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Angela
16-09-15, 15:33
Two new papers to be presented at the ASHG conference should clarify our understanding of the peopling of North East Europe:

Reconstructing genetic history of Siberian and Northeastern European populations. Authors:
E. Wong1 ; A. Khrunin2 ; L. Nichols2 ; D. Pushkarev3 ; D. Khokhrin2 ; D. Verbenko2 ; O. Evgradov4 ; J. Knowles4 ; J. Novembre5; S. Limborska2 ; A. Valouev1


Institutes
1) Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA; 2) 2.Department of Molecular Bases of Human Genetics, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; 3) Illumina, Inc., Advanced Research Group, San Diego, CA, USA; 4) 4.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, CA, USA; 5) Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
"Abstract:
Siberia and Western Russia are home to some of the least studied ethnic groups in the world, and their genetic history holds keys to understanding peopling of the world. We present whole-genome sequencing data from 28 individuals belonging to 14 distinct indigenous populations from that region. We used these datasets together with an additional 32 modern-day and 15 ancient human genomes to build and compare autosomal, Y-DNA and mtDNA trees and delineate genetic history. Our analyses uncover complex migratory processes that shaped the genetic landscapes in Asia and Europe. Admixture events between ancient Siberian groups resulted in distinct ancestries of nowadays Western and Eastern Siberians. Western Siberians share genetic affinity with modern Europeans. Both can trace their ancestry to the lineage of a 24,000-year-old Siberian Mal’ta boy. For Eastern Siberians, they have much weaker genetic affinity with Europeans and their ancestor separated from East Asians much later (approximately 10,000 years ago). Major migration wave from Eastern Siberians into Western Siberian groups occurred approximately 7,000 years ago, and it extended into Northeastern Europe. This is based on the admixtures we observed between Siberians and lineages represented by the 5,000-year-old hunter-gatherer Ire8 from Pitted Ware Culture excavated in Sweden, the 2,900-year-old Iron age Hungarian IR1 from the Mezocsat Culture, and modern-day northeastern Europeans. Our whole-genome data based on a broad sample of populations in Siberia and Western Russia provides new insights at a high-resolution into the genetic history of Eurasians."



Ages of mitochondrial DNA lineages coincides with the agriculture spread in Finland. Authors:
S. Översti1 ; P. Onkamo1 ; J. Palo2


Institutes
1) Department of Biosciences, PO Box 56 (Viikinkaari 5) FI-00014 University of Helsinki, FINLAND; 2) Laboratory of Forensic Biology, Department of Forensic Medicine, Hjelt Institute, PO Box 40 (Kytösuontie 11) FI-00014 University of Helsinki, FINLAND.
"Abstract:
The current inhabitants of Finland in the Northeastern Europe are quite unique in terms of their genetic composition. Based on Y chromosomal and genome wide studies Finns differ from other European populations: especially the Y chromosomal diversity is reduced and distinctive. In contrast, Finnish mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup distribution is similar to other European populations. Mitochondrial genepool in modern Europeans is a mixture of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer associated haplogroups (U and V) and Neolithic associated farmer haplogroups (H, J, K and T). The frequency of hunter-associated haplogroup U in Finland is one of the highest in Western Eurasia. Also, it is more common in Eastern and Northern parts of the country while farmer haplogroups are more frequent in Southern and Western Finland.In this study we compiled a comprehensive data set of 833 modern Finnish complete mtDNA sequences from the public databases and utilized coalescent based Bayesian phylogenetic inference (BEAST v.1.8.1) to perform fine resolution phylogenetic analyses on the sequences. We also exploited previously published radiocarbon dated ancient complete mtDNA sequences from Western Eurasia in our analysis as calibration points to the phylogenetic trees, enhancing their accuracy.Our results demonstrate that among Finns, many typically “European” haplogroups, both hunter-gatherer and farmer associated, actually comprise lineages specific for Finns. Several of these lineages, despite being rather common in present Finnish population, are virtually absent from other populations. Oldest of these haplogroups date back over 7,000 years, though most appear to be around 3,000-5,000 years old. This period temporally coincidences with the arrival and especially the spreading of the agriculture and Corded Ware culture in Finland. Age estimates are also concurrent with the arrival of another culture, the textile ceramics, into Finland from Volga region (main period of textile ceramics lies between 1,700-1,000 BC). According to these results there is distinct evidence that arrival of these cultural entities also influenced Finnish mitochondrial DNA pool and this impact is still visible in modern day Finns."