From the paper:
"The two samples from Karelia cluster with previously published Mesolithic EHG."
"EHG carry a genetic component (green component in Fig. 2b) that is maximized in hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus (CHG) and shared with Neolithic farmers from Iran and Steppe populations from the Bronze Age, suggesting some common ancestry for these populations, consistent with previous results21."
"Despite its geographically vicinity to EHG, the eastern Baltic individual associated with the Mesolithic Kunda culture shows a very close affinity to WHG in all our analyses, with a small but significant contribution from EHG or SHG, as revealed by significant D-statistics."
"Neither the Kunda individual nor SHG exhibit the major ADMIXTURE component shared between EHG and CHG (green in Figure 2b), bringing into question a direct contribution of EHG into the Mesolithic individuals from Scandinavia and the eastern Baltic. However, using qpWave we cannot reject the previously published result of SHG being formed by admixture of WHG and EHG 6."
"Both EHG and SHG share a non-negligible component in ADMIXTURE analysis that is maximized in some modern Native American populations which points towards ancient North Eurasian ancestry, as represented by the MA1 and AG3 samples from Palaeolithic Siberia13 (crimson component in Fig. 2a). Indeed, D-statistics show that EHG and SHG share significantly more alleles with MA1 and AG3 than both Baltic and Western HG (Supplementary Information Table S9). Additionally, mtDNA haplogroups found among EHG point toward an eastern influence: R1b in UzOO77 was previously found in the Palaeolithic Siberian AG35 and a haplogroup related to branches within the C1 clade, which appears today in highest frequencies in northeast Asia and the Americas, was described in several samples from Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov24,25. Furthermore, in SHG the derived variant of the EDAR allele was discovered, which is found today in high frequency in East Asians and Native Americans4 ."
"In contrast to EHG and SHG, Kunda can be modelled as directly derived from WHG (p=0.18) (Supplementary Information Table S6). The almost complete absence of the additional ancestry shared by SHG and EHG to the south of the Baltic Sea suggests that it was brought into Scandinavia via a northern route through Finland and admixed in Scandinavia with a WHG-like population that derived from a migration northward over the land-bridge that connected Denmark and southern Sweden at the time, a scenario that is in concordance with the archeological record."
"The results for the Kunda individual are mirrored in the four later eastern Baltic Neolithic hunter-gatherers of the Narva culture...That Narva individuals derive directly from Kunda without additional admixture cannot be rejected (p=0.12), however it can also be accounted for by admixture of Kunda with either EHG, SHG or WHG (Supplementary Information Table S4). Specifically we see a greater proportion of possible admixture into the two samples excavated at the more eastern site Kretuonas (13±3% EHG or 33±7% SHG) than into the two Narva individuals from the more western sites."
"all our Baltic foragers carry the derived HERC2 allele which codes for light iris color, and like SHG and EHG they already possess an increased frequency of the derived alleles for SLC45A2 and SLC24A5, coding for lighter skin color (Extended Data Table 2)."
"The Narva individual Spiginas1 (dated to ca. 4440–4240 cal BCE) belongs to a mitochondrial haplogroup of the H branch providing the first direct evidence that this branch was present among European foragers without gene-flow from farmers (Extended Data Table 1). Notably, in addition to haplogroup H, the maternal lineages seen in eastern Baltic samples (n=31; Extended Data Figure 5) encompass all of the major haplogroups identified in complete mtDNA genomes from Holocene Scandinavian and western European hunter-gatherers (n=21:U2, U5a, U5b) 12, as well as haplogroup U4 which has been found in high frequency in Mesolithic foragers from Russia24 and K1, a derivate of the U8 branch found in Scandinavian foragers."
"We see in Baltic foragers no genomic evidence of gene-flow from Central European farmers or any Y-chromosomal or mitochondrial haplogroups that are typical for them, suggesting that any traces of agriculture and animal husbandry in the Baltic Early and Middle Neolithic were due to local development or cultural diffusion."
Anyone have a link to what kind of agriculture, if any, that would be?
"The individuals associated with the Early Neolithic TRB culture (EN TRB) cluster with Middle and Early Neolithic farmers from Europe on the PCA (Fig. 2A) and in the ADMIXTURE analysis exhibit the component maximized in Levantine early farmers (orange component in Figure 2b). The statistic D(EN_TRB, Middle Neolithic Central Europe; X, Mbuti) does not yield significantly positive results and EN TRB can be modeled as derived from a single source identical with Middle Neolithic (MN) Central Europe."
"All Baltic Late Neolithic (LN) individuals (ca. 3,200 to 1,750 calBCE) fall in PCA space in the diffuse European LNBA cluster formed by individuals admixed between Early and Middle Bronze Age (EMBA) pastoralists from the Yamnaya culture of the eastern Pontic Steppe and Middle Neolithic European farmers (Fig. 2A) and carry the genetic component that was introduced into Europe with this pastoralist migration (green in Fig. 2B)."
"we see novel mitochondrial haplogroups (I, J, T2, W), not found in the preceding foragers, in half of our samples (Extended Data Figure 5), and I2a Y-chomosomal haplogroups replaced by R1a types (Supplementary Information Section 3, Extended Data Table 1). qpWave estimates that the Baltic LN samples, when analysed as a population, are consistent with being derived from the same source as Central European CWC samples."
"Analysed individually, however, this model is rejected for three LN samples: Gyvakarai1 and Plinkaigalis242, which is dated to the very beginning of the LN, are instead consistent with being derived from the same source as EMBA Steppe pastoralists...which corresponds with their ADMIXTURE profiles that lack the early farmer component also missing in EMBA Steppe samples (orange component in Fig. 2b). Coinciding with this steppelike genetic influx is the first evidence of animal husbandry in the eastern Baltic15, suggesting import of this technology by an incoming steppe-like pastoralist population independent of the agricultural societies that were already established to the south and west."
This might be what the other paper was getting at in talking about other avenues for CHG in northeastern Europe than just CWC? So, CWC as a farming group with some animal husbandry, and an earlier pastoral group?
"Furthermore, the individual Spiginas2, which is dated to the very end of the Late Neolithic, has a higher proportion of the hunter-gatherer ancestry, as seen in ADMIXTURE (darker blue component in Fig. 2b), and is estimated to be admixed between 78±4% Central European CWC and 22±4% Narva."
That's part of the reason that modern north east Baltic populations are more WHG than the CWC people. I've been saying that for I don't know how long. There was also gene flow from more "southern" groups.
"Direct evidence of this exists in the Baltic BA sample that appears as an outlier on the PCA, falling within the larger European LNBA cluster instead of the tight Baltic BA cluster (Fig. 2a) and archaeological evidence supports that the site Kivutkalns, which is represented by eight of our individuals, was a large bronze-working center located on a trade route that opened to the Baltic Sea on the west and led inland following the Daugava river31. The Baltic BA was furthermore the first eastern Baltic population to show an increased frequency of the derived LCT allele, which is responsible for lactase persistence, i.e. the ability to digest unprocessed dairy (Extended Data Table 2). This rise in frequency could be due to either gene-flow carrying the allele into the region or a strong positive selection for this phenotype."
"The individual from Olsund in north-eastern Sweden was dated to the Late Neolithic (ca. 2,600 to 2,100 calBCE) when agriculture had been introduced to the coastal areas of Northern Sweden with the Battle Axe Culture, the regional variant of the CWC, while foraging persisted as an important form of subsistence...Baltic BA as a single source for either modern Lithuanians or Estonians is rejected (Supplementary Information Table S4). The statistic D(Lithuanian, Baltic_BA; X, Mbuti) reveals significant positive results for many modern Near Eastern and Southern European populations which can be caused by Lithuanians having received more genetic input from populations with higher farmer ancestry after the Bronze Age (Supplementary Information Table S8). As this applies to nearly all modern populations besides Estonians, especially for Central and Western Europe, limited gene-flow from more south-western neighbouring regions is sufficient to explain this pattern."
"In contrast, the statistic D(Estonian, BA_Baltic; X, Mbuti) gives the most significant positive hits for East Asian and Siberian populations (Supplementary Information Table S8) as previously suggested2 . This might be connected to the introduction of the Y-chromosomal haplogroup N that in Europe is found in highest frequencies in Finland and the eastern Baltic states, and in similar high frequencies in the Uralic speaking populations of the Volga-Ural region36. The spread of N into north-eastern Europe was proposed to have happened with speakers of Uralic languages from the east who contributed to the male gene pool of eastern Baltic populations and left linguistic descendants in the Finno-Ugric languages Finnish and Estonian37,38. As we do not see Y-haplogroup N in any of the male samples from Lithuania and Latvia dated as late as 230 calBCE we propose that this element was brought into the gene pool of the more southern region of the Baltic coast after the Late Bronze Age."
Ed. Wow, I got carried away. :) Well, for those not interested in any more detail, now you don't have to read the whole paper and supplement, which is much longer!