I've been interested in Y-DNA recently but since I've never studied anything about it in depth (I am studying something completely different) and my research didn't answer some of my questions, I'd like to ask some. I hope you don't mind asking newbie questions here and please excuse my ignorance.
How exactly is it determined? When I checked the Y-DNA frequency table I noticed that each country has a certain percentage of a certain haplogroup. For example, if there is 82% of R1b in Wales, does that mean that 82% of the people tested carry this specific haplogroup only?
Furthermore, since females don't have a Y-chromosome, does that mean that each person will have the same haplogroup as his father? Does the mother have any effect on the Y-DNA of the offspring? My guess is that since her father has a Y-chromosome then it could somehow pass to the offspring but this is just my made up theory and it is probably false.
Also, does Y-DNA have any effect on a person's appearance? I guess it would be relatively easy to distinguish E1b (non-native European) from I1 (native European) but what about native European groups such as R1b and R1a - does each of them have some certain characteristics such as hair colour, eye colour, skin tone etc?