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View Full Version : Antiquity of Australian Aboriginals - ydna



Sile
01-11-15, 01:42
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22886/abstract

Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes
Nagle et al. Article first published online: 30 OCT 2015
American Journal of Physical Anthropology

ABSTRACT
Objective: Understanding the origins of Aboriginal Australians is crucial in reconstructing the evolution and spread of Homo sapiens as evidence suggests they represent the descendants of the earliest group to leave Africa. This study analyzed a large sample of Y-chromosomes to answer questions relating to the migration routes of their ancestors, the age of Y-haplogroups, date of colonization, as well as the extent of male-specific variation.
Methods: Knowledge of Y-chromosome variation among Aboriginal Australians is extremely limited. This study examined Y-SNP and Y-STR variation among 657 self-declared Aboriginal males from locations across the continent. 17 Y-STR loci and 47 Y-SNPs spanning the Y-chromosome phylogeny were typed in total.
Results: The proportion of non-indigenous Y-chromosomes of assumed Eurasian origin was high, at 56%. Y lineages of indigenous Sahul origin belonged to haplogroups C-M130*(xM8,M38,M217,M347) (1%), C-M347 (19%), K-M526*(xM147,P308,P79,P261,P256,M231,M175,M45,P202) (12%), S-P308 (12%), and M-M186 (0.9%). Haplogroups C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 are Aboriginal Australian-specific. Dating of C-M347, K-M526*, and S-P308 indicates that all are at least 40,000 years old, confirming their long-term presence in Australia. Haplogroup C-M347 comprised at least three sub-haplogroups: C-DYS390.1del, C-M210, and the unresolved paragroup C-M347*(xDYS390.1del,M210).
Conclusions: There was some geographic structure to the Y-haplogroup variation, but most haplogroups were present throughout Australia. The age of the Australian-specific Y-haplogroups suggests New Guineans and Aboriginal Australians have been isolated for over 30,000 years, supporting findings based on mitochondrial DNA data. Our data support the hypothesis of more than one route (via New Guinea) for males entering Sahul some 50,000 years ago and give no support for colonization events during the Holocene, from either India or elsewhere.





1% C*-M130(xC1a1-M8, C1b2a-M38, C1b2b-M347, C2-M217)
15% C1b2b*-M347(xC1b2b1-M210, DYS390.1del-)
25% C1b2b (DYS390.1del+)
4% C1b2b1-M210
25% K2*-M256(xM-P256, N-M231, O-M175, P1-M45, S1-P202, S2-P79, S4-P308, K2c-P261, K2e-M147)
29% S4-P308 (found in an Aboriginal lock of hair in an older study)
2% M1-M186


looks like all the K-M256 is K-P60 as per karafet2014 paper

(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...22886/abstract)http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v23/n3/fig_tab/ejhg2014106t1.html

bicicleur
01-11-15, 11:16
as recent as some 3500 - 4000 years ago a new language spread over large parts over Australia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pama%E2%80%93Nyungan_languages

around the same time the dingo, the Australian 'wild dog' was introduced in Australia and some new type of stone tools

the origin of both language, the dog and the stone tools would have been Celebes, probably a HG tribe on the run for incoming farmers from the north