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oriental
06-11-14, 23:09
The word Cajun means Canadian Indian Ca(Injun) (Ca-jun) Injun is Native Indian. The Cajun were Kicked out by the British from Nova Scotia or somewhere in the east coast and they went to Louisana which was French controlled. The Cajun had Black blood. Frenchie Fuqua was a famous black NFL football player who was proudly Cajun.

The Acadians

http://www.acadian-cajun.com/hisacad1.htm

The Cajun

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cajun

oriental
06-11-14, 23:28
A short history of Acadians and Cajuns

http://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/genetics_center/louisiana/article_cajunhistory.htm

Frenchie Fuqua:

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Frenchy-Fuqua/392714482753

sparkey
06-11-14, 23:54
A short history of Acadians and Cajuns

http://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/genetics_center/louisiana/article_cajunhistory.htm

Frenchie Fuqua:

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Frenchy-Fuqua/392714482753

Frenchie Fuqua? Fuqua is typically a Huguenot name, not a Cajun one, Anglicized slightly from the original French "Fuquett." I actually descend distantly from the Huguenot immigrant most white Fuquas descend from, whose name is often recorded in late genealogies as "Guillame Fouquet" or some such, but whose actual name seems to have been Gill Fuquett. Frenchie, as a black man, is presumably descended from slaves of this family. Maybe other parts of his family or simply his culture was Cajun?

Mod note: Moving these posts to a new thread.

Melancon
07-11-14, 00:42
Cajun is short for Acadian; the original name of Nova Scotia and Nova Scotians. White French colonists. Nothing to do with American indians or blacks, sorry.

I have Acadian (Cajun) French ancestry. How very interesting that someone here would make a thread about us. Although, this post; it is totally inaccurate. We are mostly descended from French colonists.

I would say that many of us (Cajuns) are probably our own ethnic group by now; and it seems we are partially homogeneous most the time.

We probably have slightly different genetics now, to modern French people; due to 300-400 years of genetic isolation and insular separation.

I have always wanted geneticists to study us Cajuns like they do any kind of homogeneous population in Europe; such as the Basques, Poles, Finns, or Albanians, and see what they could uncover.

oriental
07-11-14, 01:30
Frenchie, as a black man, is presumably descended from slaves of this family. Maybe other parts of his family or simply his culture was Cajun?

I used to follow the NFL and Frenchie used to appear with a fancy feathered cap or hat. I thought he was amusing. Anyway Fuqua being Huguenot is French, no? Only they were Protestants and killed by the French Catholics in France and many fled to England. My knowledge of Frenchie is not deep but just cursory. I heard from an Englishman who said 'cockney' accent came from he Huguenots learning English.


Cajun is short for Acadian; the original name of Nova Scotia and Nova Scotians. White French colonists. Nothing to do with American indians or blacks, sorry.

My apologies if I am wrong. I just commented without thoroughly checking.

sparkey
07-11-14, 08:06
I used to follow the NFL and Frenchie used to appear with a fancy feathered cap or hat. I thought he was amusing. Anyway Fuqua being Huguenot is French, no? Only they were Protestants and killed by the French Catholics in France and many fled to England. My knowledge of Frenchie is not deep but just cursory. I heard from an Englishman who said 'cockney' accent came from he Huguenots learning English.

You have Huguenots identified correctly.

Cockney probably has its roots in Southeastern English dialects more than anything, but with plenty of slang from all sorts of East End London groups added in, including, no doubt, some influence from the Huguenots who settled there.

Melancon
07-11-14, 14:42
You have Huguenots identified correctly.

Cockney probably has its roots in Southeastern English dialects more than anything, but with plenty of slang from all sorts of East End London groups added in, including, no doubt, some influence from the Huguenots who settled there.Speaking of Huguenots, I have heard of Americans actually having closet French Huguenot ancestry. I am mostly of the Acadian (Cajun) French variety. But I also have almost 100% English ancestry on my dad's paternal side; hailing from Georgia and originally from South Carolina. My Cajun French ancestry also means that my family has Catholic background. My dad is half Cajun French and half American English. On my dad's paternal side; they were Protestants.

I have noticed while looking up my ancestral records; that there seem to be some suspicious surnames in my lineage, that I have noticed; that seem to mean nothing in English, Old Norse or Old English. And they often appear to be Anglicized French in origin. (ex. Burnett, Ballard, Britton, Gaston) I would not be surprised if some of these names were French Huguenot.

The legendary American folk legend Davy Crockett (Croquet?) had French Huguenot ancestry. His paternal ancestors bearing the Croquet surname originated from French Belgium. (Wallonia) when it was still part of France; and had escaped to England and Ireland in the 15th century. By the 16th century they had fled to the United States with English American (Protestant) colonists.

Crockett's ancestors always claimed to be Irish or Scottish but were actually French refugees who blended in with Scots-Irish and English colonists; to avoid persecution by the French Catholics under Louis. I always thought it was rather interesting to discover if people in the USA had secret Huguenot ancestry. Even though they may have initially believed it to be Irish, Scottish, English or Dutch. prior etc

Angela
07-11-14, 17:04
@ Melancon: I think you may have some reading to do in regards to the genetic make-up of self-reported "European-Americans" in Louisiana. including some Cajuns, no doubt:

See: Bryc and Durand et al: The genetic ancestry of African, Latino, and European Americans across the United States.
http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2014/09/26/009340

Just download the PDF. Lots of information there, but you might be particularly interested in the graphic which shows the states which have the highest percentage of "European-Americans" who have more than 2% African ancestry, presumably unknown African ancestry to many of them. Louisiana and South Carolina are among the leaders in that regard. Louisiana also leads among eastern and central states in the number of "European-Americans" who have more than 2% Amerindian ancestry.
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-dViY-OVquN4/VBs9Txr7KjI/AAAAAAAAJzA/8S6V3ym95ng/s1600/ea.jpg

It shouldn't be a total surprise, of course. That there was admixture between the French colonists of Louisiana, of all stripes, and both Amerindians and African slaves has long been known, as is the phenomenon in American society known as "passing".

From the text:
"Using a less stringent threshold of 1%, our estimates suggest that as many as 8% of individuals from Louisiana, and upwards of 3% of individuals from some states in the West and Southwest, carry Native American ancestry. (Figure S8)"

" In particular, individuals with African ancestry are found at much higher frequencies in states in the South than in other parts of the US: about 5% of self-reported European Americans living in South Carolina and Louisiana have at least 2% African ancestry. Lowering the threshold to at least 1% African ancestry (potentially arising from one African genealogical ancestor within the last 11 generations), European Americans with African ancestry comprise as much as 12% of European Americans from Louisiana and South Carolina and about 1 in 10 individuals in other parts of the South (Figure S9)."


"In particular,individuals with African ancestry are found at much higher frequencies in states in the South than in other parts of the US: about 5% of self-reported European Americans living in South Carolina and Louisiana have at least 2% African ancestry. Lowering the threshold to at least 1% African ancestry (potentially arising from one African genealogical ancestor within the last 11 generations), European Americans with African ancestry comprise as much as 12% of European Americans from Louisiana and South Carolina and about 1 in 10 individuals in other parts of the South (Figure S9). "

You can find further data in the Data Supplement found here:
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/suppl/2014/09/18/009340.DC1/009340-1.pdf

Melancon
07-11-14, 17:21
Obviously, there ARE many Cajuns who do have American indian or Black ancestry. Only we do not call them Cajuns here. We call them Creoles (Cajuns with Black ancestry) or Métis. (Acadians with Native American)

It is not possible that I have anything other than white, because I am somewhat inbred (homogeneous) and some of my ancestors share surnames; both on my mother and father's side. (Acadian names such as Pitre, Fuselier, Vidrine, Manuel, Mélançon, Fontenot etc.) I also have English ancestry on my dad's paternal side.

(I also have at least one Galician Spanish ancestor that I know of, but he was 7th or 8th generation. And knowing the history of Spain, it is more possible for me to have Arabic ancestry at some point, rather than Black or American indian. If I do, it's probably about 55+ generations back. But the chances of this are extremely low. Especially considering I have only one ancestor who was Northern Spanish.)

My family came from above the Lafayette area (Opelousas, Louisiana) which is the main area of most Acadian French whites; and their initial settlement after deportation from Nova Scotia by the British. If you travel forward East to New Orleans, you will find many Acadian "Cajuns" of mixed ethnicity. That is why the Black and Native American indian ancestry is so high in Louisiana. A lot of the Acadian French whites that moved to New Orleans mixed with Black slaves and American indians. For us in Acadiana, it is actually a lot more rare.

Nothing to do with me though, lol. I'm 100% white I guarantee you.

Angela
07-11-14, 18:02
Melancon: Nothing to do with me though, lol. I'm 100% white I guarantee you.

I couldn't care less. You really shouldn't assume that these kinds of categorizations matter to other people the way that they do to you.

However, perhaps you should invest in a spit test from 23andme, if you haven't already done so, and provide us with a screen shot. I've been following the postings in the Community Forum there for years, and there's an awful lot of very surprised southerners, including Louisiana Cajuns, who have posted on there about their previously unknown African and Amerindian ancestry. Just saying. There's also no indication in the study that the only people from Louisiana who had Amerindian and African ancestry were "Creoles".

Plus, the whole thrust of your postings about the Finns has not been whether an individual Finn like Kristina has East Asian ancestry, and how much, but that Finns have East Asian, non-European ancestry. Therefore, the topic is not whether you individually have escaped having any of the ancestry which you find so objectionable, but whether Cajuns have such ancestry.

Indeed, some "exotic" ancestry does show up in Cajuns. After whole clusters of "Ashkenazi" type hereditary breast cancer showed up in the Cajun community, they tracked ancestry and found it all led back to an Ashkenazi family who had changed their names, claimed to be German, and had married into the Cajun community. Given the high levels of endogamy, it spread like wildfire. Just google it...you'll find all the papers. Just for health reasons, I'd check to see whether those surnames appear in your family tree, given how the Cajuns are apparently so inbred. The high prevalence of genetic diseases is a consequence of such high levels of inbreeding, as I'm sure you know.

As to Cajuns in general:
"Not all Cajuns descend solely from Acadian exiles who settled in south Louisiana in the 18th century, as many have intermarried with other groups. Their members now include people with ancestry of British, Spanish, German, Italian, Native American (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States), Métis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A9tis) and French Creole (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Creole_people) settlers. Historian Carl A. Brasseaux asserted that it was this process of intermarriage that created the Cajuns in the first place.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cajun#cite_note-Brasseaux-2)

Non-Acadian French Creoles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Creole_people) in rural areas were absorbed into Cajun communities. Some Cajun parishes, such as Evangeline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evangeline_Parish) and Avoyelles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avoyelles_Parish), possess relatively few inhabitants of Acadian origin. Their populations descend in many cases from settlers who migrated to the region from Quebec (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec), Mobile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile,_Alabama), or directly from France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France). Theirs is regarded as the purest dialect of French spoken within Acadiana. Regardless, it is generally acknowledged that Acadian influences have prevailed in most sections of south Louisiana.

Many Cajuns also have ancestors who were not French. Many of the original settlers in French Acadia were English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_people), Irish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_people), German (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_people), Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_people), Spanish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_people) Canary Islanders (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isle%C3%B1os), and Italian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_people) colonists who began to settle in Louisiana before and after the Louisiana Purchase (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Purchase), particularly on the German Coast (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Coast) along the Mississippi River (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_River) north of New Orleans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Orleans). People of Latin American (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_American) origin, a number of early Filipino (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filipino_people) settlers (notably in Saint Malo, Louisiana (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Malo_%28Louisiana%29)), known as "Manilamen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manilamen)," from the annual cross-Pacific (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Ocean) Galleon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galleon) or Manila Galleon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manila_Galleon) trade with neighboring Acapulco, Mexico (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acapulco,_Mexico), descendants of African American (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American) slaves, and some Cuban Americans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_American) have also settled along the Gulf Coast (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_of_Mexico) and, in some cases, intermarried into Cajun families. Anglo-American (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo) settlers in the region often were assimilated into Cajun communities, especially those who arrived before the English language became predominant in southern Louisiana."

As you can see, French Creoles are an entity distinct from the Cajuns, but part of the Cajun jambalaya, one might say. :)


It might be interesting for you to check it all out. You never know what could be hiding in that wood pile.

Melancon
07-11-14, 18:18
No offense; but you're totally ignorant and uninformed on the matter.

I think it is better for you to dismiss yourself from me and my affairs.

Maciamo has also told me that 23andme is not particularly accurate for genetics either. And that it is better to research your whole genome through a program like Dodecad or Eurogenes.

I am suggesting that many white people who have had their genome covered with 23andme or FTDNA and discovered Black or American indian genetics are not always particularly accurate. And the science of genealogy is not always accurate either, any way; more or less. And it is always updating itself.

Why not take your own advice; and upload your own genome with a screenshot? Let's see how Italian you truly are.


Some Cajun parishes, such as Evangeline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evangeline_Parish) and Avoyelles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avoyelles_Parish), possess relatively few inhabitants of Acadian origin.

This is not true. These two parishes actually make up a large portion of French people. I have family from there. It is a 45 minute drive into these two Parishes. (Counties). Some notable French families: Lafleur, Brignac, Chataignier, Porche, Meche, Prudhomme, Manuel, Babin, Carmouche, Andrepont. I can go on and on.


Their members now include people with ancestry of British, Spanish, German, Italian, Native American (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States), Métis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A9tis) and French Creole (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Creole_people) settlers. Historian Carl A. Brasseaux asserted that it was this process of intermarriage that created the Cajuns in the first place.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cajun#cite_note-Brasseaux-2)Yeah. SOME not ALL. What is the percentage of Cajun French people having these ancestries? I would argue less than 5% of the whole 100%. That would suggest it is extremely rare. I am at least 70% French and I know this and can prove it by my genealogical records. But it is a very long list and is quite exhaustive.

Angela
07-11-14, 19:25
Melancon, you are not arguing with me; you are arguing with science. The study which found African and Amerindian ancestry in so many Louisianians was based on whole genome comparisons of thousands of people...allele comparisons. Do you understand? You are also arguing with Louisiana historians and Acadian and Cajun genetic genealogists. Are you at all aware of that fact? Have you read the relevant historians? Have you subscribed to the Acadian list at rootsweb?

In that regard, you might be interested in this article tracking Acadian ancestry. The admixture with "sauvage" women occurred in some families within a few generations of being on North American soil, and continued in Louisiana, where some African ancestry was also added in some families. There are well documented such cases. All of this might have contributed to the disrepute in which Cajuns used to be held in Louisiana. America has an unfortunate history in this regard with many groups. Of course, we're talking about traces remaining in current descendents. However, given how endogamous Cajuns are, you would think that what is present in a couple of families winds up being present in all of them, as was borne out with the tracking of the breast cancer gene.
http://dna-explained.com/category/acadians/

Must I also repeat once again that this is not about you individually at all? It is about Louisiana people and Cajuns, in particular, just as the thrust of your argument on the other thread was about Finns in general, and not individual Finns, some of whom, I'm sure, show no or only trace amounts of East Asian. What is so difficult to understand here?

You're perfectly free to ignore or deny science and history, of course. There are plenty of people who still insist that the earth was created 6,000 years ago in the face of all scientific evidence to the contrary. I'm sure there's also some hold-outs who believe that the sun revolves around the earth because they "see" it "move" across the sky. I feel it's my duty to point out, however, that such people are not accorded very much "respect", shall we say, among educated people.

I also regret to inform you that I'm going to report your prior post. You can't say I didn't warn you. Adults have to be able to discuss these issues without resorting to personal attacks. Not that you care, I'm sure, but you're also now on my Ignore list, so don't expect any further responses.

Melancon
07-11-14, 19:35
Melancon, you are not arguing with me; you are arguing with science. The study which found African and Amerindian ancestry in so many Louisianians was based on whole genome comparisons of thousands of people...allele comparisons. Do you understand? You are also arguing with Louisiana historians and Acadian and Cajun genetic genealogists. Are you at all aware of that fact? Have you read the relevant historians? Have you subscribed to the Acadian list at rootsweb?

In that regard, you might be interested in this article tracking Acadian ancestry. The admixture with "sauvage" women occurred in some families within a few generations of being on North American soil, and continued in Louisiana, where some African ancestry was also added in some families. There are well documented such cases. All of this might have contributed to the disrepute in which Cajuns used to be held in Louisiana. America has an unfortunate history in this regard with many groups. Of course, we're talking about traces remaining in current descendents. However, given how endogamous Cajuns are, you would think that what is present in a couple of families winds up being present in all of them, as was borne out with the tracking of the breast cancer gene.
http://dna-explained.com/category/acadians/

Must I also repeat once again that this is not about you individually at all? It is about Louisiana people and Cajuns, in particular, just as the thrust of your argument on the other thread was about Finns in general, and not individual Finns, some of whom, I'm sure, show no or only trace amounts of East Asian. What is so difficult to understand here?

You're perfectly free to ignore or deny science and history, of course. There are plenty of people who still insist that the earth was created 6,000 years ago in the face of all scientific evidence to the contrary. I'm sure there's also some hold-outs who believe that the sun revolves around the earth because they "see" it "move" across the sky. I feel it's my duty to point out, however, that such people are not accorded very much "respect", shall we say, among educated people.

I also regret to inform you that I'm going to report your prior post. You can't say I didn't warn you. Adults have to be able to discuss these issues without resorting to personal attacks. Not that you care, I'm sure, but you're also now on my Ignore list, so don't expect any further responses.I am glad that I am on your ignore list. Because as I stated before; none of those sources have any real accuracy or merit and most of the time, are often outdated. And can be explained in a different way.

All you have ever presented to me was passive-aggressive baseless accusations and assumptions; and hypocritical self-projection.

I live in Louisiana and I believe I know our genetic heritage more than any other group of people; thank you. And I have also not disagreed with you. I have actually agreed with you on some points, if you read my posts. There is no such thing as ignorance towards your "sources"...You have simply misinterpreted them; Not I. I have simply gave you explanation for them, and you have simply ignored them completely or passed them off as opinion.

I have made explanations for why American Indian and Black DNA is seen in Acadians at a high frequency. It doesn't mean they are true Acadians though. Because these people are no longer Cajuns anyway. You have the definition of a Cajun twisted to include Mixed-race ethnicity like Creoles and Metis. Cajuns are white Acadian French colonist descendents.

Aberdeen
07-11-14, 19:51
I am glad that I am on your ignore list. Because as I stated before; none of those sources have any real accuracy or merit and most of the time, are often outdated. And can be explained in a different way.

All you have ever presented to me was passive-aggressive baseless accusations and assumptions; and hypocritical self-projection.

I live in Louisiana and I believe I know our genetic heritage more than any other group of people; thank you. And I have also not disagreed with you. I have actually agreed with you on some points, if you read my posts. There is no such thing as ignorance towards your "sources"...You have simply misinterpreted them; Not I. I have simply gave you explanation for them, and you have simply ignored them completely or passed them off as opinion.

I have made explanations for why American Indian and Black DNA is seen in Acadians at a high frequency. It doesn't mean they are true Acadians though. Because these people are no longer Cajuns anyway. You have the definition of a Cajun twisted to include Mixed-race ethnicity like Creoles and Metis. Cajuns are white Acadian French colonist descendents.

Actually, the original Acadian population of Nova Scotia included a lot of Micmac ancestry, mostly on the maternal side, because of the scarcity of women in the colony in the early days. And the Cajun population now includes a lot of non-Acadian ancestry. Given the former flexibility with surnames shown by Francophones in North America in the past, I'm dubious about any Cajun who claims to know who all his ancestors are. Many Cajun surnames are not found in France.

Melancon
07-11-14, 20:15
Actually, the original Acadian population of Nova Scotia included a lot of Micmac ancestry, mostly on the maternal side, because of the scarcity of women in the colony in the early days. And the Cajun population now includes a lot of non-Acadian ancestry. Given the former flexibility with surnames shown by Francophones in North America in the past, I'm dubious about any Cajun who claims to know who all his ancestors are. Many Cajun surnames are not found in France.Yeah right; yet another exaggeration; and false information regarding my ethnic origins, to get under my skin. BTW most of the Micmac ancestry has been discredited and European mtDna has been found in certain female individuals who were thought to be Micmac. Micmac and other American indian ancestry is actually extremely rare.

I can see why a lot of newcomers have recently come to the board, have commented negatively and have a disdain for you and Angela. All you guys do is make baseless assumptions, bully, stalk and harass. Mind your own business and get a life hein? :)

Oh, by the way ... Hein is "eh" in French.

Melancon
07-11-14, 20:59
Actually, the original Acadian population of Nova Scotia included a lot of Micmac ancestry, mostly on the maternal side, because of the scarcity of women in the colony in the early days. And the Cajun population now includes a lot of non-Acadian ancestry. Given the former flexibility with surnames shown by Francophones in North America in the past, I'm dubious about any Cajun who claims to know who all his ancestors are. Many Cajun surnames are not found in France.Please stop harassing and spreading disinformation. I've kept my thoughts from you for way too long and I think you are an arrogant, narcissistic, haughty sanctimony. I really do not appreciate your passive-aggressive taunting and will begin to report your messages to Moderators if you continue your passive-aggression. The easiest thing for me to do would be to put you on ignore and not associate myself with any of comments posts or responses from you, of any kind. I have no idea who you are or why you continue to patronize me or attempt to insult my intelligence or correct me; but I am tired of it. I don't have to listen to your ignorant drivelry; because for what I know; you don't have a PhD and your so far what you have presented to me; seems to suggest that you are a mostly incredulous member. I have a hard time believing why you are seen on this website with such High Status and awards; because most of the comments I have seen from you are mostly logical foxholes; thus your credibility has no importance or value to me.

oreo_cookie
22-11-14, 03:32
I used to have a Cajun person on 23andme, their results were similar to a French person except they had 5% Native American. It probably was indigenous Canadian and acquired before migration to the US south.

oriental
27-02-15, 02:55
Many French trappers who came to Canada could not get French girls so they mated with native aboriginal women. From a Portuguese Canadian I was told that the French government finally rounded up French prostitutes and shipped they over to Canada so that is why the Canadian French girls are very good-looking. I don't know how true this is but in summer in Toronto they are a lot of pretty Frech girls from Quebec selling flowers in the streets of Toronto. I asked a few of them and I was told they were from Quebec.

Melancon
27-02-15, 05:15
thats retarded.

Aberdeen
27-02-15, 20:17
Many French trappers who came to Canada could not get French girls so they mated with native aboriginal women. From a Portuguese Canadian I was told that the French government finally rounded up French prostitutes and shipped they over to Canada so that is why the Canadian French girls are very good-looking. I don't know how true this is but in summer in Toronto they are a lot of pretty Frech girls from Quebec selling flowers in the streets of Toronto. I asked a few of them and I was told they were from Quebec.

A joke often repeated by English speaking Quebecers is that a pure laine Quebecer is a Francophone who's half Irish and half Algonquin. Les Pepsis hate that joke because it's sometimes quite close to the truth.

oriental
28-02-15, 21:56
thats retarded.

I decided to check if there is any truth to what I was told.


Marguerite Bourgeoys (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marguerite_Bourgeoys) was the first person to use the expression "filles du roi" in her writings.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199219-3) A distinction was made between King's Daughters, who were transported to New France at the king's expense and were given a dowry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dowry) by the king, and women who emigrated voluntarily and using their own money.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199220-4) Other historians used chronological frameworks to determine who could be called a fille du roi.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199221-5) Research by the historical demographer Yves Landry determines that there were in total about 770 to 850 filles du roi[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199244-6) who settled in New France between 1663 and 1673.[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199233-7)
The title "King's Daughters" was meant to imply state patronage, not royal or noble parentage. Most of these women were commoners of humble birth. As a fille du roi, a woman received the King’s support in several ways. The King paid one hundred livres (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_France_livre) to the French East India Company (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_East_India_Company) for the woman’s crossing, as well as furnishing a trousseau (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hope_chest).[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199273-74-8) The Crown paid a dowry for each woman; this was originally supposed to be four hundred livres, but as the Treasury could not spare such an expense, many were paid in kind.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199275-9) As was the case for most emigrants who went from France to New France, 80% of the filles du roi were from the Paris, Normandy and Western regions.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199254-10) The Hôpital-Général de Paris (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Hospital_of_Paris) and the St-Sulpice parish were big contributors of women for the new colony.[11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199257-58-11) As such, most of the filles du roi were from urban areas.[12] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992108-12) A few women came from other European countries, including Germany, England, and Portugal.[13] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELanctot195222.2C_103.2C_115.2C_117.2C126-13) Those who were chosen to be among the filles du roi and allowed to emigrate to New France were held to scrupulous standards, which were based on their "moral calibre" and whether they were physically fit enough to survive the hard work demanded by life as a colonist. The colonial officials sent several of the filles du roi back to France because they were judged below the standards set out by the King and the Intendant of New France.[14] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELanctot1952212-14)
Almost half of the filles du roi were from the Paris area, 16% from Normandy and 13% from western France. Many were orphans with very meager personal possessions, and their level of literacy was relatively low.[15] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-15) Socially, the young women came from different social backgrounds, but were all very poor. They might have been from an elite family that had lost its fortune, or from a large family with children to "spare."[16] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199251-16) Officials usually matched women of higher birth with officers or gentlemen living in the colony,[17] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry199268-17) sometimes in the hopes that the nobles would marry the young women and be encouraged to stay in Canada rather than return to France.

Integration into New French society

Year
Arrivals[18] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-indies-18)


1663
36


1664
1


1665
80-100


1666
0


1667
109


1668
80


1669
149


1670
c. 165


1671
150


1672
0


1673
60


Total
832-852


The women disembarked in Quebec City (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_City), Trois-Rivières (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trois-Rivi%C3%A8res), and Montreal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal). After their arrival, their time to find husbands varied greatly. For some, it was as short as a few months, while others took two or three years before finding an appropriate husband.[19] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992131-19) For the process of choosing a husband, and the marriage, most couples would officially get engaged in church, with their priest and witnesses present.[20] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992145-20) Then, some couples went in front of the notary, to sign a marriage contract.[21] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992146-21) Marriages were celebrated by the priest, usually in the woman’s parish of residence.[22] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992140-22) While the marriage banns (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banns) customarily were to be published three times before a wedding could take place, the colony’s need for women to marry quickly led to few filles du roi having marriage banns announced.[23] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992149-23) It is known that 737 of these filles du roi were married in New France.[24] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-24)
The marriage contracts represented a protection for the women, both in terms of financial security if anything were to happen to them or their husband, and in terms of having the liberty to annul the promise of marriage if the man they had chosen proved incompatible.[25] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992150-25) A substantial number of the filles du roi who arrived in New France between 1669 and 1671 cancelled marriage contracts; perhaps the dowry they had received made them disinclined to stick with a fiancé they found themselves dissatisfied with.[26] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandry1992152-26)
An early problem in recruitment was the women's adjustment to the new agricultural life. As Saint Marie de L'Incarnation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_of_the_Incarnation_%28Ursuline%29) wrote, the filles du roi were mostly town girls, and only a few knew how to do manual farm work. This problem remained, but in later years, more rural girls were recruited.[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]
There were approximately 300 recruits who did not marry in New France. Some had changes of heart before embarking from the ports of Normandy and never left, some died during the journey, some returned to France to marry, and a few never did marry.[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]
Integration in Ville-Marie Prior to the King's Daughters, the women who immigrated to Ville-Marie, otherwise known as Montreal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal), had been recruited by the Société Notre-Dame de Montréal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9_Notre-Dame_de_Montr%C3%A9al) founded in 1641 in Paris.[27] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBeaudoinS.C3.A9vigny19968-27) Amongst these women were Jeanne Mance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_Mance) and Marguerite Bourgeoys.[28] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBeaudoinS.C3.A9vigny199612-28) When the first filles du roi arrived in Montreal, they were taken in by Bourgeoys.[29] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBeaudoinS.C3.A9vigny199660-29) Initially, there were no comfortable lodgings to receive them, but in 1668 Bourgeoys procured a large farmhouse in which to house them: the Maison Saint-Gabriel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maison_Saint-Gabriel).[30] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBeaudoinS.C3.A9vigny199661-30)
End of recruitment; growth of the settlement By the end of 1671, Talon suggested that it would not be necessary to sponsor the passage of girls for the next year, and the king accepted his advice.[18] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-indies-18) The migration briefly resumed in 1673, when the king sent 60 more girls at the request of Buade de Frontenac (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_de_Buade_de_Frontenac), the new governor, but that was the last of the Crown's sponsorship.[18] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-indies-18) Of the approximately 835 marriages of immigrants in the colony during this period, 774 included a fille du roi.[31] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-peupl-31) By 1672, the population of New France had risen to 6,700, from 3,200 in 1663.[31] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-peupl-31)
Rumours and legends http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/The_Arrival_of_the_French_Girls_at_Quebec%2C_1667_-_C.W._Jefferys.jpg/220px-The_Arrival_of_the_French_Girls_at_Quebec%2C_1667_-_C.W._Jefferys.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Arrival_of_the_French_Girls_at_Quebec,_16 67_-_C.W._Jefferys.jpg) The Arrival of the French Girls at Quebec, 1667. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_William_Jefferys)


The idea that the filles du roi were prostitutes has been an insidious rumour ever since the inception of the program in the 17th century. It seems to have arisen from a couple of misconceptions, both contemporary and modern, about immigration to French colonies in the New World. The first of these, which took root long before the first fille du roi emigrated, was that Canada was a penal colony. While there were two campaigns in the mid-16th century that involved the immigration of French criminals to Canada in exchange for their records being expunged, they were both short-lived. These programs resulted in little more than setting a precedent for viewing Canada as a place where those "of questionable morality" could be sent for one reason or another.[32] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELanctot195220-32)

The popularisation of the idea that the filles du roi in particular were prostitutes can be traced to an account by Baron La Hontan of his time in New France;[33] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-LofC-33) several earlier sources made the same assertion, including Saint-Amant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Amant), Tallement des Réaux (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tallement_des_R%C3%A9aux), and Paul LeJeune. In his account, La Hontan refers to the filles du roi as being "of middling virtue", and wrote that they had emigrated in the hopes of religious absolution.[34] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELanctot1952159-34) As early as 1738 Claude Le Beau countered his portrayal in an account of his own journey to New France, as did Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Fran%C3%A7ois_Xavier_de_Charlevoix) in his 1744 work.[35] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-FOOTNOTELanctot195225.2C33.2C192.2C195-35)

Out of nearly 800 filles du roi, only one, Catherine Guichelin, was charged with prostitution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution) while living in Canada, after she was abandoned by her husband.[33] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-LofC-33) She appeared before the Sovereign Council of New France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_Council_of_New_France) under the charge of carrying out "a scandalous life and prostitution" on 19 August 1675. Her two children were 'adopted' by friends, and she was banished from Quebec City. She was reported to have turned to prostitution after her husband, Nicholas Buteau, abandoned the family and returned to France. She later gave birth to many children out of wedlock. Guichelin had at least two marriage contracts cancelled. She also wed twice more after returning to Sorel, Quebec (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorel,_Quebec), then Montreal, Quebec (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal,_Quebec).[36] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters#cite_note-36)



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters


In the 1660s the French government sent about 850 young women (single or widowed) called King's Daughters (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Daughters) ("filles du roi"). They quickly found husbands among the predominantly male settlers, as well as a new life for themselves. They came mostly from poor families in the Paris area, Normandy and the central-western regions of France. A handful were ex-prostitutes, but only one is known to have practiced that trade in Canada.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canadian_women#cite_note-2) As farm wives with very good nutrition and high birth rates they played a major role in establishing family life and enabling rapid demographic growth. They had about 30% more children than comparable women who remained in France. Landry says, "Canadians had an exceptional diet for their time. This was due to the natural abundance of meat, fish, and pure water; the good food conservation conditions during the winter; and an adequate wheat supply in most years."[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canadian_women#cite_note-3)[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canadian_women#cite_note-4) The American politician Hillary Clinton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillary_Clinton) is a descendant of one of them.[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]
Besides household duties, some women participated in the fur trade (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_fur_trade), the major source of cash in New France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_France). They worked at home alongside their husbands or fathers as merchants, clerks and provisioners. Some were widowed, and took over their husbands' roles. A handful were active entrepreneurs in their own right.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canadian_women#cite_note-5)
In the early 19th century down to the 1950s upper-class Anglos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language) dominated high society in Montreal, and their women constructed and managed their identity and social position through central events in the social life, such as the coming out of debutantes. The elite young women were trained in intelligent philanthropy and civic responsibility, especially through the Junior Leagues. They seldom connected with the reform impulses of the middle class women, and for and were paternalistic in their views of the needs of working-class women.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canadian_women#cite_note-6)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canadian_women


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canadian_women)

oriental
28-02-15, 21:58
The Fur trade

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_fur_trade

http://www.ameriquefrancaise.org/en/article-363/French-Canadian_Trappers_of_the_American_Plains_and_Rocki es.html


http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/fur-trade/