIC ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY, MATERIALS FOR A RECONSTRUCTION, by Vladimir E. Orel and Olga V. Stolbova. New York, E.J. Brill, 1995.*ga'ur = wall, yard
Akkadian 'igaru. Aramaic 'gr. Arabic 'iggar-
West Chadic *gar-gar = low wall or mount*gur- "house, place"
Berber *gVrur- = enclosure, wall, place, yard
Central Chadic *gur- = enclosure
West Chadic gur = place
Hausa gure*ger- = town
Semitic *gir- = town
East Chadic *gyar - house, villg*kil = fence
East Chadic *kul = hut, town*kor- = house, place
Semitic *kur-an- = villages
West Chadic *kwar- = hut
Central Chadic *kwa-kwar = town
East Chadic *kwaru = placeLANGENSCHEIDT'S HEBREW DICTIONARY
qirya = town, city
qereth = city, town
qarta = a town in Zebulon
qartan = a town in Naphtali
qarqar = a town beyond the Jordan
kerem = garden, orchard, vineyard, plantation
karmel = garden fruit, garden grainI should mention the Mongolian word for tent or house, yurt. There are also some Mongolian and Turkish words for town which I don't recall exactly.THE BROWN-DRIVER-BRIGGS HEBREW AND ENGLISH LEXICON
qir = wall
qir = name of Moabite cities
qaryaten = a townCOPTIC ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY, by J. Cerny
kro = shore, further side, limit
ghalak = ring
ghir = road, street, quarter. Egyptian hrw = street
joe, joi, jo = wall. Egyptian d_rit = wall of wood
joljl = surround with hedge
choeile = dwell, visitAN EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHIC DICTIONARY, by E.A. Wallis Budge
khar = village, a quarter of a town or city, street.
Coptic ghir, gheir, chir
(in Egyptian, R is often replaced by the N sound)
khent = a place of seclusion, harim, prison-house, the part
of the temple not generally accesible to the public
khenti = office, court
khenti = the hall of a temple
khent, khenti = shrine, sanctuary
khent = garrisons, forts
khenta = sepulchres
kher= grave, tomb, necropolis, cemetery
khenu = the Court, the capital, the town in which the
khen = walled enclosure
(neter means gods in Egyptian)
Khert-neter = the cemetery, necropolis
kat = place, district
kar, kara = shrine, sanctuary
kari = gardener
karat = place of restraint, prison
karit = shrine, sanctuary
tchet = place, house, abode (r is left out)
tchai = wall. Coptic cho, choi
tchaiua = an inner chamber of a temple
tchaut = chamber or hall of a temple
tchera-t = wall, palisade, wooden palings for defence
tchera-t = domicile
tchet-t = grave, tomb, sepulchre
tcheteb-t = a kind of building, storeFinally, let's look at place names in an atlas.
Cartagena, Spain. Zagreb, Croatia. Novgorod, Russia. Qiryat Shemona, Israel. Qiryat Atta, Israel. Susangerd, Iran. Chandigarh, India. Hanumangarh, India. Stepanakert, Armenia.http://forums.delphiforums.com/paleolinguistic