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17-09-16, 22:00
Puerto Rico.


The culture of Puerto Rico is the result of a number of international and indigenous influences, both past and present. Modern cultural manifestations showcase the island's rich history and help to create an identity which is a melting pot of cultures - Taíno (Aboriginal/First Nation/Indigenous), European (Spanish, Canary Island, Corsican and Irish), African (West African), Anglo American (U.S.A.), Latin/Caribbean, Asian especially Japanese and Chinese,Hawaiian, and other influences.

Puerto Rican cuisine has its root in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe (mostly Spain), Africa and the native Taínos. Starting from the latter part of the 19th century, the cuisine of Puerto Rico has been greatly influenced by the United States in the ingredients used in its preparation. Puerto Rican cuisine has transcended the boundaries of the island and also has a lot of Asian influence especially Japanese and Chinese, and can be found in several other countries.
From the diet of the Taíno (culturally related with the Maya and Carib peoples of Central America and the Caribbean) and Arawak people come many tropical roots and tubers (collectively called viandas) like malanga (Xanthosoma) and especially Yuca (cassava), from which thin cracker-like casabe bread is made. Ajicito or cachucha pepper, a slightly hot habanero pepper, recao/culantro (spiny leaf coriander), sarsaparilla, pimienta (allspice), achiote (annatto), peppers, ají caballero (the hottest pepper native to Puerto Rico), peanuts, guavas, pineapples, jicacos (cocoplum), quenepas (mamoncillo), lerenes (Guinea arrowroot), calabazas (West Indian pumpkin), and guanabanas (soursops) are all Taíno foods. The Taínos also grew varieties of beans and some maíz (corn/maize), but maíz was not as dominant in their cooking as it was for the peoples living on the mainland of Mesoamerica. This is due to the frequent hurricanes that Puerto Rico experiences, which destroy crops of maíz, leaving more safeguarded plants like yuca conucos (hills of yuca grown together). Maíz when used was frequently made into cornmeal and made into guanime, cornmeal mixed with mashed yautía and yuca and wrapped in corn husk or large leaves.
Spanish / European influence is also seen in Puerto Rican cuisine. Wheat, chickpeas (garbanzos), black pepper, onions, garlic, cilantro (using plant and seeds in cooking), basil, sugarcane, citrus fruit, grapes, eggplant, lard, chicken, beef, pork, lamb, goat and dairy all came to Borikén (Puerto Rico's native Taino name) from Spain. The tradition of cooking complex stews and rice dishes in pots such as rice and beans are also thought to be originally European (much like Italians, Spaniards, and the British). Olives, capers, and olive oil play a big part in Puerto Rican cooking, but cannot be grown under the tropical climate of the island. The island imported most of these foods from Spain along with some herbs. Early Dutch, French, Italian, and Chinese immigrants influenced not only the culture but Puerto Rican cooking as well. This great variety of traditions came together to form La Cocina Criolla.
Coconuts, coffee (brought by the Arabs and Corsos to Yauco from Kafa, Ethiopia), orégano brujo, okra, tamarind, yams, sesame seeds, gandules (pigeon peas in English), many varieties of banana fruit, other root vegetables and Guinea hen, all came to Puerto Rico from, or at least through, Africa. African slaves also introduced the deep-frying of food.
Panapén (breadfruit) was first imported into the British Caribbean colonies from the South Pacific as cheap slave food in the late 18th century. After spreading throughout the Antilles, panapén has also become an indispensable part of the Puerto Rican repertoire, in puddings, deep-fried tostones and making mofongo.
Other foods native to Latin America were brought to the island with the Spanish trade, such as cocoa, avocado, tomatoes, chayote, papaya, bell peppers and vanilla from Mexico and Central America. Potatoes and passion fruit were also brought over by the Spanish or Portuguese from Peru and Brazil.

The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. The most conspicuous musical sources have been Spain and West Africa, although many aspects of Puerto Rican music reflect origins elsewhere in Europe and the Caribbean and, in the last century, the USA. Puerto Rican music culture today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from essentially indigenous genres like bomba to recent hybrids like reggaeton. Broadly conceived, the realm of "Puerto Rican music" should naturally comprise the music culture of the millions of people of Puerto Rican descent who have lived in the mainland USA (and Hawaii), and especially in New York City. Their music, from salsa to the boleros of Rafael Hernández, cannot be separated from music culture of Puerto Rico itself. Nevertheless, this entry will emphasize music culture as it has flourished on the island; readers should naturally consult other entries for genres like salsa (most commonly thought of).
Puerto Rico is perhaps the single biggest center for production of reggaeton. The roots of reggaeton lie in the 1980s "reggae en español" of the Panamanian artist El General and certain songs by Puerto Rican rapper Vico C. In the early 1990s reggaeton coalesced as a more definitive genre, using the "Dem Bow" riddim derived from a Shabba Ranks song by that name, and further resembling Jamaican dancehall in its verses sung in simple tunes and stentorian style, and its emphasis—via lyrics, videos, and artist personas—on partying, dancing, boasting, "bling," and sexuality rather than weighty social commentary. While reggaeton may have commenced as a Spanish-language version of Jamaican dancehall, in the hands of performers like Tego Calderón, Daddy Yankee, Don Omar and others, it soon acquired its own distinctive flavor and today might be considered the most popular dance music in the Spanish Caribbean, surpassing even salsa.

Ethnic Racial Composition:
* 70.5% White (Many some African & Native American ancestry to some degree)
* 20.9% Mulatto
* 8.0% Black
* 0.6% Others

The culture held in common by most Puerto Ricans is referred to as mainstream Puerto Rican culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Spain, and more specifically Andalusia and the Canary Islands. Over 90% of Puerto Ricans descend from migrants from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has also been influenced by African culture, Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. Puerto Rico has also received immigration from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia as well as from other European countries such as France, Ireland, Italy and Germany. Recent studies in population genetics have concluded that Puerto Rican gene pool is on average predominantly European, with a significant Sub-Saharan African, Guanche and Indigenous American substrate, the latter two originating in the aboriginal people of the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico's pre-Hispanic Taíno inhabitants, respectively.
The population of Puerto Ricans and descendants is estimated to be between 8 and 10 million worldwide, with most living within the islands of Puerto Rico and in the United States mainland. Within the United States, Puerto Ricans are present in all states of the Union, and the states with the largest populations of Puerto Ricans relative to the national population of Puerto Ricans in the United States at large are the states of New York, Florida, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, with large populations also in Massachusetts, Connecticut, California, Illinois, and Texas.

English and Spanish are the two official languages of Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rican Spanish accent is of Andalusian and Canarian Spanish origin with some minor influences from Gallego, Arabic, English, and West African languages to some degree. There is also a very large usage of Indigenous words. English is spoken or known by all Puerto Ricans fully or to some degree.

The Roman Catholic Church was brought by Spanish colonists and gradually became the dominant religion in Puerto Rico. The first dioceses in the Americas, including that of Puerto Rico, were authorized by Pope Julius II in 1511. One Pope, John Paul II, visited Puerto Rico in October 1984. All municipalities in Puerto Rico have at least one Catholic church, most of which are located at the town center or "plaza." African slaves brought and maintained various ethnic African religious practices associated with different peoples; in particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santería and/or Ifá, and the Kongo-derived Palo Mayombe. Some aspects were absorbed into syncretic Christianity.

Protestantism, which was suppressed under the Spanish Catholic regime, has slightly reemerged under United States rule, making contemporary Puerto Rico more interconfessional than in previous centuries, although Catholicism continues to be the dominant religion. The first Protestant church, Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad, was established in Ponce by the Anglican diocese of Antigua in 1872. It was the first non-Roman Catholic Church in the entire Spanish Empire in the Americas.

Sports in Puerto Rico can be traced from the ceremonial competitions amongst the pre-Columbian Native Americans of the Arawak (Taíno) tribes which inhabited the island to the modern era in which sports activities consist of an organized physical activity or skill carried out with a recreational purpose for competition. One of the sports which the Taíno's played was a ball game called "Batey". The "Batey" was played in "U" shaped fields two teams, however unlike the ball games of the modern era, the winners were treated like heroes and the losers were sacrificed.

The Spanish Conquistadores who conquered the island introduced various sports such as horse racing, cockfighting, dominoes and a game similar to "Bowling" called "Boliche". The Spaniards however did not participate in team sports.

Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States as a result of their defeat in the 1898 Spanish–American War. American soldiers who organized games as part of their training introduced the sport of Boxing and Basketball to the people of Puerto Rico, however the sport of Baseball which was invented in the United States was introduced to the island by a group of Puerto Ricans and Cubans who learned the sport in the United States.

Puerto Rico participates in the Olympics as an independent nation even though it is a territory of the United States. Puerto Rico has participated as such since the 1948 Summer Olympics celebrated in London. On March 2, 1917, Puerto Ricans became citizens of the United States as a result of the enactment of the Jones–Shafroth Act (Pub.L. 64–368, 39 Stat. 951. Therefore, the Puerto Ricans who resided in the United States mainland are permitted to participate and represent that country in international sports events and their achievements are part of the history of the sports in Puerto Rico.

The following is the list and history of the most common sports practiced in Puerto Rico and of Puerto Ricans or people of Puerto Rican descent who have excelled in those sports locally and/or in international events as representatives of Puerto Rico or any other country.

Puerto Rican videos

17-09-16, 22:10
Puerto Ricans & Puerto Rico

https://c7.staticflickr.com/8/7316/16346143118_975ce4be29_o.jpg (https://flic.kr/p/qUsfRL)Meaito (https://flic.kr/p/qUsfRL) by Julie Alicea (https://www.flickr.com/photos/juliealicea/), on Flickr
https://c4.staticflickr.com/6/5102/5674144099_f5a798ecc4_o.jpg (https://flic.kr/p/9DptmF)Puerto Rico 268 (https://flic.kr/p/9DptmF) by jeannie_chan (https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeannie8p/), on Flickr
https://c4.staticflickr.com/4/3599/3508680035_be96b8cb44_o.jpg (https://flic.kr/p/6m3Ukn)Cafe Hacienda San Pedro (https://flic.kr/p/6m3Ukn) by Jeff Weeks (https://www.flickr.com/photos/minutemen1775/), on Flickr
https://c6.staticflickr.com/8/7671/16751735613_efc682ed67_o.jpg (https://flic.kr/p/rwi2nP)Malay Apple, Marañon Japonés, Jambo, Syzygium malaccense, Myrtaceae, El Salvador (https://flic.kr/p/rwi2nP) by Sebastiao Pereira-Nunes (https://www.flickr.com/photos/spnunes/), on Flickr
https://c4.staticflickr.com/8/7577/15506200259_ec449848a9_b.jpg (https://flic.kr/p/pCek7k)The Cruiser (https://flic.kr/p/pCek7k) by Christian Schauer (https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/), on Flickr
https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3506/3747606804_c64503d4b0_z.jpg?zz=1 (https://flic.kr/p/6HasWq)071809 Puerto Rico (23) (https://flic.kr/p/6HasWq) by Julia Smillie (https://www.flickr.com/photos/readjulia/), on Flickr
https://c2.staticflickr.com/6/5309/5630755409_b4d47e12ca_o.jpg (https://flic.kr/p/9zz6pP)Ermita de la Candelaria, Toa Baja (https://flic.kr/p/9zz6pP) by Gustavo Adolfo (https://www.flickr.com/photos/gustavo-adolfo/), on Flickr
https://media.npr.org/assets/img/2013/02/04/arlene01_wide-f37622f704856d85bb734c216b9740001297a6dc.jpg?s=140 0