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Oldest European towns and cities by founding year

Palace of Knossos, Greece

Author: Maciamo

This is a list of fortified settlements, towns and cities in Europe that were founded at least 3000 years ago (prior to 1000 BCE), including abandonned and destroyed settlements (marked by a †). Cities with a present-day population exceeding 50,000 are indicated in bold. The column on the right shows the archeological culture in which the settlement was founded. Note that the foundation years of Early Neolithic settlements are very approximate, often within a 500 years range.

The list is not exhaustive. Feel free to suggest additional places on the Eupedia Forum.

Founding yearPlace nameCountryAssociated culture
7,000 BCEChoirokoitia †Cyprus
6,500 BCESeskloThessaly, GreeceThessalian Neolithic
6,000 BCEStarčevoSerbiaStarčevo culture (c. 5500-4500 BCE)
5,500 BCEPločnikSerbiaStarčevo culture (c. 5500-4500 BCE)
5,500 BCEPlovdivBulgariaKaranovo culture (c. 6200-4000 BCE)
5,000 BCEVarnaBulgariaKaranovo culture (c. 6200-4000 BCE)
5,000 BCEHallstattAustriaLinear Pottery culture (c. 5500-4500 BCE)
5,000 BCEArgosPeloponnese, Greece
5,000 BCEBratislavaSlovakiaLinear Pottery culture (c. 5500-4500 BCE)
5,000 BCENitraSlovakiaLinear Pottery culture (c. 5500-4500 BCE)
4,800 BCEDiminiThessaly, GreeceThessalian Neolithic
4,500 BCELerna †Peloponnese, Greece
4,500 BCEGlauberg †Hesse, GermanyLinear Pottery culture (c. 5500-4500 BCE)
4,000 BCEPhaistos †Crete, Greece
3,900 BCEBruchsal-AueBaden, GermanyMichelsberg culture (c. 4400–3500 BCE)
3,900 BCEMichelsbergBaden, GermanyMichelsberg culture (c. 4400–3500 BCE)
3,800 BCEDobrovodyUkraineCucuteni-Trypillian culture (c. 6000-3500 BCE)
3,700 BCETalianki †UkraineCucuteni-Trypillian culture (c. 6000-3500 BCE)
3,700 BCEMaydanetsUkraineCucuteni-Trypillian culture (c. 6000-3500 BCE)
3,500 BCELeceia †Estremadura, PortugalMegalithic culture
3,250 BCEKasenovka †UkraineCucuteni-Trypillian culture (c. 6000-3500 BCE)
3,200 BCELos Millares †Andalusia, Spain
3,200 BCESkara Brae †Scotland
3,000 BCETroy †TurkeyWestern Anatolian EB 1 (3000-2600 BCE)
3,000 BCECastelo Velho de Freixo de Numão †North PortugalMegalithic culture
3,000 BCEAlmizaraque †Andalusia, Spain
1,550 BCEHuelvaAndalusia, Spain
3,000 BCEMyrtos Pyrgos †Crete, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
3,000 BCEAkrotiri †CyprusMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
3,000 BCEAthensGreeceEarly Helladic period (3200-2000 BCE)
2,800 BCEZambujal †PortugalBell-Beaker culture (c. 2800–1800 BCE)
2,700 BCEKnossos †Crete, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
2,600 BCEVila Nova de São Pedro †Estremadura, PortugalMegalithic culture
2,500 BCESanta Justa †Algarve, PortugalMegalithic culture
1,200 BCENicosiaCyprus
2,500 BCEMonte da Tumba †Setubal, PortugalMegalithic culture
2,500 BCEKastri,Kythera, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
2,400 BCEPragança †Estremadura, PortugalMegalithic culture
2,300 BCEGournia †Crete, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
2,300 BCEManika †Euboea, GreeceEarly Helladic period II (2800–2200 BCE)
2,000 BCEMantuaItalyBell-Beaker culture (c. 2800–1800 BCE)
1,900 BCEMycenae †GreeceMycenaean civilization (c. 1600–1100 BCE)
1,900 BCEMallia †Crete, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
1,900 BCEKato Zakros †Crete, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
1,800 BCEAntasAndalusia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE)
1,800 BCEEl Argar †Murcia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE)
1,800 BCELugarico Viejo †Andalusia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE
1,800 BCEIfre †Murcia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE)
1,800 BCEZapata †Murcia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE)
1,800 BCEPuntarrón Chico †Murcia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE)
1,800 BCECabezo Redondo †Murcia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE)
1,800 BCEGatasAndalusia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE
1,800 BCECerro de la Virgen de Orce †Andalusia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE
1,800 BCECerro de la Encina †Andalusia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE
1,700 BCECuesta del Negro †Andalusia, SpainArgaric culture (2200-1550 BCE
1,600 BCEHagia Triada †Crete, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
1,600 BCEChaniaCrete, GreeceMinoan civilization (2000-1500 BCE)
1,600 BCEThebesBoeotia, GreeceMycenaean civilization (c. 1600–1100 BCE)
1,550 BCEFuente ÁlamoAndalusia, Spain
1,400 BCELarnacaCyprusCity-kingdom of Kition (c. 1250 BCE–342 CE)
1,300 BCEHeuneburg †Württemberg, GermanyTumulus culture (1600-1200 BCE)
1,200 BCELisbonPortugalAtlantic Bronze Age (1300-700 BCE)
1,200 BCEChalcisEuboea, GreeceMycenaean civilization (c. 1600–1100 BCE)
1,200 BCETrikalaThessaly, GreeceMycenaean civilization (c. 1600–1100 BCE)
1,100 BCECadizSpainPhoenician civilization (1500-539 BCE)
1,100 BCEPatrasPeloponnese, GreeceMycenaean civilization (c. 1600–1100 BCE)
1,050 BCEZadarCroatiaLiburnians
1,000 BCEWürzburgBavaria, GermanyUrnfield culture (c. 1300 BCE-750 BCE)

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