Eupedia Forums
Site NavigationEupedia Top > Eupedia Forum & Japan Forum
Results 1 to 11 of 11

Thread: Surnames in - -hardt, (h)art, -(h)ard, aert and -ardi : a Frankish origin ?

  1. #1
    Satyavrata Achievements:
    Three FriendsRecommendation First ClassVeteran50000 Experience PointsTagger First Class
    Maciamo's Avatar
    Join Date
    17-07-02
    Location
    Lothier
    Posts
    6,555
    Points
    332,439
    Level
    100
    Points: 332,439, Level: 100
    Level completed: 0%, Points required for next Level: 0
    Overall activity: 14.0%


    Ethnic group
    Celto-germanic
    Country: Belgium - Brussels



    Post Surnames in - -hardt, (h)art, -(h)ard, aert and -ardi : a Frankish origin ?



    Modern tools such as surname maps by country are great to analyse the history of family names, discover patterns in geographic distributions, and perhaps even find surprising ways in which surnames are linked to ancient cultures, at the time when surnames didn't exist.

    Surnames ending in -ard, -art or -aert are quite common in Belgium, both among French speakers and Flemish speakers. Many names exist on both sides of the linguistic border, with just a difference of spelling (-aert in Flanders).

    A funny thing is that their frequency declines as one moves northward across the Netherlands, and southward to France. In France, the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (historically part of the Low Countries) has about the same incidence of these names as Belgium. These names remain relatively common in Champagne and Lorraine (both adjacent to Belgium), but the percentage drops quickly further south. They are also common in Germany, especially in the Rhineland region (also adjacent to Belgium) and in Baden-Württemberg.

    Overall the distribution tends of remind of the original Merovingian kingdom before the conquest of Gaul by Clovis.

    Many of these surnames are derived from given names, either ending in -art/-ard themselves, or not (in that case the -ard/-art was added to a given name). Most of these names of typically Germanic, like Evrard/Ebraert/Eberhart (in French/Flemish/German), Gérard/Geraert/Gerhart, Léonard/Leenhard/Leonhard... Non-Germanic names were adapted accordingly, so that the French name Pierre becomes Pierard or Pirard, Jacques becomes Jacquart or Jacquemart, Jean becomes Jeanmart, Nicolas becomes Colard or Colart, etc.

    Such names also exist in Italy (in -ardi or -arti), particularly in the north. Most are obviously of Germanic origin, like Bernardi, Gherardi, Leonardi...

  2. #2
    Great Adventurer Achievements:
    Three FriendsTagger Second Class10000 Experience PointsOverdriveVeteran
    Awards:
    Arm of Law
    sparkey's Avatar
    Join Date
    17-02-11
    Location
    California
    Posts
    1,950
    Points
    21,074
    Level
    44
    Points: 21,074, Level: 44
    Level completed: 36%, Points required for next Level: 576
    Overall activity: 21.0%

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    I2c PF3881+ (Swiss)
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U4a (Cornish)

    Ethnic group
    3/4 Colonial American, 1/8 Cornish, 1/8 Welsh
    Country: USA - California



    It seems to depend somewhat on the name as to which Germanic group was the most likely to have brought it. All of the examples you gave seem Frankish to me as well. A possible counterexample is Bouchard... a Germanic name, and a variant of Burkhart, that does not have a particularly Frankish distribution in France, per here. Bouchard has the -hard suffix and is more likely Burgundian.

    Although I bet that if you combined all surnames with that suffix and mapped that, it would look awfully Frankish, at least in France and Belgium.

  3. #3
    Regular Member Achievements:
    Overdrive10000 Experience PointsVeteran

    Join Date
    02-10-11
    Posts
    1,849
    Points
    12,876
    Level
    34
    Points: 12,876, Level: 34
    Level completed: 33%, Points required for next Level: 474
    Overall activity: 35.0%


    Ethnic group
    Makedonian original
    Country: Greece



    lets see something from non Germanic,
    Makedonian family name,
    they were argeians, by they were named argei-ads we find -d
    compare Bernar -> bernar-d or bernar-di
    also lets see other names aristeides (aristeidis) ending ides (idis)
    lets see Thracian tribal names many finish in -edi
    I believe the ending in -d -t -di -dis means family, tribe, sons,
    as -edi -edu ment nation,
    comparing Greek -ides which is also connected with eth-(nos) nation
    so Bernar-d or Leonar-d
    agood analysis comes from the Greek name Leon-idas
    Leon is lion but why idas?
    by following fathers name it must be Leontiou but it is Leon-idas
    cause means family, from the lions nation (tribe)

    I personally believe that that -d in ending of surnames is declare family name in IE
    example λεων leon a known name, as surname given by father, (ancient culture used father names in cities) it would be leon-t-os so leon-ti-ou(where that t came from?)
    compare Greek and Cypriot and Romanian Francais Italian etc it will be
    Leontiou Leontiou Leon(t)u Leon(t)eau Leontio
    but the sons of leon are leon-ides (ides, edi, -di -d -t)
    so it wil be
    Leonides Leonaert etc

    my point is that we must check except the end also the root of the name,
    example Hector the troyan if lived in Germany his sons will carry family name (surname)
    Hectoraert
    in Greece Hectorides, in Italy Hectordi, etc
    but Hector is from Troy

    A good example is the ending -os
    -os is very common in Greek, but it is also common in Hungarian, so ending -os can't not identify Greek or Hungarian
    Like Beros and Barlos
    Beros is after Roman vero with Greek ending -os
    (compare patrokl-os)
    Barlos has nothing to with GReek sur-names (only ending -os)
    Last edited by Yetos; 07-12-11 at 11:35.

  4. #4
    Elite member Achievements:
    1000 Experience PointsVeteran
    Antigone's Avatar
    Join Date
    04-02-11
    Posts
    451
    Points
    4,085
    Level
    18
    Points: 4,085, Level: 18
    Level completed: 59%, Points required for next Level: 165
    Overall activity: 0%


    Country: Greece



    Does anyone know if there is a specific meaning to the surname endings art, ard, aert etc?

    Like the son, sen, sson endings in British and Scandanavian names all mean son of. Or the Scot/Irish/Welsh prefix Mac, Mag, Mc, Ap again son of, or the Irish O which means descendant of. The Cretan surname ending of akis and the Greek prefix Pappa also have specific meanings.

  5. #5
    Regular Member Achievements:
    Overdrive10000 Experience PointsVeteran

    Join Date
    02-10-11
    Posts
    1,849
    Points
    12,876
    Level
    34
    Points: 12,876, Level: 34
    Level completed: 33%, Points required for next Level: 474
    Overall activity: 35.0%


    Ethnic group
    Makedonian original
    Country: Greece



    the Norhern -son is consider scandinavic But it is also from IE and exist in ancient too but as degree

    the ending -ikos -kos -ikas
    it means the younger the junior or the small one,
    mainly used when the son has the name of the father,
    compare the N Greece and south
    Father name is Giannis son is Giannakos in N Greeks
    while is Giannakis in south Greeks
    and giannikas in Pontic Greeks
    the ending -akis is mainly status after Enetocracy and Francocracy when the -akos followed Italian sound and turn to -akis

    so son of Johan is Hohan-son -sen In North
    son Johan in Greek will be Johan-a- kos Johan-a- kis

    compare with the Big one, -aras

    so a normal degree is Johan
    a big Johan in Greek will be Johan-ar-as (something like a title)
    the family of a big Johan will be Johanard (surname of big Johan tribe or sons)
    a small Johan or a Johan Junior or a young Johan will be Johan-akos (Johan-akis) and In Europe Johan-son

    the ending in -akis is affected after 1200 in Greece due to ending -ache
    the -ache is a similar ending in Italian endings
    while the gaulish -rix is probably from a royalty title (rix reich reg-ina)

    other ending like -as
    -as is very common among Baltic people
    ending -as in Greek has to do with Job
    example the mule owner is Moular-as
    the German Muller
    the ending -as is not considered Greek cause then it will be -os or -is
    at Greek linguists ending -as is considered that entered by Thracians
    the only case that -as is not Considered Thracian is the case of Arkadia Peloponese,
    it seems like that -eas has Doric form of Possessive case and after Father name

    compare Μιχαλεας Νικολεας etc
    Cretan Μιχαλιος Νικολιος -ios= -eas in more pure Doric form

    example
    σουρλας σουτσος σουλης
    σου is after ottomans water,
    so the water seller get surname after his job
    in Greco-thracian it goes Sur-las σουρλας
    in Latinocracy areas goes Sur+che σουτσος - σουτσης (crete su-r-akis)
    in rest Greece goes Su+is Sulis σουλης
    exception is some areas like Con/polis were it takes the Turkish endig- oglu Su-ts-oglu
    or in Pontic Greeks it will be Su-n-oglu and in Smyrna Su-l-oglu

    the before name
    like
    Greek pappa
    Dutch Van
    france Del
    German Fon
    Turkish Deli Kara (kara is Black)
    Byzantine Kara (kara is Head - leader)
    Byzantine-Roman kata Gaeto
    are probably titles, or origin (city or area name or tribe name)
    example

    Δελλαπορτας Del-la-port
    means officer of the Gate,
    κατεπανος Γαϊτανος (katepano -gaetano)
    means supreme officer (something like colonel)
    But Italian Del Pierro I think means from Pierro (city? area? family name?)



    (compare byzantine katepanos with british captain spanish capitan and later Greek kapetanios)

    Part 2


    now back to Johan,
    so the young or the son of Johan will be Johanson

    Now following the old rule of surnames
    ,y name is Johan
    my family calls me Johanson
    but when a same city man ask me who am I? I will answer
    Johan Johanou or Johan Johanu or Joahn Johaneau or Johan Johanov (Johanof)
    if my father is also Johan
    that is because in the same city or tribe someone must give 2 names to declare,
    compare I am Johan son of Johan (Ιωαννης Ιωαννου)
    fathers name in possessive case
    compare Adam Adam's ->Adam Adams

    now the old ruled say that abroad must have either city name either tribal name
    so if I live in Berlin i will be Johan the Berliner
    compare Ξενοφων Αθηναιος

    the tribe in Thracian is -edi in Greek is ethn-os so we see a -d a -θ
    comparing english we see a -t na-t-ion
    so my tribe's name Leon my people are Leonides λεωνιδες
    so when i say that I am one of the leonides I must say I am a Leonidis (λεωνιδης)
    that makes me Johan of Leonides ->Johan Leonidis

    but that -edi -ides is LPIE of around Balcans
    but it must survive in other IE languages also cause it is much ancient that identity papers,

    so it goes as -rt (-t) in west Europe etc


    lets compare with Slavic

    here we see mostly father name as family name,
    Johan Johanov or Johanoff
    special case is Serbian were we see an -ic
    Johan Johan-ov-ic
    possibly follows the rule one of the Johanov and goes Johanovic but I am not certain

    also something that I can find connection is Baltic -onis
    while Baltic -as could mean job or 'Big' one as -r-as
    at least as it explain by Greek
    mule ->mularas (muller = Μουλαρας)
    Johan the 'mighty' ->Johanas Johana-ras (Γιανναρας)


    the -rix case
    probably IE title
    in Germanic could be translated as reich
    also in roman we see the reg-ina
    Last edited by Yetos; 07-12-11 at 13:11.

  6. #6
    Elite member Achievements:
    Tagger First Class10000 Experience PointsVeteran
    Awards:
    Master Tagger
    edao's Avatar
    Join Date
    10-02-10
    Location
    Britain
    Posts
    439
    Points
    14,047
    Level
    35
    Points: 14,047, Level: 35
    Level completed: 99%, Points required for next Level: 3
    Overall activity: 3.0%

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H

    Country: UK - Scotland



    -ard

    a suffix forming nouns that denote persons who regularly engage in an activity, or who are characterized in a certain way, as indicated by the stem; now usually pejorative: coward; dullard; drunkard; wizard. source

    "who are characterized in a certain way" I suppose it could have migrated into family names Gerr-ard of the Gerrs
    Don't know if this applies to French as well?

  7. #7
    Regular Member Achievements:
    1 year registered5000 Experience PointsOverdrive
    zanipolo's Avatar
    Join Date
    22-03-11
    Location
    Eastern Australia
    Posts
    1,977
    Points
    9,037
    Level
    28
    Points: 9,037, Level: 28
    Level completed: 48%, Points required for next Level: 313
    Overall activity: 0%

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1 - L446
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H26a1

    Ethnic group
    Venet
    Country: Australia



    Quote Originally Posted by Antigone View Post
    Does anyone know if there is a specific meaning to the surname endings art, ard, aert etc?

    Like the son, sen, sson endings in British and Scandanavian names all mean son of. Or the Scot/Irish/Welsh prefix Mac, Mag, Mc, Ap again son of, or the Irish O which means descendant of. The Cretan surname ending of akis and the Greek prefix Pappa also have specific meanings.
    you mean this type

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patronymic

    You would know about opolous , which seems to be in the pelopenesse , meaning son of
    vic endings in orthodox serbs slavs means son of
    ic in catholic croats ...unsure

    Names are odd, that the surname ending in otto in NE italy, they appear in veneto and friuli and I was told they are a part of the 3 Holy Roman Emperors ( maybe servants or personel guards) around 1000AD, yet lombardy which was ruled by the same HRE has otti at the end of many surnames.
    In central and southern italy , its usually ends in ini.

    Then there's
    de meaning of, which is Spanish and french are used in areas ruled by these nations, but italy has Da for a place .....Leonardo da Vinci and di in Tuscany and other non french/spanish italian areas and means son of. In the Veneto and friuli instead of di they have d'
    In portugal they usually have do , but some areas use de

  8. #8
    Satyavrata Achievements:
    Three FriendsRecommendation First ClassVeteran50000 Experience PointsTagger First Class
    Maciamo's Avatar
    Join Date
    17-07-02
    Location
    Lothier
    Posts
    6,555
    Points
    332,439
    Level
    100
    Points: 332,439, Level: 100
    Level completed: 0%, Points required for next Level: 0
    Overall activity: 14.0%


    Ethnic group
    Celto-germanic
    Country: Belgium - Brussels



    Quote Originally Posted by sparkey View Post
    It seems to depend somewhat on the name as to which Germanic group was the most likely to have brought it. All of the examples you gave seem Frankish to me as well. A possible counterexample is Bouchard... a Germanic name, and a variant of Burkhart, that does not have a particularly Frankish distribution in France, per here. Bouchard has the -hard suffix and is more likely Burgundian.

    Although I bet that if you combined all surnames with that suffix and mapped that, it would look awfully Frankish, at least in France and Belgium.
    Bouchard is also found in Belgium under different spellings: Bouchard, Bouchart, Bouchat, Bouckaert... Bouchat and Bouchart exist in France, but once again along the Belgian border. There are only about 3000 people named Bouchard in France, which is less than the Bouckaert + Bouchat in Belgium. There are also over 3500 Bekaert in Belgium, which could be a variant pronunciation too.

    Flemish names also have plenty of names ending in -aerts (Lenaerts, Bogaerts, Bernaerts...), but these are just variants of names without the "s" at the end.

  9. #9
    Satyavrata Achievements:
    Three FriendsRecommendation First ClassVeteran50000 Experience PointsTagger First Class
    Maciamo's Avatar
    Join Date
    17-07-02
    Location
    Lothier
    Posts
    6,555
    Points
    332,439
    Level
    100
    Points: 332,439, Level: 100
    Level completed: 0%, Points required for next Level: 0
    Overall activity: 14.0%


    Ethnic group
    Celto-germanic
    Country: Belgium - Brussels



    Quote Originally Posted by Antigone View Post
    Does anyone know if there is a specific meaning to the surname endings art, ard, aert etc?

    Like the son, sen, sson endings in British and Scandanavian names all mean son of. Or the Scot/Irish/Welsh prefix Mac, Mag, Mc, Ap again son of, or the Irish O which means descendant of. The Cretan surname ending of akis and the Greek prefix Pappa also have specific meanings.
    The (h)art, -(h)ard, aert endings come from German "hard" (same meaning as in English). The usage though is very similar to the -son/-sen in Scandinavian countries (+ Danelaw in England).

    French names in -mart (Wilmart, Gilmart, Jeanmart, Jamart...) are probably spelt -mar in German (a suffix meaning "famous").

  10. #10
    Elite member Achievements:
    1000 Experience PointsVeteran
    Antigone's Avatar
    Join Date
    04-02-11
    Posts
    451
    Points
    4,085
    Level
    18
    Points: 4,085, Level: 18
    Level completed: 59%, Points required for next Level: 165
    Overall activity: 0%


    Country: Greece



    Ah, thanks for the explanations Maciamo, Zanipolo, Edao and Yetos.

    Fascinating subject.

    I don't suppose the art, ard, aert endings are too disimilar from the old Anglo/Saxon prefix or suffix of bert, meaning bright?

  11. #11
    Regular Member Achievements:
    Three FriendsVeteran10000 Experience Points
    Awards:
    Discussion Ender

    Join Date
    25-10-11
    Location
    Brittany
    Age
    65
    Posts
    1,870
    Points
    10,674
    Level
    31
    Points: 10,674, Level: 31
    Level completed: 18%, Points required for next Level: 576
    Overall activity: 63.0%

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b - L21/S145*
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H3c

    Ethnic group
    more celtic
    Country: France



    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    The (h)art, -(h)ard, aert endings come from German "hard" (same meaning as in English). The usage though is very similar to the -son/-sen in Scandinavian countries (+ Danelaw in England).

    French names in -mart (Wilmart, Gilmart, Jeanmart, Jamart...) are probably spelt -mar in German (a suffix meaning "famous").
    I agree for the first wave of names in -hard (>>-aert,- ard, -art) all of them personal names of western germanic origin, that became very common in France since the victorious coming of the Franks - 'hard' is common in every modern germanic language with the meaning of "hard" but it had too the meaning of "strong" - apart Brittany and the Basque region, germanic personal names became the most common surnames in France even in latin speaking populations (the huge majority) and also as the germanic origin people was the rulers, the nobility in Western Europe, there names became common enough even in countries as Catalunia, Spain, Italy & Corsica -
    but after that, this ending 'hard' pronounced '-ard' became a common suffixe in french bearing, a pejorative meaning (no more any signification of 'force' or 'hardness'), giving way to a lot of common lexical words ('culard', 'cabochard', 'ttard/testard' ...) and by it to new personal names with no germanic meaning at all (Couillard, Btard/Bastard, Cochard, Coquard, Pissard, Rouillard...) - in France, the success of these "noble" germanic names gave way also to other endings being adopted as variant to previous latin endings ('-wald' >> '-ault'/'-auld'/'-aut'/-aud'/ taking the place of the diminutives '-ot', '-eau'...

    an -d is not an independant suffixe but the ending of the previous germanoc word '-hard'

Similar Threads

  1. Surnames associated with Y-DNA haplogroups
    By roxy85 in forum Y-DNA Haplogroups
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 29-07-11, 09:56
  2. Y DNA and surnames
    By Chris in forum Y-DNA Haplogroups
    Replies: 5
    Last Post: 28-09-10, 10:10
  3. Y DNA and English surnames
    By Chris in forum Y-DNA Haplogroups
    Replies: 6
    Last Post: 14-08-10, 06:53
  4. Belgian surnames
    By Maciamo in forum European Culture & History
    Replies: 4
    Last Post: 07-08-07, 17:10
  5. Italian surnames by region
    By Maciamo in forum European Culture & History
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 14-01-07, 00:57

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •