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adamo
30-07-13, 03:58
Adam, haplogroup A. The first paternal marker of modern humans is known as A. Haplogroup A originated some 60,000 years ago in the hot, arid,dry desert conditions of north-eastern Africa. It's maximum frequencies are recorded in eastern Sudan at about 50% of males. About 40-45% of males extending across Sudan and parts of Ethiopia/Somalia are hg A members, a 35% coat spreads across much of east Africa (Tanzania,Kenya,Uganda,Madagascar etc.) a lower 30% coat covers parts of central and southern Africa. The frequencies fall dramatically towards western and extreme northern Africa. Most hg A men live between east Africa and South Africa. The men of hg A where pastoralist type hunter gatherers and speak a +50,000 year old language family called the click languages. This linguistic family is barbaric and antique, it is not even considered as "fully developed modern speech". The Men of hg A would have enjoyed the company of mtdna L0/L1 females, which are the most basal branches of female mtdna. Today, many Dinka, Shilluk (sudanese groups) and South African Khoisan men are positive for hg A. Many Nuer males, a Sudanese Nilotic people are hg A.

Haplogroup B. the men of haplogroup B originated some 50,000 years ago, somewhere not far from chad, Cameroon and the Central African Republic. These men came from near the Ituri forests of the Congo basin. the highest frequencies (50%) are centred near Cameroon. By the time we reach much of central Africa, about 30% of males are hg B. the men of hg B where hunter gatherers, but they did not live a "pastoralist" lifestyle in extremely hot regions as their hg A brothers did, instead the B men radiated from the dark, wet Ituri forests of Congo. Today, most Mbutu and Biaka pygmies of Congo are positive for hg B. most Hadzabe males from Tanzania are positive for hg B as well. The men of hg B where also linked to click languages, they had much contact with mtdna L0/L1 lineages.

Haplogroup C originated some 50,000 years ago in eastern Africa. Haplogroup C left Africa from the Horn of Africa, they ended up in Arabia and followed the southern coasts of Asia into Iran and further into the southern Indian peninsula, where today about 5% of southern Indian men hold VERY ancestral forms of the C mutation. They where amazing fishermen and followed coastal migrations. From India they would follow the coast deep into south east Asia. Upon arriving in Indonesia, one branch would enter Australia, where today 50% of Australian aboriginals are positive for the C marker. Another branch would make its way up Indonesia, into the Philippines and Japan (hg C is very low in japan but found in 15% of Ainu males) and would infiltrate itself into northeast Asian lineages. Today, many Mongolian and Siberian not to mention some 50% of Kazakh male lineages are hg C. Surprisingly, some 40% of afghanistan's Hazara people also harbour C. C3 in particular was spread by Ghenghis Khan and his Mongol army. A branch left in Siberia would cross the Bering Strait into North America, where still today, cultures speaking Na-Dene Amerindian languages such as the Tlingit of British Columbia, have 25-30% hg C. Hg C is found in British Columbian Indian groups, but never penetrated any further south in the America's. the men of hg C branch would have been accompanied by mtdna M* females.

Haplogroup D. The men of hg D where intimately connected to the men of hg E, which constitutes (E) the vast majority of African male lineages today. The men of D followed a similar route as the one the C men followed, it is debated wether the men of D accompanied the men of C, but it is most probable that they began their out-of-Africa migration some time later. These men moved from the Horn of Africa to the southern Arabian peninsula, hugging the south Asian coast crossing India, Southeast Asia, into the Philippines and subsequently to Japan. Today, about 50% of Japanese males are hg D. It seems that those that did not head to japan moved away from asian coastal regions of their journey, and migrated heavily inland, settling in modern day Tibet where many men are also D+. Most Tibetans today are hg D1, most Japanese males are D2 sub-branch.

haplogroup E. haplogroup E originated somewhere near southern Sudan some 30,000 to 40,000 years ago. the youngest male branch found in Africa, E split into two major groups early on; E3a and E3b. E3a originated some 30,000 years ago. His descendants probably moved from Sudan to the west African coast, where it still dominates today. Many modern Nigerian, Ghanaian, Gabonese and cote D'ivoirian males today are positive for hg E3a. Some 92% of Ghanaian males, or some 90% of Nigerian Igbo people are E3a. Some 70% of Wolof men from Senegal/Gambia are E3a. E3a is intimately linked to the Bantu expansions of 2500 B.C., they where the first successful sub-Saharan African agriculturalists, and their later expansions from the west African coast would come to decimate many men of earlier A and B lineages. The men of E3a are linked to mtdna L2.

Haplogroup E3b originated some 20,000 years ago. It is postulated that E3b may have left Africa for the Middle East, only to re-enter northern Africa via egypt at a later date. It is not known wether E3b left from the Horn of Africa and re-entered from Egypt or vice versa. Wether they slowly moved (staying within africa) from Sudan towards southern Egypt through the Sahara over thousands of years, or if they re-entered via Egypt from the Middle East, the men of hg E3b dominate most paternal north-African lineages today, and even some as far as the horn of africa and parts of Mediterranean Europe. Today, most Algerian, Tunisian, Moroccan, Libyan and Egyptian males are E3b. Surprisingly, even some Ethiopian/Somalian males are E3b. In Europe, the highest frequencies of E3b are to be found in Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Serbia, Albania, Sardinia etc.

Haplogroup F. Haplogroup F originated some 45,000 years ago, somewhere in extreme north-eastern Africa or the Middle East (Arabian peninsula towards Africa, or even in the portion of Arabia towards Iraq). Today, 90% of all non-African men share this mutation. The F mutation would spawn most of the Neolithic agricultural lineages such as the J family, G,H (as a side note F created K as well) that would push into Mediterranean Europe and spread across the Middle East. Today, the highest frequencies of haplogroup F are found in Sri Lanka, where trace frequencies of 9-10% can be found on a national level. It can also be found in 9% of some Dravidian speaking groups in India, 6% of Malaysians, 5% of borneans and in 4% of austro-asiatic speaking groups in India. Over all, today, F can be found in 1 to 2% of examined pakistani and indian lineages. It seems that the men of hg F went extinct or where killed off in most regions, maybe because of the sheer age of the marker.

Haplogroup G. Haplogroup G originated some 30,000 years ago, somewhere between the Caucasus/middle east and the Himalayan foothills. Most people claim that the most basal forms of the G tree are found in western Iran, so the Hindu Kush/himalaya theory may be rubbish. The descendants of this man are few, and the theories on this hg are "wild" to say the least, with claims that these men lived as far away as the Indus Valley at a point in time. It was thought for a time that "proper" agriculturalist lineages expanding from the Middle East overwhelmed and killed off the hg G hunter-gatherers. But despite living in high altitude areas with low population densities, it seems that the men of G may have in fact adopted agriculture later in the game and actually expanded to the Caucasus region (near turkey) and to parts of Mediterranean Europe (Greece-south Italy-Sardinia in particular.) the brother groups of G are H,I,J and K. All of these would have originated between 20,000-30,000 years ago in the Middle East (K more towards central Iran). As for G2a (P15) it arose in the Caucasus region (turkey/Georgia) and spread from turkey into Mediterranean Europe over 15,000 years ago. Hg G can be found in 30% of georgians, and around 10% of Turks/Armenians. It is also very prevalent among the Ossetians of the southern Russian plains near Chechnya, ingushetia (Ossetia).

Haplogroup H originated some 45,000 years ago in the Middle East, and never truly stopped heading east until reaching northern India. The odd thing about H is that it arrived directly from F , there is no K mutation in the men of H, yet, today, they can not be found in the Middle East, but in India. These men where part of the first modern human major settlement of the Indian peninsula. These where not the first humans to arrive in India, but where the first to majorly conquer the peninsula some 30,000 years ago. The first Africans to reach this area reached it some 50,000-60,000 years before; some settled along the coastal route at low frequencies, but inland areas of India would be largely populated by incoming H and L y-DNA lineages.

Haplogroup I men where once men of the F lineage turned IJ, the men of I would enter Europe via Anatolia, and would first settle down in the Balkans. Some of them would eventually settle Central Europe. These men where probably responsible for bringing gravettian culture to Western Europe some 20,000-30,000 years ago. When the LGM ( last glacial maximum) or simply "ice age" attained its maximum effect, some of the I men would wait out the cold in the balkan refuge (I1b known as I2), another group that had moved further out to Central Europe would wait out the "bad times" in the Iberian refuge (I1a or I1) along with R1b male, and H and V mtdna lineages. When the ice age would come to an end, the I1b men would spread locally as an indigenous group to the Balkans, the I1a men, on the other hand, seem to have migrated from the Iberian refuge towards Denmark and into Scandinavia, where they are still found in their highest frequencies today (Norway,Sweden,Denmark, northern Germany). The men of I1a probably mated with and moved with mtdna V lineage and some H must have moved north with them as well.

Haplogroup J was born some 15,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent region of the Middle East (Jordan,Lebanon,Syria,Israel,Iraq) . Today this hg finds its highest frequencies in the middle east , parts of Europe and north-Africa. In Europe it is found only in the Mediterranean region. The early farming successes of the J lineage encouraged these men to spread across much of the Mediterranean world. The two subclades of J, J1 and J2 are found in a combined frequency of 30-40% of Jewish males, for example.

Haplogroup J1 originated during the Neolithic revolution in the Middle East. It is now well established that the men of J1 shared the farming successes of other members of the J family. Today, J1 is found in an overwhelming majority of Saudi Arabians, Yemenites and omanians, kuwaitis, emirians, qatarians and bahrainians. It is also found heavily in southern Iraq ( some 80% of southern Iraqi marsh Arabs belong to J1) and in parts of Israel, and Syria, not to mention 40% of Palestinian and 50% of jordanian men. It is found in much lower frequencies in Lebanon, Iran and turkey. J1 is also found in 15-25% of many North African countries, from Egypt to Algeria, as many Arabs invaded these regions during the Middle Ages, bringing Arabic culture and Islam with them.

Haplogroup J2 is also associated with the Fertile Crescent, but to be more precise, with ancient mesopotamians/Assyrians. It has a more northerly distribution across the Middle East, predominantly affecting the "proper" Fertile Crescent. Whereas the men of J1 would become predominantly desert dwelling Arabic bedouins, the men of J2 would install themselves from the Zagros mountains of Iran all the way to turkey and much later, beyond to the Mediterranean world. In the Middle East, J2 is found in 30% of Turks,Iranians,Armenians,Georgians,northern Iraqis, Jews, syrians etc. it is found at slightly higher frequencies in Lebanon (40%). J2-M172 did not spread to Jordan, for example, as this region would have been too dry and arid for the J2 clan's "agricultural ways". In Europe, J2-M172 can be found at mesmerizing frequencies in Cyprus (37%) , Crete (37%) and Sicily (30%) not to mention Italy (20-25%), mainland Greece (20%) and Spain/Portugal (10%).

Haplogroup K first originated some 40,000 years ago in central Iran. This marked the next big "out of Africa" paternal group after the M89 marker (F) (excluding the coastal Asian migrating hg C and D men of course who didnt colonize much of inner asia.) The descendants of this man would spend the next 30,000 years colonizing much of the planet. His large lineage known as the men of the "Eurasian clan" would disperse gradually over thousands of years. Now seasoned hunters followed herds of game across much of the Iranian/central Asian superhighway. Eventually, somewhere near the Tian Shan mountain range (Pamir Knot) the path of advancing M-9 lineage men would be blocked. Here, near the Pamir Knot ( around Afghanistan/Tajikistan) they would separate into two divergent groups. Some would make a leap north into the central Asian/Russian steppes. Others would move south into what is today Pakistan and the Indian subcontinent. These different migration routes they took would spawn their own diverse lineages. Nearly all north-Americans and East Asians descend from this man, as do most Europeans and many Indians. Today, hg K is found at low trace frequencies towards Central Asia.

Haplogroup T originated some 30,000 years ago somewhere near the borders of modern day Afghanistan and extreme eastern Iran. Instead of heading north or south of the Pamir knot, these men would settle adjacent to those mountain ranges, eventually moving deeper west back towards the Middle East. Formerly known as K2 ( as it was thought to be a simple subgroup of K), it is found in 5-15% of middle easterners, not to mention in East Africans, from where it had arrived undoubtedly from the Middle East. Not much else is known about hg T, and research on this bizarre/rare Eurasian (iranic) lineage is continuing.

Haplogroup L. One group of K lineage men would end up heading south when faced with the Pamir knot. Unlike the men of T, who would establish themselves at the foot of this mountain range near Iran/Tajikistan, the men of hg L would head south across Pakistan and into the southern Indian subcontinent some 30,000 years ago, where many males of this lineage are still found today.

Haplogroup M. Another "rare and exclusive" haplogroup, M is speculated to have originated some 10,000 years ago these men (sons of K-M9) would move into Southeast Asia before making a move towards Melanesia, Indonesia, and to a lesser extent, even Micronesia. This lineage is very scarce, and research on it continues.

Haplogroup N. Haplogroup N (downstream of M-9) followed the men of its brother haplogroup (O) deep into east Asia. This man would start heading north and west into Siberia where 10,000 years ago, the N marker was born. This man's descendants can effectively trace a migration of Uralic speaking people's, as they moved across Siberia and towards Finland and the Baltic states. The Saami people of Scandinavia (also known as Lapps) found in Norway,Sweden,Finland parts of northern Russia, where hunters and fishermen high in hg N; many northern Russians have the N marker as well. Some 65% of Finnish men today belong to N, as do 40-45% of Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians.

Haplogroup O. A man carrying the O marker was born around 35,000 years ago in central or east Asia. Anciently, a group of K-M9 males moved north of the Pamir knot and never stopped heading east until they had attained east Asia along with the men of hg N. they traveled through extreme southern Siberia/central Asia/Russian steppes until reaching their current location, where they've been evolving in isolation for millennia, cut off by the Pamir knot from the Middle East. Today, some 80-90% of males living east of central Asia's enormous mountain ranges are members of hg O, the "east Asian" clan. The vast majority of Chinese, Korean, half of Malaysian, Taiwanese, Vietnamese, Thai, Indonesian etc lineages are predominantly O. O1a first appeared in south china or Southeast Asia some 30,000 years ago. About 50% of Taiwanese O is O1a. Haplogroup O2 originated in southern china. O2 spread south into Southeast Asia, east into Korea and north towards Japan, where 25-30% of males are O+ (Japan), It is also very common in Malaysia and Thailand. O3 found in half of modern Chinese men, was linked to the spread of rice and agriculture across east Asia. The men of hg O where probably accompanied by women of mtdna F and B lineages.

Haplogroup P, known as the M45 lineage, arose some 35,000 years ago in Kazakhstan or the central Russian plains (central Asia.) Faced with the impossibility of continuing eastwards due to the Pamir knot, a group of K-M9 men began moving northwards until they reached Kazakhstan//uzbekistan/central Russian plains where the Y-dna P marker was born. This man would become the common ancestor of most Europeans and almost all Native American men.

Haplogroup Q. The M242 lineage arose some 15,000-20,000 when a man was born in the brutally cold climate of Siberia. His descendants became the first male explorers of the America's. these men moved across the frozen Bering straight and moved into North America about 15,000 years ago. Within 1000 years of reaching north-America, they had already penetrated her all the way to chile (south America). Some 95-98% of Native American males from Alaska/northern Canada to the tip of chile belong to the Q lineage. It is postulated that these men had followed herds of animals and unknowingly in a sense, arrived in a "whole new world". I strongly believe that it is possible that only a small group of men made/survived this crossing. 5000 maybe? It could be as low as only 10 or 20 men. But with all the lush new continent they had discovered and all the wildlife to feed on, the later "founder effect expansion" would have been enormous, and this small group would soon multiply from few to very many. Today, hg Q is found not only in the America's, but the youngest branches of it are found in Siberia as well; some of these more basal branches of Q are found in BOTH siberians and native Americans, but Q3 is only found in the America's.

haplogroup R. The R branch of the male family tree originated somewhere in Central Asia, this man carried the M207 mutation; his descendants would split into two distinct group; the R1 group would moved westwards towards Europe. The R2 group, on the other hand, moved south into India.

haplogroup R1 (M173) the members of haplogroup R1 are descendants of europe's first large-scale human settlers. R1 is defined by M173, a branch of R that headed westwards towards Europe. They would arrive precisely there circa 35,000 years ago, and soon after their arrival, the days of the Neanderthal where numbered. The men of the M173 lineage where smarter, more resourceful and out competed the Neanderthals in every aspect of the survival game, ultimately bringing upon the demise of their hominid cousin "competitors". The times where cold and rough, and food/prey was scarce, but modern men, of the R1 lineage (R1b in particular) would come out on top. During the LGM, the men of R1 where forced into "refugium" zones, with R1b waiting out the cold in Iberian refuge and R1a on the edge of the Russian steppes/Ukrainian refuge.

Haplogroup R1a1. Sometime probably between 10,000-15,000 years ago, a man was born in present day Ukraine or near southern Russia. This M17 man would carry his marker from the Russian steppes as far as Iceland in the west and Iran/Afghanistan and India in the east. These men where the first to domesticate horses, which worked out incredibly to their advantage. These men are responsible for the spread of the I-E (indo-European) language family; some of these languages are Russian or polish in the west, or Bengali and Hindi or Iranian in the east.) According to many scientists, linguists and experts in the field, the nomadic horse-riding kurgan people (R1a men) where probably the first to speak a proto-indo-European language, between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago. Today, 65% of poles, 50% of Russians and 40% of Czechs and Slovenians are R1a1, for example. This creates a bizarre contrast with the 35% R1a1 found in eastern Iran, or the 35% found in Hindi speaking Indian populations, indicating that some R1a1 also moved towards Central Asia.

Haplogroup R1b; the men of R1b are characterized by the M343 mutation. These men would cross the plains of Russia and end up deep into Western Europe. This hg originated 30,000 years ago and represents the cro-magnon's of Europe that out competed Neanderthals in Western Europe. They are responsible for much art and paintings in caves of southern France, they arrived there during the Paleolithic era. Today, the frequencies of R1b in Western Europe are considerably high. Some 75-90% of men from the British isles, for example are members of R1b. 75% of spaniards and 60-65% of Portuguese, French, Belgian and Dutch males are R1b as well as 50% of italian and German males. The world's highest frequencies of R1b are in Wales (90%) and Ireland (85%).

Haplogroup R2. Some 25,000 years ago, a man from the southern parts of Central Asia first underwent the M124 mutation. His ancestors would migrate to parts of modern-day Pakistan but particularly, India.

this is the story of Adam, the male lineage (Y-DNA.) these lineages account for 100% of modern human males living today, this is our story.

will post Eve some time soon

sparkey
30-07-13, 18:20
What are these? Your own understandings of haplogroup histories? And why stop at R?

Your summaries of the haplogroups I am more familiar with make me doubt your summaries of the haplogroups I am less familiar with. For example:


haplogroup R1 (M173) the members of haplogroup R1 are descendants of europe's first large-scale human settlers. R1 is defined by M173, a branch of R that headed westwards towards Europe. They would arrive precisely there circa 35,000 years ago, and soon after their arrival, the days of the Neanderthal where numbered. The men of the M173 lineage where smarter, more resourceful and out competed the Neanderthals in every aspect of the survival game, ultimately bringing upon the demise of their hominid cousin "competitors". The times where cold and rough, and food/prey was scarce, but modern men, of the R1 lineage (R1b in particular) would come out on top. During the LGM, the men of R1 where forced into "refugium" zones, with R1b waiting out the cold in Iberian refuge and R1a on the edge of the Russian steppes/Ukrainian refuge.

...and...


Haplogroup R1b; the men of R1b are characterized by the M343 mutation. These men would cross the plains of Russia and end up deep into Western Europe. This hg originated 30,000 years ago and represents the cro-magnon's of Europe that out competed Neanderthals in Western Europe. They are responsible for much art and paintings in caves of southern France, they arrived there during the Paleolithic era.

...and...


When the ice age would come to an end, the I1b men would spread locally as an indigenous group to the Balkans...

These interpretations are all old ones based on frequency patterns of limited samples, before we had good understandings of the distribution outside of Europe, the SNP tree structure, and the diversity patterns. Try Maciamo's "Origins, spread and ethnic association of European haplogroups and subclades (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml)" for a start.

adamo
31-07-13, 00:21
Why stop at R? Because I just finished writing what I know about every single y-DNA group, is why I stop at R. This is my Y-DNA portion, I wil build an mtdna portion as well.

adamo
31-07-13, 00:32
If you have any suggestions/corrections to make just advise me, thanks

adamo
01-08-13, 11:22
http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~thecohens/img/y-_migration_lg.jpg. Paternal groups of the entire planet, from A to T.

nordicwarrior
01-08-13, 13:54
What a bummer. Overall this piece is well-written, easy to read, and accurate. This makes the glaring mistakes (see Sparkey's comments) that much more dangerous because folks not versed in this subject matter will unknowingly repeat the errors.

adamo
02-08-13, 07:19
Please talk to me about that, where should I make the corrections, feedback is important to me

adamo
02-08-13, 07:23
If you're suggesting that what is wrong with the R1b paragraph is that I said the R1b men passed by Central Asia and arrived in Europe during the Paleolithic period, then I think you're wrong, I really do believe the theories produced by spencer wells' research, they're probably correct.

nordicwarrior
02-08-13, 11:22
Wells completely missed the Neanderthal admixtures, the Denisovan admixture, and the extremely ancient pre-A paternal line. He has made some fairly large mistakes. I recommend you check out Maciamo's maps which include the most up to date information on subclade ages and travel routes.

foryouandme
22-08-13, 23:49
Good work, adamo! I'm no expert on Y-DNA so I found this quite enlightening. Looking forward to your thread about Eve. Can someone tell me where I can find Maciamo's maps?

adamo
27-08-13, 12:40
I have a correction to make some basal branches of A are as old as 140,000 years. Most basal A is 140,000 years, then BT and the later resulting B arrived some 60,000-50,000 years ago, some 60,000 years after the base of A. In other words, A and B didn't just spring up in unison, A is older, and B arrived MUCH later. "A" men have been roaming eastern Africa for the past 140,000 years, by far the oldest branch of humanity, the Asian coast hugging C and D men would arrive MUCH later, and Q,N,O,R1 etc. are among some of the shortest/youngest branches of the human family tree, as they are even "relatively" recent when compared to A0, for example.