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Maciamo
02-11-11, 14:05
I have updated the two Neolithic maps of Europe (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/neolithic_europe_map.shtml). In the first map (5000-4000 BCE) I have adjusted the sea levels (-10/15m) to what it really was at the time. We can see for instance that Denmark was connected to Sweden, Sardinia to Corsica. The north of the Black Sea was considerably smaller and the Sea of Azov didn't exist yet. The Dardanelles Strait also didn't exist and the Sea of Marmara was an inland sea.

I have also added major megalithic sites (standing stones, as opposed to the Late Neolithic dolmens and passage graves) and shown the progression (dots) of the Cardium Pottery Culture into hunter-gatherer territory (Tardenoisian).

The Late Neolithic map also has slightly lower sea levels (-2m), which affects mostly Denmark and the Black Sea.

Actually, it is possible that the Sea of Azov didn't exist at all until the land bridge connecting Crimea to the North Caucasus was submerged by the rising Black Sea. This could have happened sometime between 4500 and 3500 BCE. This loss of land displaced a lot of people, and I believe that it could have had something to do with the first migration of steppe nomads (presumably R1b1b2a PIE speakers) into the Carpathians and the Balkans.

http://www.eupedia.com/images/content/old_neolithic_map.gif

http://www.eupedia.com/images/content/late_neolithic_europe.gif

Goga
02-11-11, 14:50
Great job, thank you! I don't agree with you on some points. But hey, it's your site and your knowledge about this is bigger than mine!

Asturrulumbo
02-11-11, 17:29
Very nice! But the Hamangia culture lasted until c. 4500 BC, by 4000 (not to mention 3500) BC it was long gone. Instead, there was the intrusive Cernavoda culture (c. 4000-3200 bc), with steppe origins. It is part of the "Balkan-Danubian" complex along with the Baden culture (c. 3600-2800 BC), which streched all along the Danube an even the Upper Elbe. The Cernavoda Culture was the predecessor to Usatovo, for example, and probably part of the Indo-European migrations (the same applies to Baden). I would not be surprised if they were the ones to carry R1b.

sparkey
02-11-11, 17:40
Good work Maciamo, this appears to be a significant improvement. I was wondering when you would update these based on your newest theories, especially with respect to E1b.

I could probably nitpick a good deal, but little is glaringly wrong. I will say that you seem to be operating under an outdated model of the Neolithic dispersal of I2a1 (I2a in your map) and I2a2 (I2b in your map). It's looking less and less like I2a1 spread from Southeastern Europe in the Neolithic while I2a2 was already Western... rather, both combined appear to have saturated all of Europe at the beginning of the Neolithic except for maybe some of the Southern areas, with Western Europe probably starting with more I2a1 than I2a2, and I2a2 (in the form of I2a2-Cont3) actually beating I2a1 to significant dispersal in Southeastern Europe. Don't let modern frequency distributions of I2a1 in Sardinia and the Balkans throw you off.

Mzungu mchagga
02-11-11, 19:00
Very interesting! Thanks for the work!

spongetaro
02-11-11, 19:12
Good job! really nice maps !