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Maciamo
09-11-16, 18:58
I should have done this a long time ago, but never found the time among the many things on my to-do list.

I ran a Yamna genome in the Dodecad and Eurogenes calculators just to see what would come out of it, and to help interpret the maps (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/autosomal_maps_dodecad.shtml) I created from the Dodecad calculators.

Keep in mind that the component names for the Eurogenes K36 admixture are not accurate and do not represent the region of origin, nor even the region where it is the most common today. One of the reasons fro comparing ancient genomes is to try to determine what these components really mean. For more information check the analysis of the K36 components (http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/33088-To-what-do-Eurogenes-K36-admixtures-really-correspond).


Yamna genome (I0231 - R1b-Z2103, U4a1, c. 2900 BCE Russia)

Eurogenes K36

1.86% Amerindian
0.00% Arabian
0.00% Armenian
0.00% Basque
0.00% Central_African
1.95% Central_Euro
0.00% East_African
0.00% East_Asian
0.00% East_Balkan
0.00% East_Central_Asian
10.16% East_Central_Euro
0.00% East_Med
14.49% Eastern_Euro
18.04% Fennoscandian
0.00% French
0.00% Iberian
0.00% Indo-Chinese
0.00% Italian
0.00% Malayan
0.00% Near_Eastern
0.00% North_African
7.50% North_Atlantic
17.10% North_Caucasian
12.90% North_Sea
0.00% Northeast_African
0.00% Oceanian
0.00% Omotic
0.00% Pygmy
0.00% Siberian
0.00% South_Asian
12.49% South_Central_Asian
0.00% South_Chinese
3.51% Volga-Ural
0.00% West_African
0.00% West_Caucasian
0.00% West_Med

What's interesting here is that some European admixture scored 0% (French, Italian, Iberian, Basque, East_Balkans, West_Med, East_Med), which means that they probably represent the Neolithic and Mesolithic elements correlating with those regions.

I think that the North_Atlantic corresponds to the Proto-Celtic admixture linked to R1b-L21 and R1b-DF27 in particular. North_Sea would be the Germanic R1b-U106, while Central_Euro and East_Central_Euro could be R1b-U152. The rest would be essentially R1a-derived. I am not about this and it doesn't necessarily correlate so neatly. Fennoscandian could be both R1a-Z282 and R1b-U106.


Dodecad Dv3 (aka K12)

23.63% East_European
48.38% West_European
0.22% Mediterranean
0.09% Neo_African
17.90% West_Asian
8.19% South_Asian
1.59% Northeast_Asian
0.00% Southeast_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.00% Palaeo_African

I had noticed that Indian and Siberian/Mongolian people all carried a mix of East_European, West_European and West_Asian with this calculator. Now we have a better idea of the proportions that came from Yamna. That also explains why so many Europeans scored a bit of South Asian. Clearly these admixtures do not segregate well the ancient components.


Dodecad K12b

27.21% Gedrosia
1.78% Siberian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.00% Southeast_Asian
3.51% Atlantic_Med
62.56% North_European
1.64% South_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% East_Asian
3.15% Caucasus
0.17% Sub_Saharan

This calculator is already more accurate in tracing back Proto-Indo-European ancestry. As I expected when the calculator was released in 2012, Yamna R1b people were essentially a blend of North_European and Gedrosia. Once again that explains why within Europe Gedrosia peaks in Northwest Europe, and especially in Scotland. Haak et al. 2015 later confirmed that the highest Yamna ancestry today was found among the Scots and Norwegians.


Eurogenes Steppe K10

0.74% Near_Eastern
0.00% East_Asian
0.01% Siberian
0.70% Oceanian
14.00% WHG-UHG
0.23% Sub-Saharan
8.69% Hindu_Kush
72.44% Steppe
3.20% Amerindian
0.00% Southeast_Asian

This is the calculator that caused so much confusion (http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/32990-New-map-of-Yamna-admixture-(Eurogenes-Steppe-K10)) because the Steppe apparently only took into account the European component of Yamna genomes. Now it's clear that Yamna were a blend of Steppe + Hindu Kush, but also of WHG-SHG. So the Steppe results alone are not even all the European ancestry, and surely include some 'Gedrosian' ancestry too, as the 8.7% of Hindu_Kush are just not enough.


EDIT:

Here is another Yamna genome for comparison.

Yamna genome (RISE552, I2a2a, T2a1a, c. 2550 BCE Russia)

Eurogenes K36

0.19% Amerindian
0.00% Arabian
0.00% Armenian
0.00% Basque
0.00% Central_African
0.07% Central_Euro
0.00% East_African
0.00% East_Asian
0.00% East_Balkan
0.00% East_Central_Asian
9.40% East_Central_Euro
0.00% East_Med
15.32% Eastern_Euro
11.18% Fennoscandian
0.00% French
0.00% Iberian
0.00% Indo-Chinese
0.00% Italian
0.00% Malayan
0.00% Near_Eastern
0.00% North_African
10.57% North_Atlantic
24.14% North_Caucasian
10.15% North_Sea
0.00% Northeast_African
0.00% Oceanian
0.00% Omotic
0.00% Pygmy
0.00% Siberian
0.00% South_Asian
16.03% South_Central_Asian
0.00% South_Chinese
2.95% Volga-Ural
0.00% West_African
0.00% West_Caucasian
0.00% West_Med

This one has substantially more (+10%) North_Caucasian and South_Central_Asian.

Dodecad dv3 (aka K12)

20.54% East_European
47.19% West_European
0.00% Mediterranean
0.52% Neo_African
21.95% West_Asian
8.54% South_Asian
0.89% Northeast_Asian
0.00% Southeast_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.08% Northwest_African
0.29% Palaeo_African

Nearly 1% of African admixture. Otherwise very similar. Just a bit less East_European and a bit more West_Asian.

Dodecad K12b


32.19% Gedrosia
1.43% Siberian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.08% Southeast_Asian
1.48% Atlantic_Med
60.13% North_European
0.22% South_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% East_Asian
3.61% Caucasus
0.86% Sub_Saharan


The 5% more of Gedrosia reflect the 10% of North_Caucasian and South_Central_Asian in K36. Oddly this calculator is the only one to detect over 1% of Siberian admixture.


And here is an Afanasevo sample contemporary to Yamna, but in the Altai region.

Afanasevo genome (RISE507, U5a1a1, c. 3100 BCE, Altai)

0.00% Amerindian
0.00% Arabian
0.00% Armenian
0.00% Basque
0.00% Central_African
0.00% Central_Euro
0.00% East_African
0.00% East_Asian
0.00% East_Balkan
0.00% East_Central_Asian
16.29% East_Central_Euro
0.00% East_Med
0.03% Eastern_Euro
14.70% Fennoscandian
2.50% French
0.00% Iberian
0.00% Indo-Chinese
0.00% Italian
0.00% Malayan
0.00% Near_Eastern
0.00% North_African
16.47% North_Atlantic
23.74% North_Caucasian
26.10% North_Sea
0.00% Northeast_African
0.00% Oceanian
0.00% Omotic
0.00% Pygmy
0.00% Siberian
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% South_Central_Asian
0.00% South_Chinese
0.00% Volga-Ural
0.18% West_African
0.00% West_Caucasian
0.00% West_Med

The admixture components are the same as in Yamna (without the foreign Amerindian and Volga-Ural) except for the Central_Euro and Eastern_Euro, but with a bit of "French".


Dodecad dv3 (aka K12)

13.14% East_European
62.52% West_European
0.03% Mediterranean
0.15% Neo_African
17.84% West_Asian
5.06% South_Asian
0.00% Northeast_Asian
0.00% Southeast_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
1.25% Northwest_African
0.00% Palaeo_African

This Afanasevo sample has higher West_European and lower East_European than the two Yamna samples above. South Asian is slightly lower.

Dodecad K12b


26.84% Gedrosia
0.00% Siberian
2.24% Northwest_African
0.00% Southeast_Asian
9.77% Atlantic_Med
61.12% North_European
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% East_Asian
0.03% Caucasus
0.00% Sub_Saharan

Afanasevo has more Atlantic_Med than Yamna, but no Caucasus. This suggests that Neolithic farmers from the Balkans moved into the Steppe first, and were only followed later by Caucasian farmers, as the Afanasevo branch had already migrated from the Pontic-Caspian region to the Altai by the Yamna period.

African admixture is found in all three samples, but is highest in this one. Proto-Indo-European people could be the source of that "African" admixture (whatever it really is) in Scandinavian/Germanic people (http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/33084-African-admixture-in-ancient-Germanic-Scandinavian-people).

MOESAN
10-11-16, 22:35
this K10 doesn't seem to useful indeed.

Twilight
11-11-16, 04:22
this K10 doesn't seem to useful indeed.

Totally agree, if it's true that Davidski got his K10 samples from actual archeological remains then I'm curious to see how European HG and Oceanian admixtures got into the Proto Indoeuropean mix.