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Jovialis
03-07-18, 00:48
On July 17, 2014, the world decided it wanted to learn the genomic secrets hidden in the beautiful little, floating water fern, Azolla filiculoides. Not only did they want to know, but they paid for it too—a whopping $22,160 from 123 backers—through a crowdfunding site called Experiment.com.

Four years later, they have what they paid for, and more! The project was backed at 147% of the budgeted goal, which allowed the researchers to sequence and analyze the first fern genome ever. With the extra funds, they could sequence a second fern, Salvinia cucullata. Their results appear this month in the journal Nature Plants.

First author, Fay-Wei Li, is a professor at the Boyce Thompson Institute in Ithaca, NY, but began his quest for the Azolla genome as a graduate student researcher at Duke University in Durham, NC. His Ph.D. advisor was Kathleen Pryer, a professor at Duke and last author on the paper.

Pryer had been trying to get the project funded for nearly two decades. "I was met with responses like 'too unconventional' and 'not important enough'," she said. Together, Pryer and Li led an online campaign, which you can read more about here, to garner support for the project.

Eventually, their fundraising efforts caught the attention of the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) in Shenzhen, China, who offered to provide all their sequencing needs free of charge. With this additional support, and a collaboration forged with Henriette Schlupmann at Utrecht University, they embarked on a four-year journey to explore the unknown fern genome space.

So what's so special about a little fern anyway?

"Azolla has a really cool biology and evolutionary history," said Li. "Azolla engages in symbiosis with cyanobacteria for nitrogen fixation, and for this reason it has been used as a green manure for rice paddies in Asia for hundreds of years."

The researchers found that Azolla lacks the genes necessary for the more widespread arbuscular mycorrhizal and root-nodule symbioses, which the water ferns do not establish. Instead, the ferns contain several genes specific to their interaction with Nostoc, the cyanobiont, whose genome had been sequenced previously.

"Now that we have genomes available for both the fern and cyanobacterium, there is great promise for tapping into the secrets of this natural biofertilizer that may help lead to future sustainable agricultural practices," said Pryer.

One especially exciting discovery for the research team was the origin of an important insecticidal gene in ferns, which had been recently isolated and transferred to cotton plants where it provides remarkable protection against insect pests.

"When you walk into a forest, it's usually very striking to find that ferns show little to no sign of insect damage," said Li. The team found that the insecticidal gene is specific to the fern lineage, explaining why most other plants lack such resistance. Furthermore, they discovered that the gene likely first appeared in a fern genome through horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium.

"In other words, the ferns' ability to fend off insect herbivores is likely due to a 'genetic gift' from bacteria," said Li.

With the first two complete fern genomes at their fingertips, the researchers have answered many questions, but have uncovered even more mysteries to investigate. And what better way to unlock secrets than to keep sequencing genomes?

"We are going fernatic to sequence more ferntastic genomes!" said Li. "As part of the 10K Plant Genomes Project collaboration we are working with BGI to strategically sample the fern tree of life for genome sequencing. Currently we have about 10 fern species in the sequencing pipeline."

With just a little public "kickstart," they've gone from 0 to 10 in four years.

"Knowing that my small financial contribution was able to add to the fund of human knowledge astounds me," said Lydia Marcell, a fiction writer who supported the project through Experiment.com. "Understanding these genes could provide solutions for some of the enormous problems facing our planet today, I'm thrilled to have been a part of that."

"The endorsement and confirmation by the public and the media that our project was of significance was a fantastic outreach and learning experience for us," said Pryer. "It is very reaffirming to find out first-hand that people do care about pure science!"

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-fern-tastic-crowdfunded-fern-genomes-published.html#jCp


Here's the study that was produced:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41477-018-0188-8

Here's a list of other research projects that the Experiment.com is hosting:

https://experiment.com/discover

Jovialis
03-07-18, 02:06
Here are some interesting projects I found under Anthropology that reached 100%+ funding. Each page also has a video embedded that talks about the project:


UAV Infrared Mapping of Archaeological Sites in Greece

If an archaeologist could have one super power- it would be X-RAY vision. Archaeologists are always looking for non-destructive techniques to see what lies beneath the surface. This project will use the newest in UAV'S (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) as well as Infrared (Thermal) and Near Infrared cameras to create high resolution maps of the Early Iron Age site of Zagora, Greece. The final product will hopefully be the creation of several high-resolution multispectral 3D models of the site.

https://experiment.com/projects/infrared-mapping-of-archaeological-sites-in-greece?s=discover


Troy: Archaeology of Archaeology
Ancient Troy has been the subject of archaeological research for a very long time: systematic excavations have been conducted at the site since 1863. This makes Troy exceptionally suited to study the development of archaeological field practice. Each team excavating at Troy did so with their own methodologies and techniques. We want to know the effect of these changes on interpretations about the site.

https://experiment.com/projects/troy-archaeology-of-archaeology?s=discover


Where Was Vínland? Tracking Viking Explorers in the Americas Using Trace Element Analyses

Where did the Vikings explore in North America? Where did they first make contact with the peoples of the New World? Around AD 1000 Vikings from Iceland and Greenland established an exploration base at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. With your help, we'll examine how far they traveled from that base and how well they knew the region's resources by analyzing trace elements in the tools they used to make fires at this farthest west Viking site.

https://experiment.com/projects/tracking-viking-explorers-in-the-americas-using-trace-element-analyses?s=discover


How did Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers Use and Consume Plant Resources in Eurasia?

Hunter-gatherers repeatedly visited the Mughr el-Hamamah site, Jordan, ca. 45-40,000 years ago. Then, anatomically modern humans were replacing Neanderthals across western Eurasia. We will carefully excavate the very well-preserved plant remains and other artifacts in the cave. With a high-resolution view of human activity at this key prehistoric juncture, we seek to answer how groups foraged and provisioned diverse foods and materials beyond camp, while they worked, ate, and slept in camp.

https://experiment.com/projects/what-were-hunter-gatherers-doing-as-anatomically-modern-humans-spread-into-eurasia?s=discover


Was the Middle Bronze Age Civilization North of the Dead Sea Destroyed by Fire from the Sky?

The goal of the "Fire-from-the-Sky" research project was to search for additional evidence of a meteoritic airburst over the north end of the Dead Sea ca. 1700 BC which is thought to be the cause of the end of the Middle Bronze Age occupying civilization. The primary method of data collection was a walking survey of the many wadis that traverse the southeastern quadrant of the circular plain immediately north of the Dead Sea. Analysis of the materials collected is required before conclusions regarding the airburst hypothesis can be drawn.

https://experiment.com/projects/was-the-middle-bronze-age-civilization-north-of-the-dead-sea-destroyed-by-fire-from-the-sky?s=discover


Go West, young man: in search of the A00 haplogroup among peoples of Western Cameroon
Welcome to our citizen-science research project on haplogroup A00 in Cameroon! Having successfully sampled the Bangwa, Mbo, and Bamileke, we'll be launching our third trip to sample Banyang and Ejagham people from Western Cameroon.

A00 is the earliest known branch on the human Y-chromosome, paternal phylo-tree. Project coordinator Bonnie Schrack led the team that discovered it in a member of the Perry family in 2012.

Read more about our project in the pages for our first and second fundraisers.

https://experiment.com/projects/go-west-young-man-in-search-of-the-a00-haplogroup-among-peoples-of-western-cameroon?s=discover