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Farming in Estonia was brought through migration
Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the Steppe
"Farming-based economies appear relatively late in Northeast Europe and the extent to which they involve genetic ancestry change is still poorly understood. Here we present the analyses of low coverage whole genome sequence data from five hunter-gatherers and five farmers of Estonia dated to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present. We find evidence of significant differences between the two groups in the composition of autosomal as well as mtDNA, X and Y chromosome ancestries. We find that Estonian hunter-gatherers of Comb Ceramic Culture are closest to Eastern hunter-gatherers. The Estonian first farmers of Corded Ware Culture show high similarity in their autosomes with Steppe Belt Late Neolithic/Bronze Age individuals, Caucasus hunter-gatherers and Iranian farmers while their X chromosomes are most closely related with the European Early Farmers of Anatolian descent. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered by the arrival of new people with predominantly Steppe ancestry, but whose ancestors had undergone sex-specific admixture with early farmers with Anatolian ancestry."
Well, that should clarify things quite a bit from whatever confusion came out of the Latvian paper. Interesting also that Comb Ceramic was EHG like. It's nice to see the X included, and it seems to be Anatolian farmer.
"The first signs of crop cultivation in Estonia appeared 6,000 yr BP, 2000 years after the first 56 evidence of farming in Southern Europe, while the transition to the intensive cultivation and animal husbandry is estimated to have taken place much later, between 4,800–4,000 yr BP26 57 . 58 This change is associated with a gradual shift from the primarily hunting-gathering-based Comb 59 Ceramic Culture (CCC) to the farming-based Corded Ware Culture (CWC)."
"Conversely, the rise of CWC around 4,800 yr BP30 66 has been associated with the late spread of farming. CWC later reached 67 Finland, Sweden and Norway in the North (Fig 1), Tatarstan in the East, Switzerland and Ukraine in the South, and Belgium and France in the West31–33 68 ."
"CWC in Estonia is, among other traits, characterized by clay vessels often decorated with cord impressions, boat-shaped stone axes clear evidence of cultivation and animal husbandry ( i.e. bones of sheep/goat, pig, and cattle)."
Interestingly, no mention of metals of any kind, and no horses.
Ancient Estonian mtDna.PNG
Ancient Estonian yDna.jpg
" These data support the assignment of Kudruküla3 into an156 early offshoot branch R1a5 of hg R1a. Our finding is further supported by the report of similarcases of R1a43 157 lineages which are derived at M459 but ancestral at M198 SNPs in two Easternhunter-gatherer genomes, one from Karelia and the other from near Samara."
"...findings suggest that various subclades of R1a may have been common in hunter-gatherer populations of Eastern Europe and that just one of them, R1a-M417, was later amplified to highfrequency by the Late Neolithic/Bronze Age expansion. The fact that two Latvian huntergathererY chromosomes have been characterized as belonging to R1b-M269 suggests that both sub-clades of R1 were present in the Baltic area before the expansion of the CWC."
The Admixture chart is on page 13.
Blue is WHG,SHG,and EHG like, Orange peaks in Anatolian farmers, Green peaks in CHG and Iranian farmers, and Red in eastern Siberia.
"Interestingly, modern Estonians showed a bigger proportion of the blue component than CWC individuals. Comparing to CCC individuals, modern Estonians lack the red component. This, together with the absence of Y chromosome hg N in CCC and CWC, points to further influx and change of genetic material after the arrival of CWC."
"Consistent with the ADMIXTURE results, both SHG and EHG were the closest to EstonianCCC samples also in outgroup f3 and Patterson’s D analyses."
"both Estonian ancient groups were most similar to extant Lithuanians (Fig 5B). Also, modern populations speaking Uralic (including Finnic) languages of Europe and Siberia along with all other Siberians were more similar to Estonian CCC than to CWC (Fig 5). These results were confirmed by D statistic in the form D(Yoruba, CCC/CWC;256 Estonian, Y) (S7 Figure; S7 Table). This points to extant Siberians and European Uralic speakers having less Steppe ancestry than Estonian CWC did."
"Contrasting allele frequency patterns on autosomal (S9 Table) vs X chromosome(s) (S10 Table) in outgroup f3 analyses revealed that on X chromosome CWC is strikingly more similar to early farmer populations of both Anatolia/Levant and Europe. Accordingly, on the autosomes we see the opposite – most of the European hunter-gatherer/Steppe Eneolithic, EMBA Steppe and CHG/ancient Iranian populations tend to have higher f3 values (Fig 6). These results suggest that the gene flow associated with the spread of the CWC to Estonia may have been sex- specific, being biased toward Steppe ancestry in the male and early farmers on the female side. This finding is consistent with broader sex-specific patterns of admixture detected in EuropeanBronze Age populations."
This last part I'm not sure that I understand. How could the small amounts of "EEF" or Anatolian farmer like admixture have led to such dominance on the X.
Maybe I'm too tired and it will be clearer in the morning.
Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci