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Angela
01-09-15, 17:46
Upcoming papers on ancient Dna from Italy.

Martínez-Labarga et al ANCIENT BIOMOLECULES: A NEW APPROACH TO STUDY BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF THE CENTRAL-SOUTHERN ITALIAN POPULATIONS THROUGH 30K YEARS

The research project goals to point out, through a multidisciplinary approach, genetic, nutritional and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of the central-southern Italy, connected to changes in life styles and economic systems, using the new inference power of biomolecular analyses connected with bioarchaeological records. The aim was reached through a large collection of specimens ranging from the Upper Palaeolithic to the present, with an emphasis on the Copper Age, a period in which socio-economic and cultural changes in subsistence strategies occurred with a differentiation and improving of food productivity. As a first task, we report the stable isotope palaeodietary study from several central and southern Italian areas. Stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen were carried out on collagen extracted from almost 400 human bone remains as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct the environmental conditions and individual dietary histories. Moreover, the collagen yields were also used as a prognostic indicator of bone preservation for the selection of samples to be analysed for ancient DNA through standard ancient mitochondrial DNA (amtDNA) sequencing and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of nuclear (both autosomal and Y-chromosome) DNA of a sub-set of the human remains collected from the archaeological sites.


That Spanish group seems to have an extraordinary interest in Italian dna.

Serventi et al., Deciphering the identity and settlement of “Phoenician-Punic” Civilization: A comprehensive genetic study on the Tharros Southern Necropolis (OR)

The timing and modalities concerning the identity and expansion of the “Phoenician” civilization and the formation and diffusion of the “Punic” culture - linked to the Carthage cultural and territorial expansion - represent in the phoenician-punics studies a vexed question.

In order to contribute to the reconstruction of the “phoenician-punic” settlement in the central-western Mediterranean area, a research project has been started in the Tharros southern necropolis (OR) based on a multidisciplinary approach that combines the contributions of archaeological, anthropological and genetic investigations in primis.

Furthermore an innovative protocol has been developed, in respect with the ultimate procedures set up in these field studies. In all phases of research, from the in situ sampling to the laboratory analyses, skilled archaeobiologists were present. Contamination is utmost concern when working with ancient DNA, so an important starting point in this study was precisely to have initiated precautionary measures from the sample collection on the field.

In the present study, conducted on a first selection of bone samples, classical methods of mitochondrial DNA analysis (HVRI) have been combined with new generation techniques (NGS). Also every member of ours working team have been genotyped to exclude contaminations.

This research therefore provides a pioneer survey in the phoenician-punic context, to define the target population and expand the knowledge on migration flows and the relationship between ancient and modern populations. It enables to trace the ethnic origin and understand whether will be maintained a genetic continuity with those who nowadays still live in the same territories.


Gigli et al., From Upper Paleolithic to Eneolithic: Mitochondrial genome analysis of ancient human samples from Central-Southern Italy

The genetic background of the Italian Paleolithic and the extent of population replacement during the Neolithic is a crucial issue in the human populations of our peninsula evolutionary history. Genetic analysis of ancient DNA can reveal past events that are difficult to discern through study only present-day individuals. Taking advantage of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and ad hoc bioinformatics pipelines, genomic data as well as supporting evidence for data authenticity can now be obtained from ancient human samples. In the framework of a wider project (PRIN 2010-2011 Biological and cultural heritage of the central-southern Italian population trough 30 thousand years.) we attempted to analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA of a set of ancient human individuals retrieved from seven archaeological sites located in Central-Southern Italy from Upper Paleolithic to Eneolithic. We found that endogenous DNA can be recovered from the samples. Besides that, our preliminary results show that modern human contamination represents the most difficult issue to overcome when dealing with previously handled museum specimens.



Graffi et al., First genetic study of Villanovians: preliminary outcomes from the skeletal remains of Trilogia Navile Necropolis (BO), VII C. B.C.

This work represents the first attempt to study genetically Villanovians, a population lived in Italy during Iron Age (IX-VII c. B.C.). Usual of this culture was incineration, but the exceptional retrieval of inhumations from the archaeological excavation of Trilogia Navile (BO), allowed to carry out the analysis of DNA from seven skeletal samples. Villanovians origin and ethnicity are debated since the past century and remains unclear whether they are an indigenous Italian group or migrants from abroad. For this reason, we started to study them from a genetic point of view trying to discover the deep meaning of their “culture”, to enlighten the possible genetic connections they had with Etruscans, and to look for information about their origin. The second aim of the research exploited genetics to check kinship in two individuals that presented an epigenetic feature, hyperdonthia. The genetic study was preceded by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) pre-extraction analysis in order to investigate the mineralogical conservation of bones and to choose the best samples. The analysis of DNA followed the most recent literature concerning sampling, indeed, we selected samples from the hardest region of the human body, the petrous portion of temporal bone. The population genetics study focused on the HVRI of mitochondrial DNA on a subset of samples from Trilogia Navile. The outcomes presented are very interesting and have to be considered as pilot starting point of a wider analysis that will involve all the skeletal material available from the necropolis and the sequencing with NGS technologies.



Modi et al., Genetic analyses of the first inhabitant of Sardinia

The process of neolithisation in Sardinia is difficult to explain due to the scarce and uncertain evidences available for the Mesolithic period. In addition, a gap in the absolute chronology of the two periods indicates discontinuity between Mesolithic and Early Neolithic groups with regard to the different stages of colonization of the island and to the settlement strategies.

Within the Early Neolithic, Su Carroppu rock shelter plays a relevant role in Sardinia. The archaeological excavations, started in 2009 on the lowermost layer (level-4), yielded large quantities of remains, including fragments of human bones intermingled with bones of Prolagus sardus. Three direct radiocarbon dates of the human bones placed the remains in the mid-9th millennium cal. BC thus predating Early Neolithic. Consequently, we deal here with the earliest direct evidence of human presence in Sardinia.

With the purpose of better defining the colonization process of the island, we are currently performing depth molecular analyses on the human bones unearthed at the Su Carroppu. In order to evaluate the molecular preservation of the bones, DNA was extracted from nine samples and analyzed through amplification and sequencing of the mitochondrial HVS-I region. Target Enrichment and NGS will be then performed on the most promising sample in order to obtain the entire mitogenome as well as supporting evidence for data authenticity.



These were posted at Anthrogenica.

Maleth
01-09-15, 22:45
excellent, things are finally moving............:smile:. These results may be very relevant to the Maltese Islands.

bicicleur
02-09-15, 01:22
thx, I hope we'll get the results soon

Fire Haired14
02-09-15, 02:43
Awesome. Can't wait.

Hauteville
02-09-15, 12:00
Interesting

Sile
03-09-15, 10:25
It will be interesting

We will see how it comes with


Traces of forgotten historical events in mountain communities in Central Italy: A genetic insight

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1872497314002245

Considering the whole set of 13 RM Y-STRs, the haplotype diversity estimate was h = 0.999996 with 1505 different haplotypes among 1509 individuals tested. At the regional population level, similarly high levels of haplotype diversity were observed across all populations, ranging from h = 1, i.e. complete individualization with only unique haplotypes observed in 85% of the populations tested, to h = 0.999684 in Latium (79 different haplotypes among 80 individuals tested). In general haplotype sharing was very rare (0.27% non-unique haplotypes) and lower in urban (0.22%) than rural (0.29%) areas; this difference however was not statistically significant (z = −0.292, p = 0.770). Notably, no haplotype sharing between regional populations was observed.

MOESAN
03-09-15, 22:06
It will be interesting

We will see how it comes with


Traces of forgotten historical events in mountain communities in Central Italy: A genetic insight

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1872497314002245

Considering the whole set of 13 RM Y-STRs, the haplotype diversity estimate was h = 0.999996 with 1505 different haplotypes among 1509 individuals tested. At the regional population level, similarly high levels of haplotype diversity were observed across all populations, ranging from h = 1, i.e. complete individualization with only unique haplotypes observed in 85% of the populations tested, to h = 0.999684 in Latium (79 different haplotypes among 80 individuals tested). In general haplotype sharing was very rare (0.27% non-unique haplotypes) and lower in urban (0.22%) than rural (0.29%) areas; this difference however was not statistically significant (z = −0.292, p = 0.770). Notably, no haplotype sharing between regional populations was observed.

one more study about STR! What leasson? We need SNPs and auDNA; STRs proved their inaccuracy since long time ago, no?

ELIOV13
03-09-15, 23:14
finally, now the going gets tough!

Sile
04-09-15, 09:45
one more study about STR! What leasson? We need SNPs and auDNA; STRs proved their inaccuracy since long time ago, no?

true, but STR within the same haplotype is very necessary. With most of these 1500 samples going through the stringent 5 tests for each sample to qualify within YHRD, the results will be sort by many in regards to their respective markers.

STR crossing different Ydna markers is useless