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View Full Version : Neolithic east asian dna 5700 bc



kingjohn
01-02-17, 20:36
from other forum hjave to share
http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/advances/3/2/e1601877.full.pdf

intresting !!! :)

best regards
adam

bicicleur
01-02-17, 21:40
it is dissapointing because there is no Y-DNA and the resolution of the mtDNA is very low
but the presentation and the fact that this area is very scarcely documented make it interesting

some nice pic of Devil's Gate

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-ancient-dna-reveals-stone-age.html

Angela
02-02-17, 00:32
Very interesting: "both individuals fall within the range of modern variability found in populations from the Amur Basin, the geographic region where Devil’s Gate is located (Fig. 1), and which is today inhabited by speakers from a single language family (Tungusic). This result contrasts with observations in western Eurasia, where, because of a number of major intervening migration waves, hunter-gatherers of a similar age fall outside modern genetic variation.... The Ulchi, traditionally fishermen who live geographically very close to Devil’s Gate and are the only Tungusic-speaking population from the Amur Basin sampled in Russia (all other Tungusic speakers in our panel are from China), are genetically the most similar population in our panel. . The Ulchi, traditionally fishermen who live geographically very close to Devil’s Gate and are the only Tungusic-speaking population from the Amur Basin sampled in Russia (all other Tungusic speakers in our panel are from China), are genetically the most similar population in our panel."

The Han, on the other hand, don't show such affinities. I'm not surprised. I think the Han are the most genetically and culturally "farmer" population on earth.

"No previously published ancient genome shows marked genetic affinity to Devil’s Gate: The top 50 populations in our outgroup f3 statistic were all modern, an expected result given that all other ancient genomes are either geographically or temporally very distant from Devil’s Gate. Among these ancient genomes, the closest to Devil’s Gate are those from Steppe populations dating from the Bronze Age onward and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from Europe, but these genomes are no closer to the Devil’s Gate genomes than to genomes of modern populations from the same regions (for example, Tuvinian, Kalmyk, Russian, or Finnish). The two ancient genomes geographically closest to Devil’s Gate, Ust’-Ishim (~45 ka) and Mal’ta (MA1, 24 ka), also do not show high genetic affinity, probably because they both date to a much earlier time period."

Also, on the phenotype front:
"DevilsGate1 likely had brown eyes (rs12913832 on HERC2; GP, 0.905) and, where it could be determined, had pigmentation-associated variants that are common in East Asia (see section S11) (32). She appears to have at least one copy of the derived mutation on the EDAR gene, encoding the Ectodysplasin A receptor (rs3827760; GP, 0.865), which gives increased odds of straight, thick hair (33), as well as shovel-shaped incisors (34). She almost certainly lacked the most common Eurasian mutation for lactose tolerance (rs4988235, LCT gene; GP > 0.999) (35) and was unlikely to have suffered from alcohol flush (rs671, ALDH2 gene; GP, 0.847) (36). Thus, at least with regard to those phenotypic traits for which the genetic basis is known, there also seems to have been some degree of phenotypic continuity in this region for the last 7.7 ky."

Alpenjager
02-02-17, 03:39
"We focus our analysis on the two samples with the highest sequencing coverage, DevilsGate1 and DevilsGate2, both of which were female. The mitochondrial genome of the individual with higher coverage (DevilsGate1) could be assigned to haplogroup D4; this haplogroup is found in present-day populations in East Asia (11 (http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/2/e1601877.full#ref-11)) and has also been found in Jomon skeletons in northern Japan (2 (http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/2/e1601877.full#ref-2)). For the other individual (DevilsGate2), only membership to the M branch (to which D4 belongs) could be established."

"This site dates back to 9.4 to 7.2 ka, with the human remains dating to ~7.7 ka, and it includes some of the world’s earliest evidence of ancient textiles (10 (http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/2/e1601877.full#ref-10)). The people inhabiting Devil’s Gate were hunter-fisher-gatherers with no evidence of farming; the fibers of wild plants were the main raw material for textile production (10 (http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/2/e1601877.full#ref-10))."

bicicleur
02-02-17, 08:31
Very interesting: "both individuals fall within the range of modern variability found in populations from the Amur Basin, the geographic region where Devil’s Gate is located (Fig. 1), and which is today inhabited by speakers from a single language family (Tungusic). This result contrasts with observations in western Eurasia, where, because of a number of major intervening migration waves, hunter-gatherers of a similar age fall outside modern genetic variation.... The Ulchi, traditionally fishermen who live geographically very close to Devil’s Gate and are the only Tungusic-speaking population from the Amur Basin sampled in Russia (all other Tungusic speakers in our panel are from China), are genetically the most similar population in our panel. . The Ulchi, traditionally fishermen who live geographically very close to Devil’s Gate and are the only Tungusic-speaking population from the Amur Basin sampled in Russia (all other Tungusic speakers in our panel are from China), are genetically the most similar population in our panel."

The Han, on the other hand, don't show such affinities. I'm not surprised. I think the Han are the most genetically and culturally "farmer" population on earth.

"No previously published ancient genome shows marked genetic affinity to Devil’s Gate: The top 50 populations in our outgroup f3 statistic were all modern, an expected result given that all other ancient genomes are either geographically or temporally very distant from Devil’s Gate. Among these ancient genomes, the closest to Devil’s Gate are those from Steppe populations dating from the Bronze Age onward and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from Europe, but these genomes are no closer to the Devil’s Gate genomes than to genomes of modern populations from the same regions (for example, Tuvinian, Kalmyk, Russian, or Finnish). The two ancient genomes geographically closest to Devil’s Gate, Ust’-Ishim (~45 ka) and Mal’ta (MA1, 24 ka), also do not show high genetic affinity, probably because they both date to a much earlier time period."

Also, on the phenotype front:
"DevilsGate1 likely had brown eyes (rs12913832 on HERC2; GP, 0.905) and, where it could be determined, had pigmentation-associated variants that are common in East Asia (see section S11) (32). She appears to have at least one copy of the derived mutation on the EDAR gene, encoding the Ectodysplasin A receptor (rs3827760; GP, 0.865), which gives increased odds of straight, thick hair (33), as well as shovel-shaped incisors (34). She almost certainly lacked the most common Eurasian mutation for lactose tolerance (rs4988235, LCT gene; GP > 0.999) (35) and was unlikely to have suffered from alcohol flush (rs671, ALDH2 gene; GP, 0.847) (36). Thus, at least with regard to those phenotypic traits for which the genetic basis is known, there also seems to have been some degree of phenotypic continuity in this region for the last 7.7 ky."

You're right to refer to the Han.
It seems to me the story of DevilsGate and the Ulchi is an exception to the rule.
The continuity could happen because it was in a more or less remote part of the world.
The expansion of the halpogroup O rice farmers, and later the expansion of the bronze age Han is a completely different story.

This is an interesting read about the expansion of rice farmers :
https://www.amazon.com/First-Migrants-Ancient-Migration-Perspective/dp/1405189088

the Ulchi are a small community :

The Ulch (Russian (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_language): ульчи, obsolete ольчи; self designation: нани, nani) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Far_East) who speak a Tungusic language (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tungusic_languages), Ulch (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulch_language). Over 90% of Ulchis live in Ulchsky District (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulchsky_District) of Khabarovsk Krai (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khabarovsk_Krai), Russia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia). According to the 2002 Census (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Census_(2002)), there were 2,913 Ulchs living in Russia — down from 3,173 recorded in the 1989 Census (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Census_(1989)), but up from 2,494 recorded in the 1979 Census (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Soviet_Census_(1979)&action=edit&redlink=1), and 2,410 recorded in the 1970 Census (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Census_(1970)). According to the 2010 Census there were 2,765 Ulchs in Russia.

They live further away from the Han and the rice farmers than the other Amur Basin folks in this study.
Contrary to the general conclusion in the study, the Ulchi are also living the furthest away from DevilsGate of all Amur Basin folks in this study.