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Northener
05-08-15, 21:49
E-V22
Neolithic pioneers from the Levantine

Introduction
How did a Levantine Y-DNA like E-V22 get into a Dutch guy like me? This basic curiosity is the drive behind this paper. FTDNA stated after the results of my Big-Y DNA:
"This haplogroup is an African lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed south from Northern Africa within the last 3000 years with the Bantu agricultural expansion. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East."
This didn't satisfy me, it did not close the gap between the Sahel and Northwestern Europe. And other explanations like "it was the Roman influence" neither, so I went further.
Although modern genetics is making fast progress in delivering facts and figures about the variations in the DNA of the human genome, this alone does not deliver a comprehensive image of the development of the human bearers of the DNA. When we want to get a more precise picture we have to place them in context. This paper is an attempt to combine the results from the latest DNA research on specific haplogroup E-V22 in combination with historical/archeological knowledge.
E-V22 is a genetic marker, which belongs to haplogroup E. E-V22 was first defined by the genetic Professor Cruciani (Cruciani 2004 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181964/), 2007 (http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/1300.abstract)). The ‘father clade’ is E-M78. According to Y full (SNP analysis) E-M78 has a split of: E-Z1919. E-Z1919 on his turn has a mayor split: E-V22/L677 and E-V13. E-V13 can be considered as a ‘brother clade’ of E-V22. E-V13 is in this paper a reference point. In a recent survey about haplogroup E (Beniamino Trombetta e.a. 2015 (http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/7/1940.long)) this is illustrated as follows (the ‘pyramid’ lines are E-V13 and E-V22).
The period of research is restricted to the Neolithic age (about 10000-2000 BC). This isto be seen as the last phase of the Stone Age, marked by the domestication of animals, the development of agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery and textiles. The period after the Neolithic is also interesting but needs a separate research.
This paper is written from the idea, borrowed from the geneticist Professor Martin Richards, that the Neolithization went by ‘pioneer leapfrog colonization’ (Martin Richards 2010 (http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf30/30richards.pdf)) whereby small groups of agriculturalist/pioneers, target for new arable land and then were surrounded by other groups of hunter-gatherer. In a later stage they interacted with each other.

Current situation
The starting point of the E-V22 is the current situation of the spread of haplogroup E-V22. Vincenzo Passariello recently published a figure (https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=514259102061743&set=pcb.1096532980360976&type=1&theater) on the Facebook page Human Population Genetic based on open data about E-V22.
The first picture gives an image about the worldwide appearance of E-V22. We see that E-V22 is widespread from Portugal in the west till Pakistan in the east mostly with modest percentages (mostly between 1-5%). There are a few exceptions: E-V22 major strongholds (above 20%) are Egypt and the Horn of Africa.
The second picture (https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=535421036612216&set=gm.1121171397897134&type=1&theater), also from Passariello, zooms in on Europe. There we see that that E-V22 is around 5% of the population in Asturias (Northern Spain), Andalucía (Southern Spain), Sicily, Luciana (Southern Italy) and Istanbul.

Natufian culture (13.000-11.000 BC)
As is stated E-V22 is a descendant of E-M78. According to Y-full (http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-M78/), E-M78 is 21.700 years old. The origin of haplotype E-M78 lays most probably in the North Eastern part of Africa, Egypt or Northern Sudan/Ethiopia(Cruciani 2007 (http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/1300.abstract), Begona Dobon 2015) (http://www.nature.com/srep/2015/150528/srep09996/full/srep09996.html). From there it spreads to the rest of Africa, mostly the Northeastern part of it.
E-M78 went also outside Africa right through the so-called Levantine corridor. The Levant was part of the so-called Fertile Crescent. This area was the ‘Silicon Valley’ of the Neolithic (r)evolution c.q. the first development of the sedental agriculture.
The pre stadium of this is to be known as the Natufian culture (http://www.columbia.edu/itc/anthropology/v1007/baryo.pdf). The Levantine corridor is also a major hub in genetic lines. A change in environment, a more sedental-lifestyle, creates also the conditions for changes in DNA. An obvious change is that the bone structure of the agriculturalist became lighter.
The Levantine corridor has best cards for the offspring of E-M78 called E-Z1919. This is dated by y-full (http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-Z1919/)at 12.000 years ago (10.000 BC) in the late Natufian/Khamian period.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic (8000 BC)
E-V22 on his turn is split out of E-Z1919 about 10.000 years ago (8000 BC) (http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-L677/) just at the beginning of the so-called pre-pottery culture that is considered as the first step in the real Neolithization. Towns (Jericho was the first) appeared on the scene.
The Neolithic ‘leaped frogged’ through land and also through water (island and/or coast ‘hopping’), (Peristera Paschou 2013). In the case of E-V22 brother clade E-V13 (formed 7500 years ago, 5500 BC) followed the way from the (Northern?) Levant (nowadays Northwestern Syria border Turkye) into Greece and the Balkan. And/or the way through the Mediterranean Sea.
At the Balkan (Albania/Kosovo) we see a kind of founder effect; E-V13 reaches in nowadays Kosovo 45%. The Balkan formed the major E-V13 stronghold and bridgehead into Europe. From the Balkan E-V13 used the grand central European rivers to spread the Neolithic into central Europe on to southern Scandinavia. In nowadays Denmark E-V13 is about 3%.

E-V22 Neolithic into Egypt (6000 BC)
The route of E-V22 is different. I presume that it stayed more in the Southern Levant. E-V22 is the most obvious candidate to introduce the Neolithic in Egypt. In an excellent dissertation from Noriyuki Shirai called “The Archaeology of the First Farmer-Herders in Egypt New Insights into the Fayum Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic (https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/21366)” (Noriyuki Shirai 2010) it is shown how the Neolithic process in the Nile Delta proceeded.
Shirai makes clear that there was a certain cultural and economic influence from the Levantine. In other words: the Natufian Neolithic culture spread into Lower Egypt. There was an amount of settlers who came from the Levant. This process began about 6000 BC. The process was gradual, sedentary farmers lived, probably peacefully, nearby the hunter-gatherers. Due to climate change people where ‘forced’ to go to the Nile (Delta) and had to look for other ways to make a living: agriculture from the rich soil along the Nile. E-V22 mingled with indigenous people.
Shiria believes that demographic impact on population in Lower Egypt is “still unclear”. It is likely that farmer/settlers from the Levant wit an E-V22 DNA played a significant role in it. The founder effect is not as big as E-V13 in the Balkan but still left a significant demographic mark. The Neolithic spread is most evident from places like Fayum and Merimde The Fayum culture (6000 BC), Merimde culture (5000 BC), El Omari culture (4000 BC) and Maadi culture (4000 BC) are in Lower Egypt regional adapts of the Neolithic. In the unifying process of Lower and Upper Egypt during the reign of the Farao’s we can see that E-V22 also spread down the Nile, southward. E-V22 was one of the haplotypes who brought the Neolithic further into the Sahel/ Horn of Africa. As we have seen nowadays in the region we find major E-V22 strongholds. E-V22 is clearly part of the Levantine DNA admixture who spread the Neolithic (Marc Haber 2013 (http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1003316)).

Neolithic in Iberia (6000 BCE)
In the E-V22 SNP tree developed by Wim Penninx (https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/3487498/webpage/E1b-V22-SNP.png) we see (on basis of a few examples!) a split on CTS 6080/ L1250/CTS11457). There is a subbranche with mainly Spanish and some English, German/Czech and Dutch representatives. The explanation lies probably in the impact from the Levantine DNA cluster on Iberia.
In Spanish archeology (Miriam Balmuth 1997 (https://books.google.nl/books?id=FLdzJF2tOF0C&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=almagra+neolitic&source=bl&ots=OKXV7TuNFL&sig=BSAAiaeznSsghtDoPDszbgJHndk&hl=nl&sa=X&ved=0CGMQ6AEwCWoVChMIruHb6aiPxwIVRWQsCh2Y5wr6#v=on epage&q=levantine&f=false)) it is disputed if the Neolithic pottery (about 4700 BC) in Iberia, within the most famous the La Almagra pottery in Andalusia, is an internal phenomenon, as some stated, or was there a significant influence from the Levant, as others argue. They supposed that the key lay in demographic evidence to prove an Iberian-Levantine connection.
In 2011 researchers (Marie Lacan e.a. 2011) (http://www.pnas.org/content/108/24/9788.abstract) proved the existence of the Levantine DNA cluster namely G2a and E-V13 in Spanish persons from 7000 years ago (5000 BC). These prove there was really a connection between the neolithization of Iberia and the Levant. And up till now Andalusia is still a relatively European stronghold of E-V22.

Atlantic Neolithization (4000-2000 BC)
Iberia is a beachhead for the spread of the Neolithic of the Atlantic/ Northwestern Europe. From there the neolithization took place Northwest wards along the Atlantic and the North Sea Coast up to France, Ireland and the British Isles, the Netherlands, Northwestern Gemany and finally Southern Scandinavia (Pablo Arias 1999). (http://www.researchgate.net/publication/226198826_The_Origins_of_the_Neolithic_Along_the_A tlantic_Coast_of_Continental_Europe_A_Survey) Men with E-V22, along others of the Levantine admixture, were probably part of it. This is of course from an entirely different situation than in de Levant-Egypt case. In the Atlantic case there were most probably small numbers E-V22, who were almost swept away by the events after the Neolithic period. But Swedish research (Pontus Skoglund 2012 (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6080/466)), bases on Neolithic findings at Gokhem, did show that the Levantine DNA admixture was prominent along the Neolithic farmers of Scandinavia.

Conclusion
We went with giant leaps trough the Neolithic (DNA) history. Regarding the early origins and spread of haplogroup E-V22 it is made clear that the birth of E-V22 goes together with the dawn of the Neolithic in the Levant. E-V22 played a significant part in the spread of the Neolithic. The Neolithic Levantine genes (http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536)are on of the three basic layers of our gene pool (Europe, Middle-East and North East Africa).
For E-V22 this was most fundamental (founders effect) in Egypt/Northeastern Africa. In these areas is E-V22 still a major part in the gene pool. In the Mediterranean/ Middle-East it left its (Neolithic) marks. In North (Western) Europe it left only a few traces. In this respect E-V22 isn’t representative for the Levantine admixture as a whole. Brother clade E-V13, also part of the Neolithic Levantine admixture, had a significant higher impact on the European gene pool. Maybe also caused by my impression that E-V22 almost exclusively spread by the maritime way.
But even for Northwestern Europe the slight E-V22 impact of the Neolithic is more satisfying explanation than I got in the first place.

LeBrok
06-08-15, 05:57
Natufians were most likely G2a. Most remains of Early Neolithic farmers gave G2a markers. There is still a possibility that Natufians were hg E, but not a big one.

bicicleur
06-08-15, 10:07
my guess is a tribe with some E-V22 and E-Z1919 entered the Levant after the youngest dryas and before the birth of E-V13
they may have come from further south : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qadan_culture

furthermore I think E-V13 is less than 7500 years old
the research made by Lacan et al was based on STR-analyses, not SNP ; the only conclusion is that this person was related to E-V13, not actualy E-V13
IMO he may as well have been E-V22, E-L618 or E-Z1919
besides this was in Catalunia, not Andalusia

very little is known about Andalusian La Almagra
I've read before the origin was likely Moroccan
could you elaborate on the Levantine connection?

Northener
06-08-15, 12:32
@Le Brok, I think you are right, such developments are obvious not the belonging of one single haplotype, therefore I ‘ve stressed that E-V22 is, along G2A, J1 and more, part of the Neolithic Levantine admixture.

@bicleur that are opinions I'm waiting for! This is certainly something to take in account. A brain breaker. Regarding to this I’ve the following remarks.
When we agree that there is some Neolithic founder effect in the Lower Delta of Egypt, then there are two “tastes”, E-V22 came from the southeast (Upper Egypt) or from the northeast (Levant). When you state that the Neolithic impulse came from the south you ‘ve a timing conflict, because the Neolithic Badari culture of Upper Egypt was about 2000 years later than Fayum and Merimde....Besides the timing problem, Shirai has made very clear that Neolithic agriculturalist “leaped frogged” from the Levantine into Lower Egypt (and not the other way around).
Not to mention the influence of E-V13 on the Balkan Neolithic, how would you explain that regarding to your theory?
I think your link with Qadan is more related to E-V12. The Qadan area is an E-V12 stronghold!
Regarding Iberia I have only information from the book, Miriam Balmuth e.a., Encounters and Transformations: The Archaeology of Iberia in Transition (1999). In this book is discussed if there is a Levantine influence (on pottery and so on) on Neolithic Iberia. At that time there where sighs: “ oh if there was some demographic evidence”....now more than a decade later this is the case. Thanks for adjustment about the E-V13, I didn’t know that!

bicicleur
06-08-15, 15:27
there is no solid proof , we are not sure what realy happened , there are many possibilities , I only express what I think is a possibility I prefer

Fact is that humans survived LGM in certain parts of the upper Nile, Qadan culture are probably descendants of these tribes, and some of the Qadan tribes would have come up north to the Fayum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Egypt#Harifian_culture
IMO the origins of the neolithic cereal cultivators are the Natufians in the Levant, and IMO mainly J2a
this was right after the youngest dryas, 11.500 years ago
pig, sheep, goat and cattle were domesticated in southern Anatolia by J1, T and J2b ; they were joined by R1b-V88
the neolithic was brought to Africa from the Levant and Anatolia 8000 years ago. In the Nile Valley, the aboriginees mixed with incoming farmers, first in Fayum later also in Badari.
Some other aboriginees didn't mix but became herders. Semitic E-M123 herders and E-M81 herders. Semitic E-M123 probably stayed in Africa till 4the mill BC when drought forced them into the Levant.
E-V12 became herders moving south to Somalia, maybe along with T.
What happened with E-Z1919 is less clear. Maybe some of them joined the G2a cardial ware expansion into the Mediterranean. E-V13 is European born, while E-V22 seems to have split into a European and an African branch.

Sile
06-08-15, 21:17
there is no solid proof , we are not sure what realy happened , there are many possibilities , I only express what I think is a possibility I prefer

Fact is that humans survived LGM in certain parts of the upper Nile, Qadan culture are probably descendants of these tribes, and some of the Qadan tribes would have come up north to the Fayum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Egypt#Harifian_culture
IMO the origins of the neolithic cereal cultivators are the Natufians in the Levant, and IMO mainly J2a
this was right after the youngest dryas, 11.500 years ago
pig, sheep, goat and cattle were domesticated in southern Anatolia by J1, T and J2b ; they were joined by R1b-V88
the neolithic was brought to Africa from the Levant and Anatolia 8000 years ago. In the Nile Valley, the aboriginees mixed with incoming farmers, first in Fayum later also in Badari.
Some other aboriginees didn't mix but became herders. Semitic E-M123 herders and E-M81 herders. Semitic E-M123 probably stayed in Africa till 4the mill BC when drought forced them into the Levant.
E-V12 became herders moving south to Somalia, maybe along with T.
What happened with E-Z1919 is less clear. Maybe some of them joined the G2a cardial ware expansion into the Mediterranean. E-V13 is European born, while E-V22 seems to have split into a European and an African branch.

to correct you , R1b-V88 joined J1 and J2 in the levant and headed to Egypt, it then split into 2...........one branch heading along the north african coast towards morrocco and the other heading south along the nile , and eventually into sub-saharan lands, then Cameroon
The T1 in the levant and then its migration into Egypt came after R1b-V88 and these subclades do not appear at all in Somalia. The Somalia T1 subclades came from Oman and Hormuz from the persian gulf region about 2000 years ago.
E marker in the Levant was there before R1b-V88, J1, T1 or J2

To clarify in future ( I am only talking about ydna )..... .......T2 is found only in modern armenia , northern iran , and the himalyan areas............T1 and T1a are younger in age than T2
T2 has no M70 subclade
T1 has no M70 subclade
T1a has M70 sublade
T is found as beginning in North-east Iran area

bicicleur
06-08-15, 21:52
The Somalia T1 subclades came from Oman and Hormuz from the persian gulf region about 2000 years ago.
E marker in the Levant was there before R1b-V88, J1, T1 or J2


how do you know this?
do the subclades of T1 in Somalia match exclusively those in Oman and Hormuz?

I find very little info re subclades of T

khufu
20-08-15, 08:10
there is no solid proof , we are not sure what realy happened , there are many possibilities , I only express what I think is a possibility I prefer

Fact is that humans survived LGM in certain parts of the upper Nile, Qadan culture are probably descendants of these tribes, and some of the Qadan tribes would have come up north to the Fayum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Egypt#Harifian_culture
IMO the origins of the neolithic cereal cultivators are the Natufians in the Levant, and IMO mainly J2a
this was right after the youngest dryas, 11.500 years ago
pig, sheep, goat and cattle were domesticated in southern Anatolia by J1, T and J2b ; they were joined by R1b-V88
the neolithic was brought to Africa from the Levant and Anatolia 8000 years ago. In the Nile Valley, the aboriginees mixed with incoming farmers, first in Fayum later also in Badari.
Some other aboriginees didn't mix but became herders. Semitic E-M123 herders and E-M81 herders. Semitic E-M123 probably stayed in Africa till 4the mill BC when drought forced them into the Levant.
E-V12 became herders moving south to Somalia, maybe along with T.
What happened with E-Z1919 is less clear. Maybe some of them joined the G2a cardial ware expansion into the Mediterranean. E-V13 is European born, while E-V22 seems to have split into a European and an African branch.

there is no prove if any haplogroup R1b-V88 or j1 or j2 was in levant befor 4000 years with all options they have Of ancient civilizations in levant

If there is you will know a long time ago

Sumerian, Egypt has one god befor 7000 years The sun god

They were one culture

you cant say r1b or j1 or j2 or t or g was in egypt before 8000 years

but we can say e1b1b was in iraq before 8000 years becouse e1b1b was in anatolia before that time

We all heard that j1 come from armenian but i see m123 so where is it

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v522/n7555/full/nature14507.html

Must end the nonsense time to This edifice

No one wants to be honest with himself

I know that there are old skeletons in the Levant

But disappointing to some Who wants to be in the Levant

but levant the home of e1b1b Anyone who says otherwise he has to prove it

Scientists from j1 j2 r t say that without prove becouse they ignored e1b1b you all know that becouse you all ignored e1b1b

But e1b1b a key player in the world

You and all r1b will not accept to be your ancestors in Papua New Guinea

you will say i,m Blonde and these Negroes but r1b in cameroon say that i,m Negroes not blonde

Will you try to occupy yourself away from this

That's what scientists of your haplogroup do Occupy themselves in the Indo-European Like something important

they did not tell you about ancestors of haplogroup r Of any nationality are

You dont know and another else does not know

You may ask if you do not know

Blacks nudes This is the real answer

You will not like it, of course same your scientists of your haplogroup

I want only one to prove j1 or j2 or t any haplo came from south asia to levant befor 4000 years

i can prove that m123 was there you can see it in armenia befor 3000 years i dont want talk about v13

Speak structural easy but it does not prove the truth in front of

I hope my friends not to talk for just talk Especially if you do not know something

v12 in egypt and his son v32 in somalia there no v12* in somali

v22 in anatoia and kurdistan and iraq and small branch in africa

Greetings to all

Maleth
23-08-15, 22:52
E-V22
Neolithic pioneers from the Levantine

Introduction
How did a Levantine Y-DNA like E-V22 get into a Dutch guy like me? This basic curiosity is the drive behind this paper. FTDNA stated after the results of my Big-Y DNA:
"This haplogroup is an African lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed south from Northern Africa within the last 3000 years with the Bantu agricultural expansion. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East."
This didn't satisfy me, it did not close the gap between the Sahel and Northwestern Europe. And other explanations like "it was the Roman influence" neither, so I went further.
Although modern genetics is making fast progress in delivering facts and figures about the variations in the DNA of the human genome, this alone does not deliver a comprehensive image of the development of the human bearers of the DNA. When we want to get a more precise picture we have to place them in context. This paper is an attempt to combine the results from the latest DNA research on specific haplogroup E-V22 in combination with historical/archeological knowledge.
E-V22 is a genetic marker, which belongs to haplogroup E. E-V22 was first defined by the genetic Professor Cruciani (Cruciani 2004 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181964/), 2007 (http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/1300.abstract)). The ‘father clade’ is E-M78. According to Y full (SNP analysis) E-M78 has a split of: E-Z1919. E-Z1919 on his turn has a mayor split: E-V22/L677 and E-V13. E-V13 can be considered as a ‘brother clade’ of E-V22. E-V13 is in this paper a reference point. In a recent survey about haplogroup E (Beniamino Trombetta e.a. 2015 (http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/7/1940.long)) this is illustrated as follows (the ‘pyramid’ lines are E-V13 and E-V22).
The period of research is restricted to the Neolithic age (about 10000-2000 BC). This isto be seen as the last phase of the Stone Age, marked by the domestication of animals, the development of agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery and textiles. The period after the Neolithic is also interesting but needs a separate research.
This paper is written from the idea, borrowed from the geneticist Professor Martin Richards, that the Neolithization went by ‘pioneer leapfrog colonization’ (Martin Richards 2010 (http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf30/30richards.pdf)) whereby small groups of agriculturalist/pioneers, target for new arable land and then were surrounded by other groups of hunter-gatherer. In a later stage they interacted with each other.

Current situation
The starting point of the E-V22 is the current situation of the spread of haplogroup E-V22. Vincenzo Passariello recently published a figure (https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=514259102061743&set=pcb.1096532980360976&type=1&theater) on the Facebook page Human Population Genetic based on open data about E-V22.
The first picture gives an image about the worldwide appearance of E-V22. We see that E-V22 is widespread from Portugal in the west till Pakistan in the east mostly with modest percentages (mostly between 1-5%). There are a few exceptions: E-V22 major strongholds (above 20%) are Egypt and the Horn of Africa.
The second picture (https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=535421036612216&set=gm.1121171397897134&type=1&theater), also from Passariello, zooms in on Europe. There we see that that E-V22 is around 5% of the population in Asturias (Northern Spain), Andalucía (Southern Spain), Sicily, Luciana (Southern Italy) and Istanbul.

Natufian culture (13.000-11.000 BC)
As is stated E-V22 is a descendant of E-M78. According to Y-full (http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-M78/), E-M78 is 21.700 years old. The origin of haplotype E-M78 lays most probably in the North Eastern part of Africa, Egypt or Northern Sudan/Ethiopia(Cruciani 2007 (http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/1300.abstract), Begona Dobon 2015) (http://www.nature.com/srep/2015/150528/srep09996/full/srep09996.html). From there it spreads to the rest of Africa, mostly the Northeastern part of it.
E-M78 went also outside Africa right through the so-called Levantine corridor. The Levant was part of the so-called Fertile Crescent. This area was the ‘Silicon Valley’ of the Neolithic (r)evolution c.q. the first development of the sedental agriculture.
The pre stadium of this is to be known as the Natufian culture (http://www.columbia.edu/itc/anthropology/v1007/baryo.pdf). The Levantine corridor is also a major hub in genetic lines. A change in environment, a more sedental-lifestyle, creates also the conditions for changes in DNA. An obvious change is that the bone structure of the agriculturalist became lighter.
The Levantine corridor has best cards for the offspring of E-M78 called E-Z1919. This is dated by y-full (http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-Z1919/)at 12.000 years ago (10.000 BC) in the late Natufian/Khamian period.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic (8000 BC)
E-V22 on his turn is split out of E-Z1919 about 10.000 years ago (8000 BC) (http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-L677/) just at the beginning of the so-called pre-pottery culture that is considered as the first step in the real Neolithization. Towns (Jericho was the first) appeared on the scene.
The Neolithic ‘leaped frogged’ through land and also through water (island and/or coast ‘hopping’), (Peristera Paschou 2013). In the case of E-V22 brother clade E-V13 (formed 7500 years ago, 5500 BC) followed the way from the (Northern?) Levant (nowadays Northwestern Syria border Turkye) into Greece and the Balkan. And/or the way through the Mediterranean Sea.
At the Balkan (Albania/Kosovo) we see a kind of founder effect; E-V13 reaches in nowadays Kosovo 45%. The Balkan formed the major E-V13 stronghold and bridgehead into Europe. From the Balkan E-V13 used the grand central European rivers to spread the Neolithic into central Europe on to southern Scandinavia. In nowadays Denmark E-V13 is about 3%.

E-V22 Neolithic into Egypt (6000 BC)
The route of E-V22 is different. I presume that it stayed more in the Southern Levant. E-V22 is the most obvious candidate to introduce the Neolithic in Egypt. In an excellent dissertation from Noriyuki Shirai called “The Archaeology of the First Farmer-Herders in Egypt New Insights into the Fayum Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic (https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/21366)” (Noriyuki Shirai 2010) it is shown how the Neolithic process in the Nile Delta proceeded.
Shirai makes clear that there was a certain cultural and economic influence from the Levantine. In other words: the Natufian Neolithic culture spread into Lower Egypt. There was an amount of settlers who came from the Levant. This process began about 6000 BC. The process was gradual, sedentary farmers lived, probably peacefully, nearby the hunter-gatherers. Due to climate change people where ‘forced’ to go to the Nile (Delta) and had to look for other ways to make a living: agriculture from the rich soil along the Nile. E-V22 mingled with indigenous people.
Shiria believes that demographic impact on population in Lower Egypt is “still unclear”. It is likely that farmer/settlers from the Levant wit an E-V22 DNA played a significant role in it. The founder effect is not as big as E-V13 in the Balkan but still left a significant demographic mark. The Neolithic spread is most evident from places like Fayum and Merimde The Fayum culture (6000 BC), Merimde culture (5000 BC), El Omari culture (4000 BC) and Maadi culture (4000 BC) are in Lower Egypt regional adapts of the Neolithic. In the unifying process of Lower and Upper Egypt during the reign of the Farao’s we can see that E-V22 also spread down the Nile, southward. E-V22 was one of the haplotypes who brought the Neolithic further into the Sahel/ Horn of Africa. As we have seen nowadays in the region we find major E-V22 strongholds. E-V22 is clearly part of the Levantine DNA admixture who spread the Neolithic (Marc Haber 2013 (http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1003316)).

Neolithic in Iberia (6000 BCE)
In the E-V22 SNP tree developed by Wim Penninx (https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/3487498/webpage/E1b-V22-SNP.png) we see (on basis of a few examples!) a split on CTS 6080/ L1250/CTS11457). There is a subbranche with mainly Spanish and some English, German/Czech and Dutch representatives. The explanation lies probably in the impact from the Levantine DNA cluster on Iberia.
In Spanish archeology (Miriam Balmuth 1997 (https://books.google.nl/books?id=FLdzJF2tOF0C&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=almagra+neolitic&source=bl&ots=OKXV7TuNFL&sig=BSAAiaeznSsghtDoPDszbgJHndk&hl=nl&sa=X&ved=0CGMQ6AEwCWoVChMIruHb6aiPxwIVRWQsCh2Y5wr6#v=on epage&q=levantine&f=false)) it is disputed if the Neolithic pottery (about 4700 BC) in Iberia, within the most famous the La Almagra pottery in Andalusia, is an internal phenomenon, as some stated, or was there a significant influence from the Levant, as others argue. They supposed that the key lay in demographic evidence to prove an Iberian-Levantine connection.
In 2011 researchers (Marie Lacan e.a. 2011) (http://www.pnas.org/content/108/24/9788.abstract) proved the existence of the Levantine DNA cluster namely G2a and E-V13 in Spanish persons from 7000 years ago (5000 BC). These prove there was really a connection between the neolithization of Iberia and the Levant. And up till now Andalusia is still a relatively European stronghold of E-V22.

Atlantic Neolithization (4000-2000 BC)
Iberia is a beachhead for the spread of the Neolithic of the Atlantic/ Northwestern Europe. From there the neolithization took place Northwest wards along the Atlantic and the North Sea Coast up to France, Ireland and the British Isles, the Netherlands, Northwestern Gemany and finally Southern Scandinavia (Pablo Arias 1999). (http://www.researchgate.net/publication/226198826_The_Origins_of_the_Neolithic_Along_the_A tlantic_Coast_of_Continental_Europe_A_Survey) Men with E-V22, along others of the Levantine admixture, were probably part of it. This is of course from an entirely different situation than in de Levant-Egypt case. In the Atlantic case there were most probably small numbers E-V22, who were almost swept away by the events after the Neolithic period. But Swedish research (Pontus Skoglund 2012 (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6080/466)), bases on Neolithic findings at Gokhem, did show that the Levantine DNA admixture was prominent along the Neolithic farmers of Scandinavia.

Conclusion
We went with giant leaps trough the Neolithic (DNA) history. Regarding the early origins and spread of haplogroup E-V22 it is made clear that the birth of E-V22 goes together with the dawn of the Neolithic in the Levant. E-V22 played a significant part in the spread of the Neolithic. The Neolithic Levantine genes (http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536)are on of the three basic layers of our gene pool (Europe, Middle-East and North East Africa).
For E-V22 this was most fundamental (founders effect) in Egypt/Northeastern Africa. In these areas is E-V22 still a major part in the gene pool. In the Mediterranean/ Middle-East it left its (Neolithic) marks. In North (Western) Europe it left only a few traces. In this respect E-V22 isn’t representative for the Levantine admixture as a whole. Brother clade E-V13, also part of the Neolithic Levantine admixture, had a significant higher impact on the European gene pool. Maybe also caused by my impression that E-V22 almost exclusively spread by the maritime way.
But even for Northwestern Europe the slight E-V22 impact of the Neolithic is more satisfying explanation than I got in the first place.

well done Northener, I see you have made lots of research since we heard from you last. Nicely presented.

Arban Hoti
25-11-15, 03:32
so the Sea people-Pelasgians the Hati the Dardny the Ardi-sardi-shardan the Arba-Anak = Philistines the Emathians-Makedonians the Roman/Byzantine soldiers the Ottoman Arnaut-Albanians etc all these people invading the Levant all of Mesopotamia and north Africa left no DNA in these lands .
This is what i think , E originated in North Syria Hati Asia minor and entered Balkan , T originated near E but split and went south into Afrika , J is a mix of E and T , after these people were established than they started to move and invade each other , thats why there is E in those places/lands , the Albanians alone ruled Egypt for 150 years , there are still Arbanians in Egypt , i heard an Egyptian ambassador say that there are 5 million Arnaut in Egypt , of course you will find E in Egypt .