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View Full Version : Dodecad & Eurogenes admixture of Late Copper & Early Bronze Age genomes



Maciamo
12-11-16, 12:37
The Copper Age was a period of transition between Neolithic societies and the Indo-European migrations. Although the Chalcolithic started in Neolithic Southeast Europe and Anatolia, it quickly spread to the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, from where PIE Steppe people expanded cross most of Europe and western Asia. Looking at Chalcolithic genomes is a good way of assessing how much Steppe admixture was present in various parts of Europe in specific periods.

Keep in mind that the component names for the Eurogenes K36 admixture are not accurate and do not represent the region of origin, nor even the region where it is the most common today. One of the reasons fro comparing ancient genomes is to try to determine what these components really mean. For more information check the analysis of the K36 components (http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/33088-To-what-do-Eurogenes-K36-admixtures-really-correspond).

The Baden sample below shows no sign of Steppe admixture yet.

Baden culture (CO1, mtDNA H, c. 2800 BCE Hungary)

Eurogenes K36

0.00% Amerindian
0.00% Arabian
0.00% Armenian
8.38% Basque
0.00% Central_African
0.00% Central_Euro
0.00% East_African
0.00% East_Asian
0.37% East_Balkan
0.00% East_Central_Asian
0.00% East_Central_Euro
0.01% East_Med
0.00% Eastern_Euro
0.00% Fennoscandian
0.00% French
19.69% Iberian
0.00% Indo-Chinese
42.16% Italian
0.00% Malayan
0.00% Near_Eastern
0.28% North_African
0.00% North_Atlantic
0.00% North_Caucasian
0.00% North_Sea
0.00% Northeast_African
0.00% Oceanian
0.00% Omotic
0.00% Pygmy
0.00% Siberian
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% South_Central_Asian
0.00% South_Chinese
0.00% Volga-Ural
0.00% West_African
0.00% West_Caucasian
29.11% West_Med


Dodecad dv3 (aka K12)

1.60% East_European
28.85% West_European
57.86% Mediterranean
0.11% Neo_African
0.05% West_Asian
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% Northeast_Asian
0.00% Southeast_Asian
0.00% East_African
9.54% Southwest_Asian
1.98% Northwest_African
0.00% Palaeo_African

Dodecad K12b

0.00% Gedrosia
0.01% Siberian
1.64% Northwest_African
0.00% Southeast_Asian
63.89% Atlantic_Med
8.82% North_European
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% East_African
6.25% Southwest_Asian
0.04% East_Asian
19.36% Caucasus
0.00% Sub_Saharan

Maciamo
12-11-16, 13:40
Here is a Corded Ware sample from Esperstedt, Germany.

Corded Ware culture (I0103, W6a, c. 2400 BCE Germany)

Eurogenes K36

0.24% Amerindian
0.00% Arabian
0.00% Armenian
0.29% Basque
0.00% Central_African
8.89% Central_Euro
0.00% East_African
0.00% East_Asian
3.03% East_Balkan
0.00% East_Central_Asian
2.82% East_Central_Euro
0.00% East_Med
12.58% Eastern_Euro
18.07% Fennoscandian
1.89% French
0.01% Iberian
0.00% Indo-Chinese
0.00% Italian
0.00% Malayan
0.00% Near_Eastern
0.00% North_African
15.28% North_Atlantic
14.18% North_Caucasian
20.04% North_Sea
0.00% Northeast_African
0.00% Oceanian
0.00% Omotic
0.00% Pygmy
0.00% Siberian
0.00% South_Asian
2.67% South_Central_Asian
0.00% South_Chinese
0.00% Volga-Ural
0.00% West_African
0.01% West_Caucasian
0.00% West_Med

A typical Steppe genome, very similar to Yamna except for the 8.9% of Central_Euro.

Dodecad dv3 (aka K12)


18.17% East_European
54.70% West_European
9.69% Mediterranean
0.52% Neo_African
13.76% West_Asian
3.08% South_Asian
0.08% Northeast_Asian
0.00% Southeast_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.00% Palaeo_African

This admixture falls somewhere between modern Swedes and Finns.

Dodecad K12b

20.15% Gedrosia
0.02% Siberian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.00% Southeast_Asian
20.66% Atlantic_Med
55.29% North_European
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% East_Asian
3.51% Caucasus
0.36% Sub_Saharan

No modern equivalent. The North_European falls in between modern Germans and Scandinavians, but both have about 13% more Atlantic_Med and 13% less of Gedrosia.


Bell Beaker Germany (RISE563, R1b-S28, K1c1, c. 2300 BCE)

0.00% Amerindian
0.00% Arabian
0.00% Armenian
0.00% Basque
0.00% Central_African
7.77% Central_Euro
0.00% East_African
0.00% East_Asian
0.00% East_Balkan
0.00% East_Central_Asian
13.25% East_Central_Euro
0.00% East_Med
0.01% Eastern_Euro
10.76% Fennoscandian
7.66% French
9.30% Iberian
0.00% Indo-Chinese
0.08% Italian
0.00% Malayan
0.00% Near_Eastern
0.00% North_African
17.54% North_Atlantic
0.00% North_Caucasian
31.44% North_Sea
0.00% Northeast_African
0.00% Oceanian
0.00% Omotic
0.00% Pygmy
0.00% Siberian
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% South_Central_Asian
0.00% South_Chinese
0.00% Volga-Ural
2.17% West_African
0.00% West_Caucasian
0.00% West_Med


Dodecad dv3 (aka K12)

16.49% East_European
59.21% West_European
17.13% Mediterranean
0.00% Neo_African
4.59% West_Asian
0.64% South_Asian
0.00% Northeast_Asian
0.00% Southeast_Asian
0.98% East_African
0.01% Southwest_Asian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.94% Palaeo_African

These percentages fit somewhere in between modern Dutch, Danes and North Germans, except for the 2% of African admixture and 0.64% of South_Asian.


Dodecad K12b

9.15% Gedrosia
0.00% Siberian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.00% Southeast_Asian
32.46% Atlantic_Med
55.40% North_European
0.12% South_Asian
0.15% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% East_Asian
1.89% Caucasus
0.82% Sub_Saharan

This admixture is almost indistinguishable from that of a modern Swede, apart from the 1% of African admixture.



Unetice (I0047, V9, c. 2000 BCE Germany)


Eurogenes K36

0.00% Amerindian
0.00% Arabian
0.00% Armenian
3.02% Basque
0.00% Central_African
0.00% Central_Euro
0.00% East_African
0.00% East_Asian
0.32% East_Balkan
0.00% East_Central_Asian
10.42% East_Central_Euro
0.00% East_Med
4.48% Eastern_Euro
8.77% Fennoscandian
13.35% French
0.20% Iberian
0.00% Indo-Chinese
12.65% Italian
0.00% Malayan
0.00% Near_Eastern
0.00% North_African
24.65% North_Atlantic
0.00% North_Caucasian
22.13% North_Sea
0.00% Northeast_African
0.00% Oceanian
0.00% Omotic
0.00% Pygmy
0.00% Siberian
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% South_Central_Asian
0.00% South_Chinese
0.00% Volga-Ural
0.00% West_African
0.00% West_Caucasian
0.00% West_Med

Dodecad dv3 (aka K12)

15.27% East_European
55.69% West_European
19.45% Mediterranean
0.13% Neo_African
9.22% West_Asian
0.00% South_Asian
0.00% Northeast_Asian
0.00% Southeast_Asian
0.23% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.00% Palaeo_African

These percentages would be closest to modern Germans, but with a bit more West Asian (similar level as the Dutch) and a bit less Mediterranean (closer to that of the Danes). Overall it is very similar to the German Bell Beaker sample above.


Dodecad K12b

8.51% Gedrosia
0.00% Siberian
0.00% Northwest_African
0.00% Southeast_Asian
35.23% Atlantic_Med
49.60% North_European
0.00% South_Asian
0.09% East_African
0.00% Southwest_Asian
0.00% East_Asian
6.56% Caucasus
0.00% Sub_Saharan

This admixture is almost a perfect intermediary between modern Norwegians and Germans.

LeBrok
12-11-16, 20:53
Here is a Corded Ware sample from Esperstedt, Germany.

Corded Ware culture (I0103, W6a, c. 2400 BCE Germany)
No modern equivalent. The North_European falls in between modern Germans and Scandinavians, but both have about 13% more Atlantic_Med and 13% less of Gedrosia.Same things I noticed that Corded Ware didn't have good proxies now, even from same region. IIRC modern peeps of same area have more Anatolian farmer in them now.

Angela
12-11-16, 21:26
To the best of my recollection, both academic and blogger analysis (Eurogenes) of the Baden sample show there is virtually no steppe in it. These calculators based on modern clusters just aren't reliable for this purpose.

See Cristina Gamba et al:
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms6257

This is Figure 2, the PCA, which shows CO1, Copper Age 1, or Baden, plotting with the MN farmers.
http://www.nature.com/article-assets/npg/ncomms/2014/141021/ncomms6257/images_hires/w582/ncomms6257-f2.jpg

Steppe people did not arrive in this area until the Early Bronze Age.

See also:
http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2014/10/genetic-continuity-and-shifts-across.html

Maciamo
12-11-16, 22:32
To the best of my recollection, both academic and blogger analysis (Eurogenes) of the Baden sample show there is virtually no steppe in it. These calculators based on modern clusters just aren't reliable for this purpose.

See Cristina Gamba et al:
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms6257

This is Figure 2, the PCA, which shows CO1, Copper Age 1, or Baden, plotting with the MN farmers.
http://www.nature.com/article-assets/npg/ncomms/2014/141021/ncomms6257/images_hires/w582/ncomms6257-f2.jpg

See also:
http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2014/10/genetic-continuity-and-shifts-across.html

That's very odd. His admixture for CO1 is completely different. I wonder if I got the right sample as there is a Neolithic KO1 and a Chalcolithic CO1. I will double check.

EDIT: After double checking I confirm my mistake. The above genome was Early Neolithic KO1 (YDNA I2, mtDNA R3) dating from 5700 BCE, not CO1 from 2800 BCE. Sorry about that and thanks for noticing it. Interesting though that he looks so purely Mesolithic for a Neolithic farmer. He was obviously a first-generation assimilated HG. I will modify the data above.

LeBrok
12-11-16, 23:13
That's very odd. His admixture for CO1 is completely different. I wonder if I got the right sample as there is a Neolithic KO1 and a Chalcolithic CO1. I will double check.

EDIT: After double checking I confirm my mistake. The above genome was Early Neolithic KO1 (YDNA I2, mtDNA R3) dating from 5700 BCE, not CO1 from 2800 BCE. Sorry about that and thanks for noticing it. Interesting though that he looks so purely Mesolithic for a Neolithic farmer. He was obviously a first-generation assimilated HG. I will modify the data above. His bones were found not in a proper grave but with village garbage or so. He could have been a slave or killed by villagers when stealing from them? One thing is sure, he is genetically hunter gatherer and wasn't properly buried by farmers.