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Angela
04-10-16, 19:22
Here we go again, I guess.

See:
http://www.archaeology.org/news

FIRST POLYNESIANS MAY HAVE TRAVELED FROM EAST ASIA (http://www.archaeology.org/news/4884-161003-polynesian-genome-sequenced)
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS—Science Magazine (http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/10/game-changing-study-suggests-first-polynesians-voyaged-all-way-east-asia) reports that an international team of scientists sequenced the genomes of four women who lived on the islands of Vanuatu and Tonga between 2,300 and 3,100 years ago to try to determine if they were descended from farmers who sailed directly to Oceania from East Asia, or if they came from people who mingled with hunter-gatherers in Melanesia, including Papua New Guinea, as they slowly traveled across the ocean. Three of those skeletons were directly associated with the farmers of the Lapita culture, known for their red pottery, obsidian tools, and shell ornaments. The ancient genomes were then compared with those of nearly 800 people from 83 populations living in East Asia and Oceania today. The new study suggests that the first arrivals in Oceania traveled directly from Taiwan and the Philippines. “The Lapita have no evidence for Papuan ancestry,” said Pontus Skoglund of Harvard Medical School. The analysis also suggests that Melanesian DNA was probably introduced to Polynesians after the Lapita period, between 500 and 2,500 years ago, by migrating Melanesian men. “The female ancestors of modern-day Oceanians are mainly Lapita, whereas their male ancestors include Papuans,” Skoglund explained.

The Science article:
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/10/game-changing-study-suggests-first-polynesians-voyaged-all-way-east-asia

"The paper is a game-changer,” says Cristian Capelli, a population geneticist at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, noting that that it settles a decades-long dispute. By showing that the East Asians hopscotched past islands already populated by Melanesians without picking up their genes, it is also a case study in how culture can initially bar mixing between groups. “Farmers move in and don’t mix much with the hunter-gatherers,” says evolutionary geneticist Mark Thomas of University College London. “We see this again and again and again” elsewhere in the world. "

"Collectively known as the Lapita culture, this set of artifacts first appeared more than 3000 years ago in the Bismarck Archipelago in New Oceania (see map below). This culture grew taro, yams, and breadfruit; brought pigs and chickens; and spread rapidly to the islands of Vanuatu and New Caledonia and eventually to Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and beyond. "

"Back in 1985, archaeologist Peter Bellwood of the Australian National University in Canberra proposed that the Lapita had roots in farming cultures in East Asia. Based on dating of Lapita sites, he proposed that they moved rapidly from mainland China to Taiwan and the Philippines, then out across the open ocean from Vanuatu to Samoa, covering 24,300 kilometers in about 300 years. This “express train” picture fit with linguists’ models, in which Austronesian languages spread from East Asia into Oceania and were distinct from Papuan languages in Melanesia.
But other researchers argued that the DNA of living Polynesians showed evidence that their Lapita ancestors had lingered in Melanesia, mixing with the locals and slowly spreading eastward. This so-called “slow boat” model had prevailed in recent years (http://science.sciencemag.org/content/291/5509/1735)."

"The four women were from a distinct population that had no evidence of mixing with the ancestors of people living in Papua New Guinea today, as the team reports in Nature this week. Instead, the women shared all their ancestry with the indigenous Atayal people in Taiwan and the Kankanaey people in the Philippines."

The link to the study:
Skoglund et al:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19844.html

Tomenable
09-10-16, 01:20
The peopling of Oceania based on ancient DNA from the Lapita culture:

www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19844.html (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19844.html)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapita_culture

https://s15.postimg.org/5igo3hoc9/Zasiedlanie_Oceanii_png.png

Source: "Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific", 2016. (http://www.nature.com.sci-hub.cc/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19844.html#affil-auth)

Angela
09-10-16, 18:35
Razib Khan's take on the study and the prior research:

http://www.unz.com/gnxp/more-than-can-be-imagined-in-your-models/?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+RazibKhansTotalFeed+%28Razib+ Khan%27s+total+feed%29

holderlin
09-10-16, 18:40
The peopling of Oceania based on ancient DNA from the Lapita culture:

www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19844.html (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19844.html)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapita_culture

https://s15.postimg.org/5igo3hoc9/Zasiedlanie_Oceanii_png.png

Source: "Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific", 2016. (http://www.nature.com.sci-hub.cc/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19844.html#affil-auth)

Thanks, I've always been interested in this topic ever since I learned how tall in stature the Hawaiian royal line was when Euros were colonizing the island.

johen
09-10-16, 20:31
The new study suggests that the first arrivals in Oceania traveled directly from Taiwan and the Philippines. “The Lapita have no evidence for Papuan ancestry,” said Pontus Skoglund of Harvard Medical School.


I thought that polynesians came from Korean Peninsular.


Stone Age people may have started hunting whales as early as 6,000 BC, new evidence from South Korea suggests.Analysis of rock carvings at Bangu-Dae archaeological site in Ulsan in the southeast of the country revealed more than 46 depictions of large whales.The remains of the fishing boat and a wooden oar, believed to be from the early Neolithic era, were unexpectedly found by researchers while they were going through an array of artifacts recovered near the area to be treated and preserved at the request of the Uljin County government, according to the Samhan Institute of Cultural Properties.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40059000/jpg/_40059149_whale3_lanth_203.jpg
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3638853.stm

http://cfile3.uf.tistory.com/image/2266F53F53F32D8011C0ED
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangudae_Petroglyphs

World's oldest boat remains found in S. Korea:

SEOUL, Aug. 27 (Yonhap) -- An 8,000-year-old wooden boat, believed to be the oldest of its kind ever discovered in the world, has been unearthed in Uljin, 330 kilometers southeast of Seoul, a local research institute said Monday.

The remains of the fishing boat and a wooden oar, believed to be from the early Neolithic era, were unexpectedly found by researchers while they were going through an array of artifacts recovered near the area to be treated and preserved at the request of the Uljin County government, according to the Samhan Institute of Cultural Properties.
The uljin located close to the place of the rock arts.

http://img.yonhapnews.co.kr/etc/inner/EN/2012/08/27/AEN20120827003400315_01_i.jpg

And modern Polynesians are still taking a whale in an old way as in the above Petroglyph.
http://67.media.tumblr.com/79aaa7b713c4ba27afc8c230300522e6/tumblr_nb80ikrIQO1qzo6t3o1_1280.jpg

Tomenable
10-10-16, 20:59
There is a 2006 paper which already found the same thing - that Papuan/Melanesian ancestry in Polynesians is male biased:

http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/11/2234.full

It looks like some conquest, considering that Early Lapita Y-DNA (but not mtDNA) was largely replaced by Papuan/Melanesian Y-DNA.
A similar situation as with Indo-European expansion in Europe, which was also male biased according to that new study.

janessa642
15-10-16, 22:04
Such an amazing thread.. very interesting.. Thank you all