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Thread: Retracing the mtDNA genealogy of Nicholas II of Russia (haplogroup T2)

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    Post Retracing the mtDNA genealogy of Nicholas II of Russia (haplogroup T2)

    As already reported in Haplogroups of European kings and queens, Knight et al. (2004) tested the DNA Czar Nicholas II of Russia, who was identified as a member of Y-DNA haplogroup R1b and mtDNA haplogroup T2.

    Far from being Russian, the czar's matrilineal lineage is overwhelmingly Germanic. Going back 23 generations, then down again following exclusively maternal sides (through daughters and sisters), it appears that the historical distribution of this T2 mtDNA lineage radiated through the great ducal and royal houses of northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg, Hanover, Brunswick, Saxony, Prussia) and Denmark.

    The most illustrious member of Nicholas II's T2 lineage include chronologically:

    - King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (1456-1516)
    - John I Albert, King of Poland and Duke of Głogów (1459-1501)
    - Alexander Jagiellon, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1461-1506)
    - Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1467-1548)
    - King Christian III of Denmark & Norway (1503-1559)
    - King Christian IV of Denmark & Norway (1577-1648)
    - King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1594-1632)
    - King Charles I of England (1600-1649)
    - King George I of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover & Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1660-1727)
    - King Frederick William I of Prussia (1688-1740)
    - King Frederick VI of Denmark & Norway (1768-1839)
    - King Christian VIII of Denmark & Norway (1786-1848)
    - King Frederick VIII of Denmark & Norway (1843-1912)
    - King George I of Greece (1845-1913)
    - King George V of the United Kingdom (1865-1936)
    - King Olav V of Norway (1903-1991)
    Last edited by Maciamo; 05-08-13 at 19:49.
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    Here is Emperor Nicholas II's mtDNA line (following the matrilineal or cognatic line).

    - Princess Dagmar of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, (a.k.a. Maria Feodorovna or Dagmar of Denmark), Empress of Russia (1847-1928)
    -- Louise of Hesse-Kassel, Queen of Denmark (1817-1898)
    --- Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1789-1864)
    ---- Duchess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Princess of Denmark (1758-1794)
    ----- Princess Charlotte Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1731-1810)
    ------ Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1700-1780)
    ------- Anna Sophie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1670-1728)
    -------- Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1648-1681)
    --------- Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels (1627-1669)
    ---------- Anna Maria of Ostfriesland, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
    ----------- Anna of Holstein-Gottorp, Countess of East Frisia (1575-1610)
    ------------ Christine of Hesse, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp (1543-1604)
    ------------- Christine of Saxony, Landgravine of Hesse (1505-1549)
    -------------- Barbara Jagiellon, Duchess of Saxony (1478-1534)
    --------------- Elisabeth of Habsburg, Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania (1436–1505)
    ---------------- Elizabeth of Luxembourg, Queen of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia (1409-1442)
    ----------------- Barbara of Cilli, Holy Roman Empress (1392-1451)
    ------------------ Anna of Schaunberg, Countess of Cellje (c. 1358-1396)
    ------------------- Countess Ursula of Gorizia (died 1383)
    -------------------- Katharina von Pfannberg (?-1375)
    --------------------- Margareta of Werdenberg (1293-1354)
    ---------------------- Adelheid von Burgau (died c. 1322)
    ----------------------- Adelheid von Alpeck (died 1280)


    Descendants of the above who can all be listed as members of haplogroup T2

    Only margraves, princes, dukes, duchesses, kings and queens are listed. Kings and Queens are highlighted in bold.

    Via Louise of Hesse-Kassel

    - King Frederick VIII of Denmark (1843-1912)
    - Alexandra of Denmark, Queen of the United Kingdom and Empress of India (1844-1925)
    -- Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (1864-1892)
    -- King George V of the United Kingdom (1865-1936)
    -- Louise, Princess Royal (1867-1931)
    -- Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom (1868-1935)
    -- Maud of Wales, Queen of Norway (1869-1938)
    --- King Olav V of Norway (1903-1991)
    - King George I of Greece (1845-1913)
    - Dagmar, Empress of Russia
    -- Emperor Nicholas II of Russia (1868-1918)
    -- Grand Duke George Alexandrovich of Russia (1871-1899)
    -- Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia (1875-1960)
    --- Princess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia (1895-1970)
    ---- Princess Irina Yusupova (1915-1983)
    --- Prince Andrei Alexandrovich of Russia
    --- Prince Feodor Alexandrovich of Russia
    --- Prince Nikita Alexandrovich of Russia
    --- Prince Dmitri Alexandrovich of Russia
    --- Prince Rostislav Alexandrovich of Russia
    --- Prince Vasili Alexandrovich of Russia
    -- Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia (1878-1918)
    -- Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (1882-1960)
    - Thyra of Denmark, Crown Princess of Hanover (1853-1933)
    -- Prince George William of Hanover (1880–1912)
    -- Princess Alexandra of Hanover (1882–1963)
    --- Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1910-2001)
    --- Duke Christian Louis of Mecklenburg (1912-1996)
    --- Duchess Thyra of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1919-1981)
    --- Duchess Anastasia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1923-1979)
    ---- Princess Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (b. 1945)
    ----- HSH Prince Johann Georg of Ysenburg-Büdingen-Wachtersbach (b. 1976)
    ----- HSH Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Ysenburg-Büdingen-Wachtersbach (b. 1979)
    ---- Princess Irene of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (b. 1946)
    ---- Princess Margaretha of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (b. 1948)
    ---- Princess Sibylla of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (b. 1955)
    ---- Princess Olga of Hanover (1884–1958)
    ---- Prince Christian of Hanover (1885–1901)
    ---- Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick (1887-1953)
    --- Prince Valdemar of Denmark (1858-1939)


    Via Louise Charlotte of Denmark

    - Marie Luise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, Princess of Anhalt-Dessau (1814-1895)
    -- Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1833-1916)
    -- Bathildis of Anhalt-Dessau, Princess of of Schaumburg-Lippe (1837-1902)
    --- Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe, Queen of Württemberg (1864-1946)
    --- Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe (1868-1945)
    --- Prince Albrecht of Schaumburg-Lippe (1869-1942)
    --- Prince Maximilian of Schaumburg-Lippe (1871-1904)
    --- Bathildis of Schaumburg-Lippe, Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1873-1962)
    ---- Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1896-1967)
    ---- Prince Maximilian of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1898-1981)
    ---- Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1899-1948)
    ----- Duke Anton-Günther of Oldenburg (b. 1923)
    ----- Duchess Rixa of Oldenburg
    ----- Duke Peter of Oldenburg
    ----- Duchess Eilika of Oldenburg, Princess of Leiningen
    ----- Duke Eigilmar of Oldenburg
    ----- Duke Friedrich August of Oldenburg
    ----- Duchess Altburg, Baroness of Erffa
    ----- Duke Huno of Oldenburg
    ----- Duke Johann of Oldenburg
    ---- Prince Georg of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1902-1971)
    --- Adelaide of Schaumburg-Lippe, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (1875-1971)
    ---- Charlotte of Saxe-Altenburg, Princess of Prussia (1899-1989)
    ----- Barbara of Prussia, Duchess of Mecklenburg (1920 -1994)
    ------ Duchess Donata of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1956)
    ------ Duchess Edwina of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1960)
    ----- Prince Alfred of Prussia (b. 1924)
    ---- Georg Moritz, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Altenburg (1900-1991)
    ---- Princess Elisabeth of Saxe-Altenburg 1903-1991)
    ---- Prince Frederick of Saxe-Altenburg (1905-1985)
    -- Louise of Hesse-Kassel, Queen of Denmark (1817-1898)
    -- Prince Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel (1820-1884)


    Via Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

    - King Christian VIII of Denmark & Norway (1786-1848)
    - Juliane Sophie of Denmark, Landgravine of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1788-1850)
    - Louise Charlotte of Denmark, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel (1789–1864)
    - Hereditary Prince Frederik Ferdinand (1792–1863)


    Via Charlotte Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

    - Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1756-1837)
    - Princess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin


    Via Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

    - Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1724-1800)
    - Prince Christian Franz of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1730-1797)
    - Charlotte Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1731-1810)
    - Friederike Caroline of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1735-1791), Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach
    - Prince Friedrich Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1737-1815)


    Via Anna Sophie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

    - Frederick Anton, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1692-1744)
    - Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1700-1780)
    - Louis Günther II, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1708-1790)


    Via Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels

    - Anna Sophie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Duchess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1670-1728)
    - Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen (1674-1713)
    -- Ernst Ludwig II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1709-1729)
    -- Luise Dorothea, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1710-1771)
    --- Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804)
    --- Prince August of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1747-1806)
    -- Karl Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1712-1743)
    - Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1676-1732)
    - Johanna of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1680-1704)
    -- Adolphus Frederick III, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1686-1752)
    -- Gustave Caroline of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Duchess of Mecklenburg (1694–1748)
    --- Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1717–1785)
    --- Duke Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1725–78)


    Via Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

    - Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels (1648-1681)
    - Johann Adolf I, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (1649-1697)
    - Duke August of Saxe-Weissenfels (1650–1674)
    - Duke Christian of Saxe-Weissenfels (1652–1689)
    - Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst (1654–1724)
    -- John Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (1677-1742)
    -- Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1679-1740)
    --- Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1699–1772)
    --- Prince Wilhelm of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1701–1771)
    --- Prince John August of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1704–1767)
    --- Prince Christian William of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1706–1748)
    --- Prince Ludwig Ernst of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1707–1763)
    --- Prince Moritz of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1711–1777)
    --- Princess Friederike of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1715–1775)
    --- Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Princess of Wales (1719–1772)
    ---- Augusta of Great Britain, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
    ----- Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Princess of Württemberg
    ------ King William I of Württemberg (1781-1864)
    ------ Catharina of Württemberg, Queen of Westphalia (1783-1835)
    ------- Jérôme Napoléon Charles Bonaparte, Prince of Montfort (1814-1847)
    ------- Mathilde Bonaparte, Princesse de San Donato (1820-1904)
    ------- Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince of Montfort (1822-1891)
    ------ Prince Paul of Württemberg (1785-1852)
    ----- Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Queen of the United Kingdom (1768-1821)
    ------ Princess Charlotte of Wales, Duchess in Saxony (1796-1817)
    ----- Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1771-1815)
    ---- King George III of the United Kingdom (1738-1820)
    ---- Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany (1739-1767)
    ---- Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain (1741-1759)
    ---- Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1743-1805)
    ---- Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (1745-1790)
    ---- Princess Louisa of Great Britain (1749-1768)
    ---- Prince Frederick of Great Britain (1750-1765)
    ---- Caroline Matilda of Great Britain, Queen of Denmark and Norway (1751-1775)
    ----- King Frederick VI of Denmark & Norway (1768-1839)
    ----- Louise Auguste of Denmark, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1771-1843)
    ------ Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, Queen of Denmark (1796-1881)
    ------ Christian August II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1798–1869)
    ------ Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1800-1865)

    Via Anna Maria of Ostfriesland

    - Christian Louis I, Duke of Mecklenburg (1623-1692)
    - Charles, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow (1626-1670)
    - Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels (1627-1669)


    Via Christine of Hesse

    - Frederick II, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1568-1587)
    - Sophia of Holstein-Gottorp, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1569-1635)
    -- Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg (1588-1658)
    -- John Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg (1590-1636)
    - Christina of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden (1573-1625)
    -- King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1594-1632)
    -- Maria Elizabeth of Sweden, Duchess of Ostergothia
    -- Charles Philip, Duke of Södermanland
    - John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1575-1616)
    - Anna of Holstein-Gottorp, Countess of East Frisia
    - John Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince-Bishop of Bremen, Lübeck and Verden (1579-1634)


    Via Barbara Jagiellon

    - John, Hereditary Prince of Saxony (1498-1537)
    - Christine of Saxony, Landgravine of Hesse
    - Magdalena of Saxony, Electoral Princess of Brandeburg (1507-1534)
    -- John George, Elector of Brandenburg (1525-1598)
    - Christine of Saxony (1505-1549)
    -- Agnes of Hesse, Electress of Saxony (1527-1555)
    --- Anna of Saxony, Princess consort of Orange (1544-1577)
    ---- Maurice of Nassau,, Prince of Orange (1567-1625)

    Via Elisabeth of Habsburg

    - King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (1456-1516)
    - Hedwig Jagiellon, Duchess of Bavaria (1457-1502)
    -- Elisabeth of Bavaria, Palatine Countess (1458-1484)
    - Saint Casimir Jagiellon, Crown Prince of Poland and Lithuania (1458-1484)
    - John I Albert, King of Poland and Duke of Głogów (1459-1501)
    - Alexander Jagiellon, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1461-1506)
    - Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1467-1548)
    - Barbara Jagiellon, Duchess of Saxony
    - Sophia Jagiellon, Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1464-1512)
    -- Casimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1481-1527)
    -- George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
    -- Albert, Duke in Prussia (1490-1568)
    -- Wilhelm of Brandenburg, Archbishop of Riga


    Via Elizabeth of Luxembourg

    - Anne of Austria, Duchess of Luxembourg and Landgravine of Thuringia
    -- Margaret of Thuringia, Electoral Princess of Brandenburg (1449-1501)
    --- Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg (1484-1535)
    --- Albert of Hohenzollern, Elector and Archbishop of Mainz (1490-1545)
    --- Anna of Brandenburg, Duchess of Schleswig and Holstein (1487-1514)
    ---- King Christian III of Denmark & Norway (1503-1559)
    ---- Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Prussia (1504–1547)
    ----- Anna Sophia of Prussia, Duchess of Mecklenburg
    ------ John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg (1525-1576)
    --- Ursula of Brandenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg
    ---- Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Queen of Denmark and Norway
    ----- Elizabeth of Denmark, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
    ------ Frederick Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1591-1634)
    ------ Sophia Hedwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1592-1642), Countess of Nassau-Dietz
    ------- Henry Casimir I, Count of Nassau-Dietz (1612-1640)
    ------- William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz (1613-1664)
    ------ Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess of Pomerania (1595-1650)
    ------ Dorothea of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Margravine of Brandenburg (1596-1643)
    ------- Sophie Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (1616-1650)
    ----- Anne of Denmark, Queen of England
    ------ Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (1594-1612)
    ------ Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia (1596-1662)
    ------- Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine (1617-1680)
    ------- Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, 1st Duke of Cumberland, 1st Earl of Holderness (1619-1682)
    ------- Prince Maurice of the Palatinate KG (1620-1652)
    ------- Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern (1625-1663)
    ------- Sophia of the Palatine, Electress of Hanover (1630-1714)
    -------- King George I of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover & Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1660-1727)
    -------- Maximilian William of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1666-1726)
    -------- Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, Queen of Prussia (1668-1705)
    --------- King Frederick William I of Prussia (1688-1740)
    -------- Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (1674-1728)
    ------ King Charles I of England (1600-1649)
    ----- King Christian IV of Denmark & Norway (1577-1648)
    ----- Ulrik of Denmark, Prince-Bishop of Schwerin (1578–1624)
    ----- Augusta of Denmark, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp (1580-1639)
    ------ Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1597-1659)
    ------ Dorothea Augusta of Denmark, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (1602-1682)
    ------- John Adolphus, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (1634-1704)
    ------- Augustus, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön-Norburg (1635-1699)
    ------- Joachim Ernest II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön-Rethwisch (1637-1700)
    ------- Duke Bernhard of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (1639-1676)
    ------ Hedwig of Holstein-Gottorp, Countess Palatine of Sulzbach. (1603-1657)
    ------- Christian Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach (1622-1708)
    ------- Augusta Sophie of Sulbach, Princess of Lobkowicz (1624-1682)
    -------- Ferdinand August, Prince of Lobkowicz and Duke of Sagan (1655–1715)
    ------- John X of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (1606-1655)
    ----- Hedwig of Denmark, Electress of Saxony
    - Elisabeth of Habsburg, Queen of Poland (1436–1505)
    Last edited by Maciamo; 21-01-14 at 21:42.
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