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View Full Version : Half of Western European men descended from one Bronze Age ‘king’.



Rethel
27-04-16, 14:50
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/04/25/half-of-british-men-descended-from-one-bronze-age-king/

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/content/dam/science/2016/04/25/Bronze_Age_mummies_3459333b-large_trans++pJliwavx4coWFCaEkEsb3kvxIt-lGGWCWqwLa_RXJU8.jpg


Half of Western European men are descended from one Bronze Age (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/archaeology/11903395/Bronze-Age-Britons-mummifed-their-dead-scientists-say.html) ‘king’ who sired a dynasty of elite nobles which spread throughout Europe, a new study has shown. The monarch, who lived around 4,000 years ago, is likely to have been one of the earliest chieftains to take power in the continent.
He was part of a new order which emerged in Europe following the Stone Age, sweeping away the previous egalitarian Neolithic period and replacing it with hierarchical societies which were ruled by a powerful elite.
It is likely his power stemmed from advances in technology such as metal working and wheeled transport which enabled organised warfare for the first time.
Although it is not known who he was, or where he lived, scientists say he must have existed because of genetic variation in today’s European populations.
Dr Chris Tyler-Smith, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/), said: “One of the most novel and exciting things we have found in the study is the extraordinary explosion in numbers of males at specific times.
“In Europe there was huge population expansion in just a few generations. Genetics can’t tell us why it happened but we know that a tiny number of elite males were controlling reproduction and dominating the population.
“Half of the Western European population is descended from just one man. We can only speculate as to what happened. The best explanation is that they may have resulted from advances in technology that could be controlled by small groups of men.
“Wheeled transport, metal working and organised warfare are all candidate explanations that can now be investigated further.”


The study analysed sequence differences between the Y chromosomes of more than 1200 men from 26 populations around the world using data generated by the 1000 Genomes Project.
The Y chromosome is only passed from father to son and so is wholly linked to male characteristics and behaviours. Mutations reveal which are related to each other and how far apart they are genetically (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11615902/Most-European-men-descended-from-just-three-ancestors.html) so that researchers can build a family tree.
Dr Yali Xue, lead author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, explained: “This pattern tells us that there was an explosive increase in the number of men carrying a certain type of Y chromosome, within just a few generations.
“We only observed this phenomenon in males, and only in a few groups of men.”
The team used the data to build a tree of the 1200 Y chromosomes. It shows how they are all related to one another. As expected, they all descend from a single man who lived approximately 190,000 years ago.
The most intriguing and novel finding was that some parts of the tree were more like a bush than a tree, with many branches originating at the same point.
The earliest explosive increases of male numbers occurred 50,000–55,000 years ago, across Asia and Europe, and 15,000 years ago in the Americas.
There were also later expansions in sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe, South Asia and East Asia, at times between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago. The team believes the earlier population increases resulted from the first peopling by modern humans of vast continents, where plenty of resources were available.
Dr David Poznik, from Stanford University, California, first author on the paper, said: “We identified more than 60,000 positions where one DNA letter was replaced by another in a man with modern descendants, and we discovered thousands of more complex DNA variants.
“These data constitute a rich and publicly available resource for further genealogical, historical and forensic studies.”
The research was published in the journal Nature Genetics.

Fire Haired14
27-04-16, 15:54
We have no idea who Mr. R1b-L11 was. He could have been an ordinary guy, but his great-great-great grandsons became kings. Or maybe none of them were kings. We have no idea. Yet, this author states it as fact that we know that a king "sired a dynasty of elite nobles" which caused R1b-L11 to be popular. Just plain stupid. Nonetheless the rapid expansion of a handful of Y DNA haplogroups in Europe 5,000-4,000 years ago is very important to the genetics of Europe. I think we'll find similar events all over the world.


He was part of a new order which emerged in Europe following the Stone Age, sweeping away the previous egalitarian Neolithic period and replacing it with hierarchical societies which were ruled by a powerful elite.
It is likely his power stemmed from advances in technology such as metal working and wheeled transport which enabled organised warfare for the first time.

No human society is egalitarian. Even our 2nd graders aren't egalitarian. It's harder to notice inequality when all we have our a society's remains and that society only creates stone, bone, and wooden tools. They didn't have many materials to express how some individuals were valued more than others.

It's an interesting idea that Bronze age IEs brought a new type of society with "powerful elite", but that just sounds like exaggerated hogwash to me.

Alan
27-04-16, 23:17
Youu were faster!

As I said the "bride kidnapping" theory is just nonsense. The reason why we see Yamna being dominated by a few y lineages is because a few tribes/family groups (leaders) took most wives. Basically very patriachal society.

So probably ~60-90% of male lineages (be it EHG or CHG) who contributed/ancestral to PIE died out. No wonder not a single of the R1b lineages found in the EHG of Samara match the R1b found in Yamnaya. I still believe the R1b l23 came via Maykop, due to the fact that CHG is roughly as much ANE as EHG is. It is mere coincidence that these few lineages survived.

Alan
27-04-16, 23:32
"Three new features of the phylogeny underscore the importance of South and Southeast Asia as likely locations where lineages currently distributed throughout Eurasia first diversified (Supplementary Note)."

Didn't I said that not all R lineages can have come from the Steppes? South Asia/Iranian Plateau has too much ANE in comparison to their total "Steppe scores" that all of it could have come from there. Therefore a very ANE like population must have lived in South Asia/Iranian Plateau prior. And this population had most like R lineages. And those (beside yDNA J) probably contributed the ANE into the "CHG" component.

Those results also confirm my arguments that there are simply too many very ancient and basal R lineages in South_Central and West Asia that they could have come via the Steppes during Bronze Age.

elghund
28-04-16, 06:04
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/04/25/half-of-british-men-descended-from-one-bronze-age-king/

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/content/dam/science/2016/04/25/Bronze_Age_mummies_3459333b-large_trans++pJliwavx4coWFCaEkEsb3kvxIt-lGGWCWqwLa_RXJU8.jpg


Half of Western European men are descended from one Bronze Age (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/archaeology/11903395/Bronze-Age-Britons-mummifed-their-dead-scientists-say.html) ‘king’ who sired a dynasty of elite nobles which spread throughout Europe, a new study has shown. The monarch, who lived around 4,000 years ago, is likely to have been one of the earliest chieftains to take power in the continent.
He was part of a new order which emerged in Europe following the Stone Age, sweeping away the previous egalitarian Neolithic period and replacing it with hierarchical societies which were ruled by a powerful elite.
It is likely his power stemmed from advances in technology such as metal working and wheeled transport which enabled organised warfare for the first time.
Although it is not known who he was, or where he lived, scientists say he must have existed because of genetic variation in today’s European populations.
Dr Chris Tyler-Smith, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/), said: “One of the most novel and exciting things we have found in the study is the extraordinary explosion in numbers of males at specific times.
“In Europe there was huge population expansion in just a few generations. Genetics can’t tell us why it happened but we know that a tiny number of elite males were controlling reproduction and dominating the population.
“Half of the Western European population is descended from just one man. We can only speculate as to what happened. The best explanation is that they may have resulted from advances in technology that could be controlled by small groups of men.
“Wheeled transport, metal working and organised warfare are all candidate explanations that can now be investigated further.”


The study analysed sequence differences between the Y chromosomes of more than 1200 men from 26 populations around the world using data generated by the 1000 Genomes Project.
The Y chromosome is only passed from father to son and so is wholly linked to male characteristics and behaviours. Mutations reveal which are related to each other and how far apart they are genetically (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11615902/Most-European-men-descended-from-just-three-ancestors.html) so that researchers can build a family tree.
Dr Yali Xue, lead author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, explained: “This pattern tells us that there was an explosive increase in the number of men carrying a certain type of Y chromosome, within just a few generations.
“We only observed this phenomenon in males, and only in a few groups of men.”
The team used the data to build a tree of the 1200 Y chromosomes. It shows how they are all related to one another. As expected, they all descend from a single man who lived approximately 190,000 years ago.
The most intriguing and novel finding was that some parts of the tree were more like a bush than a tree, with many branches originating at the same point.
The earliest explosive increases of male numbers occurred 50,000–55,000 years ago, across Asia and Europe, and 15,000 years ago in the Americas.
There were also later expansions in sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe, South Asia and East Asia, at times between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago. The team believes the earlier population increases resulted from the first peopling by modern humans of vast continents, where plenty of resources were available.
Dr David Poznik, from Stanford University, California, first author on the paper, said: “We identified more than 60,000 positions where one DNA letter was replaced by another in a man with modern descendants, and we discovered thousands of more complex DNA variants.
“These data constitute a rich and publicly available resource for further genealogical, historical and forensic studies.”
The research was published in the journal Nature Genetics.

Maybe he was the milk man.

Twilight
26-05-16, 19:02
It was a valiant effort Rethel, however I seriously doubt that cheiftian had control of whom there children's YDNA would be. Back in the Bronze Age, Dna testing for Bronze Age people would be unknown Alien technology. Although it is possible that Bottlenecking could be the result of Cheiftians fathering many children, being R1B-L11 positive would make you a cousin many times removed; via Paternal line at least. I would imagine that would apply to any YDNA subclades with bottlenecks.

There is absolutely no way to tell weather you are directly descended from a Cheiftian unless paper trail suggests otherwise.