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bicicleur
18-07-17, 00:33
http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/07/17/164400.full.pdf

This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed

Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans afterthe last glaciation. However, the origin(s) of the first colonizers and their migration routes remainunclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57x coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavatedacross Scandinavia and dated to 9,500-6,000 years before present. Surprisingly, among theScandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient thatopposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. This result suggests thatScandinavia was initially colonized following two different routes: one from the south, the otherfrom the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along whichnovel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups metand mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns ofgenetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These adaptations include high frequencies oflow pigmentation variants and a gene-region associated with physical performance, which showsstrong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans. Finally, we were able to compute a 3Dfacial reconstruction of a Mesolithic woman from her high-coverage genome, giving a glimpseinto an individual’s physical appearance in the Mesolithic.

LeBrok
18-07-17, 01:07
What surprises me that no R1a or b was found in Scandinavian individuals so far, though they are almost half and half WHG/EHG, sometimes even more than half EHG.

Let's see her face too. They say they used her genome for reconstruction, not bones. I knew the time will come soon when we could do that. Just a start, but here it comes...

mlukas
18-07-17, 14:11
Let's see her face too. They say they used her genome for reconstruction, not bones. I knew the time will come soon when we could do that. Just a start, but here it comes...

What do you mean exactly?

Rethel
18-07-17, 14:31
What surprises me that no R1a or b was found in Scandinavian individuals so far, though they are almost half and half WHG/EHG, sometimes even more than half EHG.

But it suggests that R1 was somewhere around or was in low frequency.
They did not test thousands of samples but few - so it means nothing.
It can be of course, that admix was from female side, but I doubt if it
was exclusivly that way. Motala and other had how many %? 12%?
It would mean, that eventual R1 was 3 out of 50 IF it was admixed
proportionaly and men and women were in equal parts. I doubt if they
were, but even in such scenario, finding R1 among 5-10 samples is
really very unlikly... It would be the same even if it would be 1 of 10.

LeBrok
18-07-17, 17:55
http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/07/17/164400.full.pdf

This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed

Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans afterthe last glaciation. However, the origin(s) of the first colonizers and their migration routes remainunclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57x coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavatedacross Scandinavia and dated to 9,500-6,000 years before present. Surprisingly, among theScandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient thatopposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. This result suggests thatScandinavia was initially colonized following two different routes: one from the south, the otherfrom the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along whichnovel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups metand mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns ofgenetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These adaptations include high frequencies oflow pigmentation variants and a gene-region associated with physical performance, which showsstrong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans. Finally, we were able to compute a 3Dfacial reconstruction of a Mesolithic woman from her high-coverage genome, giving a glimpseinto an individual’s physical appearance in the Mesolithic.


What surprises me that no R1a or b was found in Scandinavian individuals so far, though they are almost half and half WHG/EHG, sometimes even more than half EHG.

Let's see her face too. They say they used her genome for reconstruction, not bones. I knew the time will come soon when we could do that. Just a start, but here it comes...
What they say above.

Angela
19-07-17, 20:28
See:Torsten Gunther et al
"Genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia reveal colonization routes and high latitude adaptation
http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/07/17/164400.full.pdf

"Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans afterthe last glaciation. However, the origin(s) of the first colonizers and their migration routes remainunclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57x coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavatedacross Scandinavia and dated to 9,500-6,000 years before present. Surprisingly, among theScandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient thatopposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. This result suggests thatScandinavia was initially colonized following two different routes: one from the south, the otherfrom the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along whichnovel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups metand mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns ofgenetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These adaptations include high frequencies oflow pigmentation variants and a gene-region associated with physical performance, which showsstrong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans. Finally, we were able to compute a 3Dfacial reconstruction of a Mesolithic woman from her high-coverage genome, giving a glimpseinto an individual’s physical appearance in the Mesolithic."

Basically, it seems to me to be a confirmation of the fact that the SHG were a combination of WHG and EHG.

More interesting, the results could be interpreted to mean that EDAR might have been prevalent among the EHG, signifying genetic ties with East Asian populations, and that did we have more EHG samples we might see EDAR in the EHG as well as the SHG.

The authors maintain that there is indeed a connection between high latitude environments and de-pigmentation, although they also confirm that these snps probably first appeared in West Asia, and long before 6000 years ago. In support of that, the data from Anatolia and other parts of the Near East has been re-examined and the levels of derived SLC45A2, the pre-eminent "European" de-pigmentation snp, among the people there are much higher than first reported. So, did the levels in West Asia decrease after the departure of the first farmers for Europe, perhaps because of migrations, or did the more favorable conditions in more northern parts of Europe just increase the frequency there, and then migrations spread them elsewhere. The latter is a little more tenuous, in my opinion, if, as the authors claim, there wasn't much genetic impact from the SHG on the modern European gene pool.

In this context, the authors speculate that the first farmers may already have had pigmentation similar to that of Sardinians, and much fairer than that of the WHG, who did, again, have blue eyes. The EHG again, it is maintained, had fairer skin and dark hair and eyes.

So, still questions to be answered.

bicicleur
19-07-17, 20:45
Angela, this study was already posted before :
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/34334-Genomics-of-Mesolithic-Scandinavia-reveal-colonization-routes-and-high-latitude-adapt
can you merge them?

Angela
19-07-17, 20:48
Somehow, I must not have read it. Thanks for the heads up, Bicicleur. I'll merge with your thread.

mlukas
20-07-17, 11:05
See:Torsten Gunther et al
"Genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia reveal colonization routes and high latitude adaptation
http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/07/17/164400.full.pdf



In this context, the authors speculate that the first farmers may already have had pigmentation similar to that of Sardinians, and much fairer than that of the WHG, who did, again, have blue eyes. The EHG again, it is maintained, had fairer skin and dark hair and eyes.

So, still questions to be answered.

Somebody read suplementary pdf? It's much more info there. http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/suppl/2017/07/17/164400.DC1/164400-2.pdf



Eastern hunter-gatherers (EHGs)
The Karelian and Samaran Russian Mesolithic hunter gatherers (82) are currently the best representatives of a group of EHGs that migrated and admixed with WHGs to form SHGs.
Mathieson et al (122) recently reported data from another Karelian Mesolithic hunter gatherer (sample I0211), with low coverage (0.136X across all captured SNPs), preventing pigmentation characterization. Hirisplex skin and hair color predictions suggest some opposing pigmentation patterns for the EHG individuals. The Karelian individual presents high probabilities of being brown-eyed (0.99), and having a dark hair (0.96). Without speculating about the genetic
architecture of skin pigmentation, we suggest an intermediate skin-pigmentation phenotype for the Karelia individual, as it carried the ancestral allele at rs16891982 and the derived allele at rs1426654 (Supplementary Table 1). The presence of the rs1426654 light-skin allele, in addition to five additional C11 -associated alleles at haplotype defining SNPs (Supplementary Table 1) suggests that the Karelian individual carried the C11 light-skin haplotype. The Samaran
individual exhibits high probabilities of being blue-eyed (0.88), light hair shade (0.99); most likely being blond (0.75). The two skin pigmentation SNPs suggest that the Samaran individual was light-skinned. In summary, the EHGs had high frequencies of the light-skin variants and intermediate frequencies of the blue-eye variants.





Interestingly, the eye and light skin pigmentation phenotypes observed in all SHGs could potentially be explained by admixture between WHG and EHG groups. The high relative-frequency of the blue-eye color allele in SHGs, resembles WHG, while the intermediate frequencies of the skin color determining SNPs in SHGs seem more likely to have come from EHG, since both light-pigmented alleles are virtually absent from WHG. However, for all three well-characterized skin and eye-color associated SNPs, the SHGs display a frequency that is greater for the light-skin variants and the blue-eye variant than can be expected from a mixture of WHGs and EHGs. This observation indicates that the frequencies may have increased due to continued adaptation to a low light conditions.



arly European farmers (EEF)
The Hirisplex eye and hair color prediction of 37 Early Neolithic farmers sequenced across Europe and Anatolia (81, 82, 175, 185) revealed that four individuals presented high probabilities of being blue-eyed (p=0.55-0.91), 23 were predicted to be brown-eyed (p=0.76-0.99), and 10 individuals did not have enough data to make a prediction. In total 23 individuals exhibit a high probability for dark hair pigmentation (p=0.57-0.99), five had most likely a light hair shade; the
remaining nine farmers lacked data for meaningful hair pigmentation prediction (Supplementary Table 1). The Anatolian Barcin I1583 individual (122) exhibited blue-eye color variants at the core h-1 SNP rs12913832 and its linked rs1129038 variant. Interestingly, it also presented h-1 - haplotype-defining alleles at rs7170852, rs2240203, rs916977, suggesting that this individual might have harbored the blue-eye color founder haplotype as well. No other early farmer presented direct evidence for the h-1 haplotype’s presence.
While both pigmentation alleles were observed at rs16891982 (although the derived allele in much higher proportion, see below), virtually only the light-skin allele was observed at rs1426654. Unequivocal evidence for the presence of the C11 -haplotype was observed for the central European Stuttgart sample, while (although at low coverage) only haplotype-associated alleles were observed in the Anatolian Klei10 early farmer individual.



After investigating the presence of light-pigmentation alleles and haplotypes in different hunter-gatherers and early farmers across Europe and Anatolia, it seems as if eye and light skin pigmentation alleles entered Europe several times during different migration events. In particular, the light skin pigmentation variant arrived to Scandinavia already in the Mesolithic with migrants from the northeast, whereas the blue-eye variants probably arrived in Scandinavia with migrants from the south.
Light eye pigmentation variants were present at high frequencies in WHG, SHG, EHG and EEF (not present in PEHG), while the blue-eye color founder haplotype h-1
was found in the LaBrana, Loschbour, Villabruna WHGs, SF12, Motala1 and Motala12 SHGs and at least one early farmer. Such results suggest that the blue eye-color allele is rather old. Using an ABC modeling approach Nakagome et al. (186), predicted that the light-pigmentation allele at rs12913832 57emerged around 42,000 years ago or earlier; a date close in time to the initial peopling of Europe.
A plausible scenario of the origin of the blue-eye mutation that reconciles our results with findings from other studies is one where this variant appeared in an ancestral population before the ancestors of the WHG migrated from Near East into West and Central Europe (118).
The large effect light-skin alleles at rs16891982 and rs1426654 were present in SHG, EHG, CHG and EEF but absent in WHG and PEHG. Similarly, the C11 haplotype is present in hunter-gatherers (SHG, EHG and CHG but not WHG and PEHG) throughout Europe, as well as in at least two early farmers. This pattern is consistent with reports that the rs1426654 derived allele arose ~22,000-28,000 years ago (186, 187), and that the light-pigmentation allele at rs16891982 arose only once in Eurasians (186, 188). A possible geographical origin for these two major light-skin alleles is West Asia or the Near East (189). Later migrations across the Caucasus (CHG) and Eastern Europe would have brought it to Scandinavia, while EEF migrations introduced both alleles into central Europe.





For rs3827760, within the EDAR gene, the derived G allele is associated with shovel-shaped teeth and hair thickness phenotype in East Asians. In the novel SHGs in this
study, only the ancestral A allele is present (SF12 is homozygote AA). The derived variant was reported in three of the six Motala SHGs which are younger than most other SHGs in this study (122). It is clear that the variant was present among SHGs (122), and it is possible that it has a continuous (but varying) distribution from Scandinavia to East Asia during the Mesolithic, and that the very low sample size of EHGs has failed to pick up the variant. It is also possible that the derived rs3827760 variant was brought to Scandinavia by migration in the Late Mesolithic, perhaps related to the specific Motala group.

mlukas
20-07-17, 11:25
Anybody read suplementary pdf? http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/suppl/2017/07/17/164400.DC1/164400-2.pdf


S11 Genetic testing of the post-glacial migration routes into Scandinavia The genomic affinities of the Mesolithic Scandinavians analyzed in this study suggest a complex migration pattern. Based on geography, genetics, the position of the ice-sheet on the Scandinavian peninsula and archaeology (see section S1, Figure S1.2), we hypothesize different migration routes into Scandinavia around 10,000 BP:
a) a migration of WHGs from the south,
b) a migration of EHGs from the east across the Baltic Sea,
c) a migration of EHGs from the east and along the north-Atlantic coast,
d) a migration of EHGs from the east and south of the Baltic Sea,
as well as combinations of these four migration routes (Figure S11.1).
These hypothetical scenarios allow us to formulate expectations of the genetic pattern seen in the different individuals. A migration of only WHGs would cause strong affinities of all SHGs to that group, whereas an exclusively EHG-like migration would make all SHGs very similar to EHGs.
If there were combinations of migrations from both sources, a pattern of geographic structure would emerge: different SHGs would be characterized by differential affinities to WHGs and EHGs. We formulate these affinities in terms of expected tendencies for f4 (Chimp, X; EHG, WHG) which are shown in Figure S11.1. We only give qualitative expectations as a lot of additional information regarding population splits, drift parameters and admixture proportions would be required to formulate quantitative expectations for f4 . The qualitative expectations still allow us to test rank correlations between expected values and observed values of f4 (Chimp, X; EHG, WHG) to evaluate how the different hypotheses fit the data.
These rank correlations are not informative for single migrations but the data suggests that SHGs are in fact a mixture of EHGs and WHGs. The only scenario that produces a positive rank correlation (rho=0.677, p=0.004) between observed and expected values is a combination of (a) and (c) – one migration of WHGs from the south and another of EHGs from the east following the Norwegian coast.
Such a scenario explains the higher affinities of Norwegian SHGs with EHGs as well as the higher affinities of Swedish SHGs with WHGs. The qpAdm admixture proportions (Figure 1A) are also significantly different between Norwegian and Swedish Mesolithic individuals (Wilcoxon test; p=0.01399). These affinities are consistently observed across all population genomic analyses in this study (PCA, ADMIXTURE, f4, qpAdm, TreeMix) and they are not correlated with the age of the samples (Figure S11.2).
Therefore, we conclude that two migrations into Scandinavia fit the genetic data: a migration from central Europe into southern Sweden and a second migration along the Norwegian coast and around the ice sheet covering the center of the Scandinavian peninsula. The populations spread across Scandinavia and mixed creating the geographic population structure seen in the genomic data.

https://s4.postimg.org/8hkqf3ual/shg.jpg

bicicleur
20-07-17, 12:38
What surprises me that no R1a or b was found in Scandinavian individuals so far, though they are almost half and half WHG/EHG, sometimes even more than half EHG.

Let's see her face too. They say they used her genome for reconstruction, not bones. I knew the time will come soon when we could do that. Just a start, but here it comes...

I suspect that I2 arrived along with Swiderian in Karelia before R1, and when ice retreated and R1 arrived, these I2 moved further north the the northern Scandinavian coast.

The study about ice age Europe gave us a nice picture of how I2 and WHG spread through Europe 15 ka.
It would be nice to find out how R1 spread and how EHG was formed.

Cato
20-07-17, 22:59
She looks modern

LeBrok
21-07-17, 03:40
She looks modernCan you post her picture?

Northener
22-07-17, 14:32
Just wondering how does this fit with the results of the MDLP 22 and specific the North-European-Mesolithic component.
https://www.mupload.nl/img/ntumilkk8nmau.png


This peaks in Brana (80%) and is very low in nowadays Lituania (2% or less). So i can assume that the North-European-Mesolithic is very WHG.
And when we follow the WHG route to North and East Scandinavia then yes indeed the Saami score 76,40%, and indeed Finnish-North 37.30 % above Finnish-South 30.07%.
After the mesolithicum the figures declined obviously deeply! Gokhem 4 (TRB ) 12,1% (So the neolithization had an immense effect. Or do we in this case have a typical farmer (who lived along side the resisting SHG).
Nowadays Sweden; Swedish 7.79 % Swedish_V 10.09 % and Norwegian_V 9.80%, Orcadian 6.41%, North Dutch (mine) 7,5%.


In this respect the Eurogenes Hunter_Gatherer vs. Farmer Admixture Proportions is kind of rough or undifferentiated.
(Of course) it peaks in the Baltic. In Poland and the Ukraine obviously about 67%, around the old North Sea stronghold still about 55-60%, in more (South) West Europe beneath 50%. But it looks like if this admixture doesn't differentiate very well between SHG, EHG, WHG....

LeBrok
22-07-17, 17:52
Just wondering how does this fit with the results of the MDLP 22 and specific the North-European-Mesolithic component.
https://www.mupload.nl/img/ntumilkk8nmau.png


This peaks in Brana (80%) and is very low in nowadays Lituania (2% or less). So i can assume that the North-European-Mesolithic is very WHG.
And when we follow the WHG route to North and East Scandinavia then yes indeed the Saami score 76,40%, and indeed Finnish-North 37.30 % above Finnish-South 30.07%.
After the mesolithicum the figures declined obviously deeply! Gokhem 4 (TRB ) 12,1% (So the neolithization had an immense effect. Or do we in this case have a typical farmer (who lived along side the resisting SHG).
Nowadays Sweden; Swedish 7.79 % Swedish_V 10.09 % and Norwegian_V 9.80%, Orcadian 6.41%, North Dutch (mine) 7,5%.


In this respect the Eurogenes Hunter_Gatherer vs. Farmer Admixture Proportions is kind of rough or undifferentiated.
(Of course) it peaks in the Baltic. In Poland and the Ukraine obviously about 67%, around the old North Sea stronghold still about 55-60%, in more (South) West Europe beneath 50%. But it looks like if this admixture doesn't differentiate very well between SHG, EHG, WHG....
It was the Corded Ware Culture who reintroduced WHG genome directly to Northern Europe and indirectly to the South. Remember that EHG are in 2/3 WHG.
However, this map MDLP22 has stronger connection with EHG, I guess. NW Europe has more of it than Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. Looks more like EHG/CWC.

Northener
22-07-17, 18:33
It was the Corded Ware Culture who reintroduced WHG genome directly to Northern Europe and indirectly to the South. Remember that EHG are in 2/3 WHG.
However, this map MDLP22 has stronger connection with EHG, I guess. NW Europe has more of it than Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. Looks more like EHG/CWC.

I guess that the WHG in NorthWestern Europe is more due to HG culture Ertebølle like, around the North Sea, this was most probably a maritime culture (fisherman), the paper: "Stable isotope analysis of northern and western SHGs revealed an extreme marine diet, suggesting a maritime subsistence, in contrast to the more mixed terrestrial/aquatic diet of eastern and central SHGs .Combining these isotopic results with the patterns of genetic variation, we suggest an initial colonization from the south, likely by WHGs."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ertebølle_culture
I assume that the TRB culture was the first one that absorbed the Ertebølle like cultures. But WHG lines, especially the maternal lines, survived in NW Europe the influxes.
I think that CW introduces more EHG to North en Northwestern Europe (what indeed could be partly reintroduce).

Cato
22-07-17, 20:01
Can you post her picture?

Sure

8942

http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/suppl/2017/07/17/164400.DC1/164400-2.pdf

LeBrok
22-07-17, 20:16
Sure

8942

http://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/suppl/2017/07/17/164400.DC1/164400-2.pdf No hair? Why in 3 shades?

Cato
22-07-17, 20:29
No hair? Why in 3 shades?

from the paper:


Figure S9.1 Facial reconstruction of SF12 based on diploid genotype calls The first row show the predicted facial shape, the second row adds European pigmentation to the shape, and the third row shows a modified pigmentation based on major pigmentation loci


about the hair...i don't know

Angela
22-07-17, 21:39
Here's another reconstruction of a mesolithic Scandinavian. Not all the SHG had the full complement of modern European depigmentation snps, so there must have been variation, with some darker and some a bit fairer, but I don't think any of them were totally like modern Scandinavians. As for the hair, it's much more difficult to predict hair color. You need a lot of snps for that and given these are ancient samples they may not have found enough of them. Maybe with advanced techniques they'll find more, as was the case with the Anatolian farmers, who upon re-examination turned out to have a lot more than 40% derived SLC42A5.

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/76/e8/7b/76e87bf4565eace604200bc86345603b.jpg

The low-rooted, short, wide, and also upturned nose seems to be a constant, as is the very wide face and high cheekbones. There must be some sort of environmental advantage for those kinds of noses in high latitude, cold environments.

I think I've posted this before: it's the 26,000 thousand year old head of an ancient man from present day Czechoslovakia.

https://mathildasanthropologyblog.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/headbrugar31.jpg

https://palaeosam.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/ivory-sculpture-lateral.jpg

Northener
23-07-17, 00:23
"The low-rooted, short, wide, and also upturned nose seems to be a constant, as is the very wide face and high cheekbones. There must be some sort of environmental advantage for those kinds of noses in high latitude, cold environments."

A very recognizable phenotype until today in Northern Europe and especially in the Baltic I guess....


Sent from my iPad using Eupedia Forum (http://r.tapatalk.com/byo?rid=89698)

bicicleur
23-07-17, 00:27
the short nose, the high cheekbones, the broad face, isn't it similar to the adaptation of the Mongoloïd race to the Siberain cold?
on top of that, this is the only place and era when EDAR appeared in Europe

LeBrok
23-07-17, 01:21
Let's keep in mind that some phenotypical traits might be purely coincidental and not strictly adaptational. Due to low population numbers, frequent bottlenecking and founder effects.

Angela
23-07-17, 02:57
the short nose, the high cheekbones, the broad face, isn't it similar to the adaptation of the Mongoloïd race to the Siberain cold?
on top of that, this is the only place and era when EDAR appeared in Europe

Yes, the Gunther et al paper makes a point of stating that EDAR may have been present in the EHG as well, and the reason it hasn't turned up is because we have so few samples.

I think I read something just the other day that even the WHG may be able to be modeled with some "eastern" ancestry.

This constellation of features certainly seems very Siberian like to me, even Native American like. Of course, the pigmentation camouflages it.

Native woman from Alaska:
http://www.davidsanger.com/images/alaska/5-650-3427.headdress.m.jpg


Obviously, there are major differences, but there are also similarities.

Meanwhile, 3,000 BC, Gozo, Malta...longer, narrower face, larger eyes, lower cheekbones. I'm not so sure they got the nose right: it looks "off" for her facial structure.
http://media-cache-ec0.pinimg.com/236x/92/78/19/9278199d0d2e61178d7c5f7493317200.jpg

Northener
23-07-17, 09:49
Yes, the Gunther et al paper makes a point of stating that EDAR may have been present in the EHG as well, and the reason it hasn't turned up is because we have so few samples.

I think I read something just the other day that even the WHG may be able to be modeled with some "eastern" ancestry.

This constellation of features certainly seems very Siberian like to me, even Native American like. Of course, the pigmentation camouflages it.

Native woman from Alaska:
http://www.davidsanger.com/images/alaska/5-650-3427.headdress.m.jpg


Obviously, there are major differences, but there are also similarities.

Meanwhile, 3,000 BC, Gozo, Malta...longer, narrower face, larger eyes, lower cheekbones. I'm not so sure they got the nose right: it looks "off" for her facial structure.
http://media-cache-ec0.pinimg.com/236x/92/78/19/9278199d0d2e61178d7c5f7493317200.jpg

Than this must be the EHG contribution? WHG with roots in Southwestern Europe (La Brana) had no need for cold climate adaptions.....But when the WHG are close tied to the Saami? An adaption later on?
The WHG in and around the Doggerbank already lived 53rd parallel north and higher.....I don't know if the climate at that time and place urged to adaptions.

bicicleur
23-07-17, 11:38
oldest pressure flaking appeared in Hokkaido, northern Japan 21 ka (see Aggsbach)
did EDAR come along with pressure flaking?
in Europe, EDAR disappeared again, there was no advantage and no natural selection in favour of it

I don't think R1a/R1b EHG were the origin of EDAR.
I would guess C2 and Q1a2 were, and there has been Q1a2 Y-DNA found in mesolithic eastern Europe.

holderlin
24-07-17, 02:19
@mlukas thanks for posting all that sup. info. it gave me a renewed picture of mesolithic phenotype

Angela
27-07-17, 21:35
The subject paper was discussed by Razib Khan in his blog post called: "Ancient Europeans, Isolated, Always on the Edge of Extinction"

https://gnxp.nofe.me/2017/07/25/ancient-europeans-isolated-always-on-the-edge-of-extinction/

He quotes the paper for the following:

"Based on SF12’s high-coverage and high-quality genome, we estimate the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) hitherto unknown (that are not recorded in dbSNP (v142)) to be c. 10,600. This is almost twice the number of unique variants (c. 6,000) per Finnish individual (Supplementary Information 3) and close to the median per European individual in the 1000 Genomes Project (23) (c. 11,400, Supplementary Information 3). At least 17% of these SNPs that are not found in modern-day individuals, were in fact common among the Mesolithic Scandinavians (seen in the low coverage data conditional on the observation in SF12), suggesting that a substantial fraction of human variation has been lost in the past 9,000 years (Supplementary Information 3). In other words, the SHGs (as well as WHGs and EHGs) have no direct descendants, or a population that show direct continuity with the Mesolithic populations (Supplementary Information 6) (13–17). Thus, many genetic variants found in Mesolithic individuals have not been carried over to modern-day groups."


"And yet the distinctiveness of the very high quality genome as inferred from unique SNPs they have suggests to them that very little of the ancestry of modern Scandinavians (and Finns to be sure) derives from these ancient populations. Very little does not mean all. There is a lot of functional analysis in the paper and supplements which I will not discuss in this post, and one aspect is that it seems some adaptive alleles for high latitudes might persist down to the present in Nordic populations as a gift from these ancient forebears. This is no surprise, not all regions of the genome are created equal (a more extreme case is the Denisovan derived high altitude adaptation haplotype in modern Tibetans).
http://gnxp.nofe.me/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/warbeforecivilization.jpeg (https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0195119126/geneexpressio-20)
Nevertheless, there was a great disruption. First, the arrival of farmers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funnelbeaker_culture#Geography) whose ultimate origins were Anatolia ~6,000 years ago to the southern third of Scandinavia introduced a new element which came in force (agriculture spread over the south in a few centuries). A bit over a thousand years later (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corded_Ware_culture#Swedish-Norwegian_Battle_Axe_culture) the Corded Ware people, who were likely Indo-European speakers, arrived. These Indo-European speakers brought with them a substantial proportion of ancestry related to the hunter-gatherers because they descended in major fraction from the EHG (and later accrued more European hunter-gatherer ancestry from both the early farmers and likely some residual hunter-gatherer populations who switched to agro-pastoralism**).""

"Though the expanding farmers initial mixed with hunter-gatherers on the frontier, once they got a head of steam they likely replaced small hunter-gatherer groups in totality, except in areas like Scandinavia and along the maritime fringe where ecological conditions were such hunter-gatherers were at advantage."

"But this is not the end of the story for Norden. At SMBE I saw some ancient genome analysis from Finland on a poster. Combined with ancient genomic analysis from the Baltic, along with deeper analysis of modern Finnish mtDNA (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-05673-7), it seems likely that the expansion of Finno-Samic (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finno-Samic_languages) languages occurred on the order of ~2,000 years ago. After the initial expansion of Corded Ware agro-pastoralists."

Kristiina
28-07-17, 10:39
Before making any hasty linguistic conclusions you should read this post: http://terheninenmaa.blogspot.be/

If Finns are linguistically different from Baltic Corded Ware, Finns and Estonians are also genetically completely different from the Estonian Corded Ware.

This is clearly visible in the Finnish mtDNA. The oldest haplogroups (>2000 years) are specific to Finns. They are not represented in the Baltic Bronze Age apart from U5b1b which is a mesolithic survivor in the whole Northeastern Europe, H5a1 which dates only to 0 AD in Finns and LBA Kivutkalns164 Latvia 500 BC U5a2a1, which is probably of Uralic origin in the Baltics. The Finnish-specific mtDNA has not been found in ancient Scandinavia either, except for on a very vague level such as U5a2a, age 10 000 years.

You cannot reconstruct the situation in Finland in the Corded Ware period without ancient data from Finland.

If you are interested, you can check the oldest specifically Finnish haplotypes here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-05673-7/figures/1

Moreover, there are not any Siberian haplogroups on that list.

The recent Bell Beaker paper showed us that the shared archaeological context does not necessarily mean sharing the same genes and language as in the case of North-Central versus Southwestern Bell Beaker.

Angela
28-07-17, 16:26
Before making any hasty linguistic conclusions you should read this post: http://terheninenmaa.blogspot.be/

If Finns are linguistically different from Baltic Corded Ware, Finns and Estonians are also genetically completely different from the Estonian Corded Ware.

This is clearly visible in the Finnish mtDNA. The oldest haplogroups (>2000 years) are specific to Finns. They are not represented in the Baltic Bronze Age apart from U5b1b which is a mesolithic survivor in the whole Northeastern Europe, H5a1 which dates only to 0 AD in Finns and LBA Kivutkalns164 Latvia 500 BC U5a2a1, which is probably of Uralic origin in the Baltics. The Finnish-specific mtDNA has not been found in ancient Scandinavia either, except for on a very vague level such as U5a2a, age 10 000 years.

You cannot reconstruct the situation in Finland in the Corded Ware period without ancient data from Finland.

If you are interested, you can check the oldest specifically Finnish haplotypes here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-05673-7/figures/1

Moreover, there are not any Siberian haplogroups on that list.

The recent Bell Beaker paper showed us that the shared archaeological context does not necessarily mean sharing the same genes and language as in the case of North-Central versus Southwestern Bell Beaker.

Thanks for the post, Kristina. I'll read the links with interest.

Northener
01-08-17, 00:07
The subject paper was discussed by Razib Khan in his blog post called: "Ancient Europeans, Isolated, Always on the Edge of Extinction"

https://gnxp.nofe.me/2017/07/25/ancient-europeans-isolated-always-on-the-edge-of-extinction/

He quotes the paper for the following:

"At least 17% of these SNPs that are not found in modern-day individuals, were in fact common among the Mesolithic Scandinavians (seen in the low coverage data conditional on the observation in SF12), suggesting that a substantial fraction of human variation has been lost in the past 9,000 years (Supplementary Information 3). In other words, the SHGs (as well as WHGs and EHGs) have no direct descendants, or a population that show direct continuity with the Mesolithic populations (Supplementary Information 6) (13–17). Thus, many genetic variants found in Mesolithic individuals have not been carried over to modern-day ."[/COLOR]


There may be much lost but IMO different kind of genetic research have shown that around the Baltic Sea and in some lesser extent around the North Sea the genetic heritage of the hunter-gatherers on the modern North European geno- and phenotype is quite considerable.

The supplementary information from Genetics of Mesolithic about the impact on the phenotype is quite impressive:

"The heritability of the 17 tested physical exercise phenotypes are in the range 0.30-0.52 [243]. These cardiovascular traits are likely connected to the climatic conditions in northern Europe [238]. Four of the top 100 ranking SNPs (Table S10.1) are located in FHIT, which has been associated with a wide range of phenotypes (Table S10.2). These include psychological traits (sleep [245], attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [246], major depressive disorder [247], Tobacco Use Disorder [248], Asperger Syndrome [249], metabolic traits (body mass index [250], type 2 diabetes [251]), cardiovascular traits (blood pressure [252]), and developmental traits (Cleft Lip [252], menopause [253]). Due to this large range of different phenotypes it is difficult to find a clear link to adaptation to high-latitude climates, although several of the traits involved have been linked to cold adaptation [238]."


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Angela
01-08-17, 00:56
There may be much lost but IMO different kind of genetic research have shown that around the Baltic Sea and in some lesser extent around the North Sea the genetic heritage of the hunter-gatherers on the modern North European geno- and phenotype is quite considerable.

The supplementary information from Genetics of Mesolithic about the impact on the phenotype is quite impressive:

"The heritability of the 17 tested physical exercise phenotypes are in the range 0.30-0.52 [243]. These cardiovascular traits are likely connected to the climatic conditions in northern Europe [238]. Four of the top 100 ranking SNPs (Table S10.1) are located in FHIT, which has been associated with a wide range of phenotypes (Table S10.2). These include psychological traits (sleep [245], attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [246], major depressive disorder [247], Tobacco Use Disorder [248], Asperger Syndrome [249], metabolic traits (body mass index [250], type 2 diabetes [251]), cardiovascular traits (blood pressure [252]), and developmental traits (Cleft Lip [252], menopause [253]). Due to this large range of different phenotypes it is difficult to find a clear link to adaptation to high-latitude climates, although several of the traits involved have been linked to cold adaptation [238]."


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So, are they suggesting that traits like ADHD, clinical depression, Asperger Syndrome, addiction to tobacco, type 2 diabetes, cleft lip etc. are more common in people from higher latitudes?

Fire Haired14
01-08-17, 04:16
@Northerner,

The possible phenotype connection between SHG and modern Northern Europeans is interesting. The genotype connection between any northern HGs and modern northern Europeans outside of the Baltic region is really small. British/Irish origins are Bell beaker. Bell Beaker migration is the genesis story of Isles Celts. And if the ancestry isn't Bell Beaker it's from some other group from east of the British Isles(Anglo Saxons).

Sneakysalami69
01-08-17, 04:40
I was always under impression bell beaker was an R1B western Europe lineage, is this correct, or they were mixing with SHG? Fascinating topic

Fire Haired14
01-08-17, 07:55
I was always under impression bell beaker was an R1B western Europe lineage, is this correct, or they were mixing with SHG? Fascinating topic

Believe it or not R1b in western Europe is not native to Western Europe. It originated somewhere around Ukraine and Russia 5,000 years, then it migrated west and quickly became the dominate Y DNA haplogroup in Western Europe. The first Bell Beaker folk didn't carry any R1b(P312). An R1b(P312) tribe from somewhere in Eastern Europe adopted Bell Beaker culture and then spread Bell Beaker culture and R1b into the British Isles, France, and Italy.

Olalde et al 2017,
The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe (http://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/05/09/135962)

R1b(P312) spread into Ireland, England, France, Hungary, Poland, Germany with the Bell Beaker culture. It reached Portugal by at least 1500 BC (Martinano et al 2017 (http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1006852)). So very shortly after first R1b(P312) arrived it became widespread and popular.

Something I find interesting is that the R1b L21 Bell Beaker folk who migrated into Britain probably belonged single ethnic group that had a shared identity and language. Their migration into Britain and Ireland wasn't an accident. An entire R1b L21 ethnic group from continental Europe councisouly decided to leave Europe and settle in Britain. And they layed down the foundation of the modern British/Irish gene pool.

Olalde et al 2017 uses Bell Beaker from the Netherlands as a proxy for the ancestors of British Bell beaker folk because the Netherlands is close to Britain. But I think it's possible the ancestors of British Bell Beaker folk originated deep in Europe like in around Switzerland and Germany.

Northener
01-08-17, 09:29
So, are they suggesting that traits like ADHD, clinical depression, Asperger Syndrome, addiction to tobacco, type 2 diabetes, cleft lip etc. are more common in people from higher latitudes?

It looks like.....[emoji15] those awful long dark winters in caves....[emoji12]


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Northener
01-08-17, 09:47
@Northerner,

The possible phenotype connection between SHG and modern Northern Europeans is interesting. The genotype connection between any northern HGs and modern northern Europeans outside of the Baltic region is really small. British/Irish origins are Bell beaker. Bell Beaker migration is the genesis story of Isles Celts. And if the ancestry isn't Bell Beaker it's from some other group from east of the British Isles(Anglo Saxons).

I doubt that. It would be nice if there was some in depth research around the North Sea. I have put some modern North Dutch auDNA in the different admixtures and I estimate the WHG level about 80% of the Baltics. That's quite considerable....

There was indeed the influence of the Neolithic (TRB) and the Steppe, but the Ertebølle people and their genetics could well be a basic layer in the modern gene pool of the North.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ertebølle_culture


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Northener
02-08-17, 13:17
So, are they suggesting that traits like ADHD, clinical depression, Asperger Syndrome, addiction to tobacco, type 2 diabetes, cleft lip etc. are more common in people from higher latitudes?
May be it's not only the higher latitude but also the HG component as such.
HG genes are responsible for a lower dopamine level. To be specific: SNP RS4680 is responsible for the dopamine leven. AA is high dopamine, AG medium, GG low dopamine. Low dopamine is most suitable for peak moments, high dopamine for more planned, routines task. Therefore is low dopamine GG associated with the hunter and high dopamine AA with farmer.
The advantage for the hunter is a 'cool mind' during the hunt and a lesser pain response. But the big disadvantage is that they loose attention, get demotivated in more ordinary situations. People with high dopamine know more highs and lows and are mostly enjoying life more than people with low dopamine. These factors are indeed associated with ADHD, sleep, depressions etc.
May be exaggerated but can this also explain the more "blunt" associations for North Europeans with a higher HG (=low dopamine) component like the Balts and Scandinavians? And a more "vivid" (high dopamine) associations for Southern Europeans with a higher farmer component? Or is this to far-fetched?

LeBrok
02-08-17, 17:15
May be it's not only the higher latitude but also the HG component as such.
HG genes are responsible for a lower dopamine level. To be specific: SNP RS4680 is responsible for the dopamine leven. AA is high dopamine, AG medium, GG low dopamine. Low dopamine is most suitable for peak moments, high dopamine for more planned, routines task. Therefore is low dopamine GG associated with the hunter and high dopamine AA with farmer.
The advantage for the hunter is a 'cool mind' during the hunt and a lesser pain response. But the big disadvantage is that they loose attention, get demotivated in more ordinary situations. People with high dopamine know more highs and lows and are mostly enjoying life more than people with low dopamine. These factors are indeed associated with ADHD, sleep, depressions etc.
May be exaggerated but can this also explain the more "blunt" associations for North Europeans with a higher HG (=low dopamine) component like the Balts and Scandinavians? And a more "vivid" (high dopamine) associations for Southern Europeans with a higher farmer component? Or is this to far-fetched?
Interesting. Is RS4680 a full number for this snp?

Angela
02-08-17, 17:36
May be it's not only the higher latitude but also the HG component as such.
HG genes are responsible for a lower dopamine level. To be specific: SNP RS4680 is responsible for the dopamine leven. AA is high dopamine, AG medium, GG low dopamine. Low dopamine is most suitable for peak moments, high dopamine for more planned, routines task. Therefore is low dopamine GG associated with the hunter and high dopamine AA with farmer.
The advantage for the hunter is a 'cool mind' during the hunt and a lesser pain response. But the big disadvantage is that they loose attention, get demotivated in more ordinary situations. People with high dopamine know more highs and lows and are mostly enjoying life more than people with low dopamine. These factors are indeed associated with ADHD, sleep, depressions etc.
May be exaggerated but can this also explain the more "blunt" associations for North Europeans with a higher HG (=low dopamine) component like the Balts and Scandinavians? And a more "vivid" (high dopamine) associations for Southern Europeans with a higher farmer component? Or is this to far-fetched?

You must have ESP; I was thinking of posting about this in reply when I got the chance. :) It doesn't seem too far fetched to me.

What these researchers were noting seems like "correlation" to me, not "causation". Why would living at high latitudes select for ADHD? Also, yes, lack of sunlight leads to depression in some people, but that's a different thing entirely from real clinical depression, and "cured" as soon as the sun shines again. The clinical depression leads to all sorts of related disorders too, like alcoholism and suicide.

I can't find it right now, but a paper I read in the last few years or so found that these same snps and disorders showed up at higher levels among the remaining hunter-gatherers in Africa compared to the people descended from the Bantu farmers.

The Han Chinese, on the other hand, the most "farmer" population in the world, I think, has far fewer of these snps and traits even though they live at relatively high latitudes.

Certainly, every paper I've seen tracking ADHD, clinical depression, alcoholism, suicide etc. shows a lower incidence in southern Europe than in northern Europe.

Northener
02-08-17, 17:38
Interesting. Is RS4680 a full number for this snp?

Correct. See: https://selfhacked.com/blog/worrier-warrior-explaining-rs4680comt-v158m-gene/


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davef
02-08-17, 19:39
I'm skeptical. That study hasn't been reviewed by the FDA, and it says that people with the GG variant have lower IQ's, yet we have this:
"AA and AG had superior performance relative to GG on reading-related skills (PA, Spelling), and marginally better performance for Decoding but not on more general language skills (Oral Language, Comprehension) or IQ. "

Do I smell a contradiction?

And it also states that East Asians have the most amount of G and are more likely to be GG, yet (I apologize if this is offensive, feel free to edit) they are very intelligent.

This study is iffy.

LeBrok
02-08-17, 21:44
Correct. See: https://selfhacked.com/blog/worrier-warrior-explaining-rs4680comt-v158m-gene/


Sent from my iPad using Eupedia Forum (http://r.tapatalk.com/byo?rid=89698)Weird. I have many snp starting with 4680.

Northener
02-08-17, 23:22
Weird. I have many snp starting with 4680.

An app like DNA doctor can detect it.....23 and me has most probably also that facility.


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Northener
05-08-17, 10:24
I'm skeptical. That study hasn't been reviewed by the FDA, and it says that people with the GG variant have lower IQ's, yet we have this:
"AA and AG had superior performance relative to GG on reading-related skills (PA, Spelling), and marginally better performance for Decoding but not on more general language skills (Oral Language, Comprehension) or IQ. "

Do I smell a contradiction?

And it also states that East Asians have the most amount of G and are more likely to be GG, yet (I apologize if this is offensive, feel free to edit) they are very intelligent.

This study is iffy.

I did some quick research and just read this book:
http://www.essentialparenting.com/2016/06/28/what-is-the-edison-gene/

IMO very insightful. But as a NY citizen you may be already familiar with it...