PDA

View Full Version : Gauls in Italy (Mostly northern italy)



julia90
03-08-12, 19:12
It had been known for some time that there was an early, although apparently somewhat limited, Celtic (Lepontic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepontic), sometimes called Cisalpine Celtic) presence in Northern Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Italy) since inscriptions dated to the 6th century BC have been found there.
The site of Golasecca (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golasecca), where the Ticino (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ticino_river) exits from Lake Maggiore (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Maggiore), was particularly suitable for long-distance exchanges, in which Golaseccans acted as intermediaries between Etruscans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscan_civilization) and the Halstatt culture (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halstatt_culture) of Austria, supported on the all-important trade in salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt).
In 391 BC Celts "who had their homes beyond the Alps streamed through the passes in great strength and seized the territory that lay between the Appennine mountains (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apennine_Mountains) and the Alps" according to Diodorus Siculus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diodorus_Siculus). The Po Valley (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Po) and the rest of northern Italy (known to the Romans as Cisalpine Gaul (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisalpine_Gaul)) was inhabited by Celtic-speakers who founded cities such as Milan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan). Later the Roman army was routed at the battle of Allia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Allia) and Rome was sacked in 390 BC by the Senones (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senones).
At the battle of Telamon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Telamon) in 225 BC a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed.
The defeat of the combined Samnite (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samnium), Celtic and Etruscan alliance by the Romans in the Third Samnite War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samnite_Wars) sounded the beginning of the end of the Celtic domination in mainland Europe, but it was not until 192 BC that the Roman armies conquered the last remaining independent Celtic kingdoms in Italy.

julia90
03-08-12, 19:15
area of Golasecca (the first celts in italy) (and one of the first settlement after the la tene culture, more ancient than the celts expansion into mainland europe and the british isles)

(it seems the area was what is today Milano, Novara, Vercelli area)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Hallstatt_culture.png

julia90
03-08-12, 19:26
Cisalpine Gaul

or (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was a Roman province (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic) until 41 BC, when it was merged into the Roman Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy_(Roman_Empire)). It was that part of Gallia, the land of the Gauls (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauls), which lay south and east of the Alps (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alps), as opposed to Gallia Transalpina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallia_Narbonensis). Its inhabitants were primarily Celtic since the expulsion of the Etruscans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscans).
The province was bounded on the north and west by the Alps, in the south as far as Placentia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piacenza) by the river Po (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Po_(river)), and then by the Apennines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apennines) and the river Rubicon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubicon), and in the east by the Adriatic Sea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriatic_Sea). In 49 BC all inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul received Roman citizenship (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_citizenship), and eventually the province was divided among four of the eleven regiones of Italy: Regio VIII Gallia Cispadana, Regio IX Liguria, Regio X Venetia et Histria and Regio XI Gallia Transpadana.

Peoples of Cisalpine GaulIn the first millennium B.C., Cisalpine Gaul was inhabited chiefly by four peoples: the Veneti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriatic_Veneti) and Ligurians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligurians) in Transpadana (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallia_Transpadana), the Etruscans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscans) (in Emilia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emilia_(region_of_Italy))), and the Celts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts), who had conquered the area from the Etruscans and Raetians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raetians). These last may have been an Illyrian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrians) or Celtic tribe, or Etruscans, which is more likely in view of their linguistic relationship.

Celts and Celtic-Ligurians in Cisalpine GaulPolybius (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polybius), a Greek historian, wrote about co-existence of the Celts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts) in northern Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy) with Etruscan nations in the period before the Sack of Rome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Allia) in 390 B.C. According to Livy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livy), a Roman historian, the Celts arrived in these northern Italian regions around the sixth century B.C. However, archaeological sources, in particular compared with Livy's passage documenting the arrival of Bellovesus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellovesus) and his Insubres (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insubres) during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarquinius_Priscus) (sixth century B.C.), along with the founding of Milan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan) in an area yet "inhabited by Insubres", has led Italian and French archaeologists and scholars to date the Celtic presence in Italy to at least the sixth century B.C. if not before.

Livy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livy) (v. 34) describes how around 600 B.C. (Tarquinius Priscus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarquinius_Priscus) was reigning in Rome), a horde of Gauls (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauls) led by Bellovesus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellovesus) crossed the Alps (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alps) and occupied the territory between Milan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan) and Cremona (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cremona), identifying the local inhabitants of his own time, the Insubres (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insubres), with these invading Gauls.
In the Periplus of Scylax (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periplus_of_Scylax), Scylax of Caryanda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scylax_of_Caryanda), a Greek traveler and geographer active between 522 and 485 B.C., mentions the presence of Celtic-speaking (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_languages)peoples settled in northeast Italy. The text was rewritten about a century later after the loss of the original by a pseudo-Scylax (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudo-Scylax), and tells of a journey along the shores of the Mediterranean made by a Greek traveler who describes the Celtic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts) tribes on the coast just south of the settlements of the Veneti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriatic_Veneti). Given the known dates in the life of Scylax, the date should be about 490 B.C.

zanipolo
03-08-12, 21:02
Cisalpine Gaul

or (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was a Roman province (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic) until 41 BC, when it was merged into the Roman Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy_%28Roman_Empire%29). It was that part of Gallia, the land of the Gauls (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauls), which lay south and east of the Alps (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alps), as opposed to Gallia Transalpina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallia_Narbonensis). Its inhabitants were primarily Celtic since the expulsion of the Etruscans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscans).
The province was bounded on the north and west by the Alps, in the south as far as Placentia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piacenza) by the river Po (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Po_%28river%29), and then by the Apennines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apennines) and the river Rubicon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubicon), and in the east by the Adriatic Sea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriatic_Sea). In 49 BC all inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul received Roman citizenship (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_citizenship), and eventually the province was divided among four of the eleven regiones of Italy: Regio VIII Gallia Cispadana, Regio IX Liguria, Regio X Venetia et Histria and Regio XI Gallia Transpadana.

Peoples of Cisalpine Gaul

In the first millennium B.C., Cisalpine Gaul was inhabited chiefly by four peoples: the Veneti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriatic_Veneti) and Ligurians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligurians) in Transpadana (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallia_Transpadana), the Etruscans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscans) (in Emilia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emilia_%28region_of_Italy%29)), and the Celts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts), who had conquered the area from the Etruscans and Raetians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raetians). These last may have been an Illyrian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrians) or Celtic tribe, or Etruscans, which is more likely in view of their linguistic relationship.

Celts and Celtic-Ligurians in Cisalpine Gaul

Polybius (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polybius), a Greek historian, wrote about co-existence of the Celts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts) in northern Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy) with Etruscan nations in the period before the Sack of Rome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Allia) in 390 B.C. According to Livy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livy), a Roman historian, the Celts arrived in these northern Italian regions around the sixth century B.C. However, archaeological sources, in particular compared with Livy's passage documenting the arrival of Bellovesus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellovesus) and his Insubres (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insubres) during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarquinius_Priscus) (sixth century B.C.), along with the founding of Milan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan) in an area yet "inhabited by Insubres", has led Italian and French archaeologists and scholars to date the Celtic presence in Italy to at least the sixth century B.C. if not before.

Livy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livy) (v. 34) describes how around 600 B.C. (Tarquinius Priscus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarquinius_Priscus) was reigning in Rome), a horde of Gauls (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauls) led by Bellovesus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellovesus) crossed the Alps (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alps) and occupied the territory between Milan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan) and Cremona (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cremona), identifying the local inhabitants of his own time, the Insubres (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insubres), with these invading Gauls.
In the Periplus of Scylax (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periplus_of_Scylax), Scylax of Caryanda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scylax_of_Caryanda), a Greek traveler and geographer active between 522 and 485 B.C., mentions the presence of Celtic-speaking (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_languages)peoples settled in northeast Italy. The text was rewritten about a century later after the loss of the original by a pseudo-Scylax (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudo-Scylax), and tells of a journey along the shores of the Mediterranean made by a Greek traveler who describes the Celtic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts) tribes on the coast just south of the settlements of the Veneti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriatic_Veneti). Given the known dates in the life of Scylax, the date should be about 490 B.C.



see below, this will aid you check links at bottom of attachment

http://www.vegiazena.it/storia/popoli/stirpe.htm