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Angela
05-09-18, 19:39
I mentioned this conference and some of the papers before, but at that time no blurbs were available. Now they are.

https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/36503-Upcoming-Papers-ISBA-2018Population structure and migration Chair Johannes Krause

The blurbs are available here:

https://www.isba8.de/fileadmin/congress/media/isba2018/druckelemente/ISBA2018%20Programm.pdf


The genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the last 8000 yearsO–PSM–01 Iñigo Olalde
Ancient DNA and the peopling of the British Isles – pattern and process of the Neolithic transition Selina Brace
Ancient genomes from the Lech Valley, Bavaria, suggest socially stratified households in the European Bronze AgeAlissa Mittnik
Genomics of Middle Neolithic farmers at the fringe of Europe Federico Sanchez Quinto
Tracing the origin and expansion of the Turkic and Hunnic confederatikns Pavel Flegontov
The Genomic Formation of South and Central AsiaO–PSM–06 David Reich (Boston, MA/US)

The above sound like reviews.

The first Epipaleolithic genome from Anatolia suggests a limited role of demic diffusion in the development of farming in AnatoliaMichal Feldman (Jena/DE)

North African ancestry in Islamic Medieval Spain Marina Silva

The Neolithic transition in the Iberian Peninsula – reviewing an old question from new laboratory and computational approachesGloria Gonzalez-Fortes

Genetic transition in the Swiss Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Anja Furtwängler

Barbarian migration and social organisation in medieval Europe – a paleogenomic approach Guerra Amorim

A 1400-year transect of ancient DNA reveals recent genetic changes in the Finnish population Elina Salmela

The bolded ones I don't remember seeing.

Early population history of the island of Crete in Greece – isotopic evidence for diet and mobility Argyro Nafplioti (Cambridge/GB)

Bronze Age population dynamics and the rise of dairy pastoralism on the eastern Eurasian Steppe Christina Warinner (Jena/DE)

The Steppe was sown – multi -isotopic research changes our understandings of Scythian diet and mobility Alicia R. Ventresca Miller (Jena/DE)

Isotope evidence of human migration and mobility at the Roman and Byzantine port city of Ephesus, Turkey Michael Richards (Vancouver/CA)17:15

The impact of reference bias on ancient DNA studies of prehistoric human populations Torsten Günther (Uppsala/SE)

Migration and social organisation studies through ancient genomic analysis of multi -faith populations frommedieval Sicily (ERC Project “Sicily in Transition”, SICTRANSIT)Aurore Monnereau (York/GB)

Ancient genome-wide analysis of the early Neolithic mass grave individuals from Talheim, GermanyLena Granehäll (Bolzano/IT)

The lady from Barfüsser Church – identity reconstruction of a mummy through the mtDNA of living relativesChristina Wurst (Bolzano/IT)

First genetic data from the Holocene “Green Sahara” – new insights into the human mitochondrial phylogenyStefania Vai
(Florence/IT

Diet and population mobility in the early medieval Alpine area (Italy)Valenti na Coia (Bolzano/IT)

Genetic diversity and social stratification in prehistoric Balkans – genomes, culture and the rise of complexsocietiesSuzanne Freilich (Vienna/AT)

There's so much more. You really should have a look for yourselves.

I'll post the blurbs for a few of the ones that really interest me.

Angela
05-09-18, 20:22
"O–PSM–04Genomics of Middle Neolithic farmers at the fringe of EuropeF. Sanchez Quinto1

Agriculture emerged in the Fertile Crescent around 11,000 years before present (BP) and then spread, reaching central Europesome 7,500 years ago (ya.) and eventually Scandinavia by 6,000 ya. Recent paleogenomic studies have shown that the spreadof agriculture from the Fertile Crescent into Europe was due mainly to a demic process. Such event reshaped the geneticmakeup of European populations since incoming farmers displaced and admixed with local hunter-gatherers. The MiddleNeolithic period in Europe is characterized by such interaction, and this is a time where a resurgence of hunter-gathererancestry has been documented. While most research has been focused on the genetic origin and admixture dynamics withhunter-gatherers of farmers from Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, and Anatolia, data from farmers at the North-Westernedges of Europe remains scarce. Here, we investigate genetic data from the Middle Neolithic from Ireland, Scotland, andScandinavia and compare it to genomic data from hunter-gatherers, Early and Middle Neolithic farmers across Europe. Wenote affinities between the British Isles and Iberia, confirming previous reports. However, we add on to this subject bysuggesting a regional origin for the Iberian farmers that putatively migrated to the British Isles. Moreover, we note someindications of particular interactions between Middle Neolithic Farmers of the British Isles and Scandinavia. Finally, our datatogether with that of previous publications allow us to achieve a better understanding of the interactions between farmersand hunter-gatherers at the northwestern fringe of Europe."

"Tracing the origin and expansion of the Turkic and Hunnic confederationsP. Flegontov1

Turkic-speaking populations, now spread over a vast area in Asia, are highly heterogeneous genetically. The first confederationunequivocally attributed to them was established by the Göktürks in the 6th c. CE. Notwithstanding written resources fromneighboring sedentary societies such as Chinese, Persian, Indian and Eastern Roman, earlier history of the Turkic speakersremains debatable, including their potential connections to the Xiongnu and Huns, which dominated the Eurasian steppe inthe first half of the 1st millennium CE. To answer these questions, we co-analyzed newly generated human genome-wide datafrom Central Asia (the 1240K panel), spanning the period from ca. 3000 to 500 YBP, and the data published by de BarrosDamgaard et al. (137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes, Nature, 2018). Firstly, we generated a PCAprojection to understand genetic affinities of ancient individuals with respect to present-day Tungstic, Mongolic, Turkic, Uralic,and Yeniseian-speaking groups. Secondly, we modeled hundreds of present-day and few ancient Turkic individuals using theqpAdm tool, testing various modern/ancient Siberian and ancient West Eurasian proxies for ancestry sources. A majority ofTurkic speakers in Central Asia, Siberia and further to the west share the same ancestry profile, being a mixture of Tungusic orMongolic speakers and genetically West Eurasian populations of Central Asia in the early 1st millennium CE. The latter arethemselves modelled as a mixture of Iron Age nomads (western Scythians or Sarmatians) and ancient Caucasians or Iranian farmers. For some Turkic groups in the Urals and the Altai regions and in the Volga basin, a different admixture model fits thedata: the same West Eurasian source + Uralic- or Yeniseian-speaking Siberians. Thus, we have revealed an admixture clinebetween Scythians and the Iranian farmer genetic cluster, and two further clines connecting the former cline to distinctancestry sources in Siberia. Interestingly, few Wusun-period individuals harbor substantial Uralic/Yeniseian-related Siberianancestry, in contrast to preceding Scythians and later Turkic groups characterized by the Tungusic/Mongolic-related ancestry.It remains to be elucidated whether this genetic influx reflects contacts with the Xiongnu confederacy. We are currentlyassembling a collection of samples across the Eurasian steppe for a detailed genetic investigation of the Hunnic confederacies."

"O–PSM–07The first Epipaleolithic genome from Anatolia suggests a limited role of demic diffusion in the development of farming inAnatoliaM. Feldman1

Anatolia was home to some of the earliest farming communities, which in the following millennia expanded into Europe andlargely replaced local hunter-gatherers. The lack of genetic data from pre-farming Anatolians has so far limited demographicinvestigations of the Anatolian Neolithisation process. In particular, it has been unclear whether and to what extent thedevelopment of farming in central Anatolia involved the migration of farmers from earlier farming centres. Here we presentthe first genome-wide data from an Anatolian Epipaleolithic hunter-gatherer excavated at the site of Pınarbaşı, Turkey wholived ca 15,000 years ago, as well as from early farmers from Anatolia and the Levant. We find a high degree of geneticcontinuity between the hunter-gatherer and early farmers of Anatolia and detect two distinct ancestry waves entering centralAnatolia during the Neolithic transition. Our results support models of cultural diffusion for the development of agriculture inAnatolia with only a limited role of population movement."

"North African ancestry in Islamic Medieval SpainM. Silva1

We sequenced the genome of an individual buried in a medieval Islamic necropolis (10th–13th century AD), in Plaza delAlmudin, Segorbe (province of Castellon, Spain), whose burial stands out from all the others in the cemetery. This was a ~20year-old male, considerably taller than all the other individuals buried in the same site (184–190 cm). It was the best preservedskeleton found in the cemetery, which allowed a thorough anthropological study that concluded that the individual sufferedfrom various non-lethal pathologies and impoverished nutrition during childhood. We sampled a molar tooth for ancient DNAand stable isotope analysis. We performed sample processing, DNA extraction and library preparation in a dedicated ancientDNA facility. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing yielded an average coverage of 0.06x. Genomic analysis confirms that theindividual is a male and genome-wide comparisons show affinity to North African populations. His mtDNA lineage is U6a1a1(mean mtDNA coverage: 16x). Haplogroup U6 reaches a peak in Northwest African modern populations, and U6a1a is found atvery low frequencies (<1%) in present-day Spain. We complemented the analysis with published ancient North African andIberian genomes, and with a newly-sequenced large modern mtDNA Spanish dataset (n>1000)."

This should be very interesting:

"The Neolithic transition in the Iberian Peninsula – reviewing an old question from new laboratory and computational approaches G. Gonzalez-Fortes1

In this study we investigated the demographic impact of the Neolithic transition in the Iberian Peninsula by combining cuttingedge technologies in ancient DNA studies and statistical inference methods. The Neolithic was a major revolution in humanprehistory, as human populations moved from a nomadic hunter-gatherer (HG) way of life to sedentary communities living onfarming and agriculture. It was a global process that spread fast from the Near East into Europe by a combination of culturaland demographic events. As a general picture, recent studies have shown that in south and central Europe the Neolithictransition was mainly mediated by migration and admixture between pioneering farmers and local HG, while in the north andnortheastern latitudes, cultural diffusion seems to have played a major role. In our study we investigated the dynamics anddemographic effects of the Neolithic transition at a local scale. We sampled ancient human remains in the north and south ofthe Iberian Peninsula, and based on whole genome data and 14C dates, we have investigated the times, modes anddemographic sources of the Neolithic diffusion at the two westernmost shores of Europe: the Atlantic and Mediterraneanareas in Iberia. Our results show a different genomic background in samples from the North and South of the IberianPeninsula, which could be explained by a combination of: 1) a different rate of admixture with the pioneering farmers; and 2)the pre-existence of some genetic structure in the Iberian populations before the Neolithic transition."

"Direct proteomic evidence of early dairying at Çatalhöyük R. Hagan

Çatalhöyük is a key site in understanding early animal domestication in Neolithic Anatolia. Bovine and caprovine faunalremains at Çatalhöyük suggest an increasingly intense exploitation of these animals. It has been argued that bovine remainsfrom the site represent both wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) and domesticated cattle and that sheep formed the primarysource of meat, but whether or not these animals were also exploited for dairying is still debated. Mortality profiling suggeststhat dairying may have been practiced at the site, but direct evidence is lacking. Recent advances in the recovery andidentification of ancient dietary proteins from human dental calculus have shown that proteins specific to dairy milk canpersist through archaeological time. In this study, we investigate direct evidence for the consumption of dairy products atÇatalhöyük by performing LC-MS/MS analysis of dental calculus belonging to individuals excavated from the East Mound.Identification of several milk proteins in dental calculus — including beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-S1-casein—indicates theconsumption of both whey and curd proteins from the genera Bos and Ovis. These results suggest dairy products wereproduced and consumed at Çatalhöyük in the Neolithic.

In this study, we investigate genome-wide data from 97 individuals from the Swiss Plateau, Southern Germany and the AlsaceRegion in France that span the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age (5500 to 4000 BP). Our results show a similargenetic process as reported for the Middle-Elbe-Saale region suggesting that the migration from the Pontic steppe reached allthe way into the Swiss Plateau. However, our evidence suggests that the onset of that transition may have started even earlierin Switzerland compared to the Middle-Elbe-Saale region.The existence of core families within multiple burials, the determination and quantification of different ancestry componentsand the evaluation of a migration route taken by the ancestors of the Late Neolithic populations in this region were analysed.Our data represent the first comprehensive genome wide dataset from Neolithic individuals from the Swiss Plateau andprovide the first insights into the genetic history of this region."

Lots and lots on diseases. This is just one. It seems Krause was correct. This was a huge factor.

"3,800-year-old Yersinia pestis suggests Bronze Age origin for bubonic plague M. A. Spyrou

Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent bacterium that causes bubonic, pneumonic and septicaemic plague and is infamous for itsthree documented pandemic eruptions throughout human history. Its transmission is facilitated via the flea vector, through amechanism that is considered a necessary prerequisite for manifestation of the, most typical, bubonic form. Ancient DNAanalysis has provided key insights regarding the early stages of Y. pestis evolution, with the oldest strains thus far isolatedstemming from the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age periods (LNBA- 5,000-3,500y BP). Although these strains wereevidently causing human infections, they seem to lack key genetic components required for efficient flea transmission, thusmaking their disease presentation in humans unclear.Here, we use a metagenomic approach to detect Y. pestis in Late Bronze Age (~3,800 yBP) remains from the Samara region ofmodern-day Russia and subsequently employ a hybridization capture method to enrich for the Y. pestis genome fromputatively positive individuals. Our reconstructed strains show clear distinctions to the previously described LNBA strains,suggesting that flea-adapted Y. pestis was present already during the Bronze Age. Through phylogenetic and molecular datinganalysis we propose that several Y. pestis lineages were established during that time, some of which persist to the present day(i.e. 0.PE4, 0.PE2, 0.PE7).Taken together, our results suggest that the ability for flea-mediated transmission causing bubonic plague in Y. pestis waspresent at least 4,000 years ago."

Pax Augusta
05-09-18, 20:47
8th InternatIonal SympoSIum on BIomolecular archaeology

18–21 st September 2018, Jena, Germany.

Programme

https://www.isba8.de/fileadmin/congress/media/isba2018/druckelemente/ISBA2018%20Programm.pdf

Angela
05-09-18, 20:51
"O–MOB–02Early population history of the island of Crete in Greece – isotopic evidence for diet and mobilityA. Nafplioti11University of Cambridge, Archaeology, Cambridge, United KingdomDespite accumulating evidence for visitation of the island of Crete by Mesolithic and Palaeolithic foragers, there is a generalconsensus over a purposive Neolithic colonization by newcomers from Anatolia. Probably arriving in more than a singleepisode over several centuries, these newcomers are considered the first settlers. Dating back to the beginning of the seventhmillennium BC, Knossos is one of the earliest farming sites in Europe.In the above context, this paper presents and discusses results from a Marie Skłodowska-Curie project. This research usedhuman skeletal remains from Crete, which date to the period between 5500 and 2000 BC, including the earliest known humancollection from the island, and analysis of five complementary isotope systems to investigate geographical origins and diet asproxies for distinguishing between different groups, reconstruct mobility and gain insights into the lifeways and socialorganization of the respective communities. AMS radiocarbon dates, which were also generated as part of this projectprovided a clear chronological framework for this research."

"O–MOB–03Bronze Age population dynamics and the rise of dairy pastoralism on the eastern Eurasian steppeC. Warinner
Recent paleogenomic studies have shown that migrations of Western steppe herders (WSH), beginning in the Eneolithic (ca.3300-2700 BCE), profoundly transformed the genes and cultures of Europe and Central Asia. Compared to Europe, the easternextent of this WSH expansion is not well defined. Here we present genomic and proteomic data from 22 directly dated BronzeAge khirigsuur burials from Khövsgöl, Mongolia (ca. 1380-975 BCE). Only one individual showed evidence of WSH ancestry,despite the presence of WSH populations in the nearby Altai-Sayan region for more than a millennium. At the same time, LCMS/MSanalysis of dental calculus provides direct protein evidence of milk consumption from Western domesticated livestockin 7 of 9 individuals. Our results show that dairy pastoralism was adopted by Bronze Age Mongolians despite minimal geneticexchange with Western steppe herders."

Another myth hits the dust. Not as bad as the one about Eastern European hunters chasing the mammoths, but...See:

"O–MOB–04The Steppe was Sown – multi-isotopic research changes our understandings of Scythian diet and mobilityA. R. Ventresca Miller
Nomadic pastoralists conventionally known as the Scythians occupied the Pontic steppe during the Iron Age, c. 700-200 BC, aperiod of unprecedented pan-regional interaction. Popular science accounts of the Scythians promote narratives of rovingbands of nomadic warriors traversing the steppe from the Altai Mountains to the Black Sea coastline. The quantity and scale ofmobility in the region is usually emphasized based on the wide distribution of material culture and the characterization of IronAge subsistence economies in the Pontic steppe and forest-steppe as mobile pastoralism. Yet, there remains a lack ofsystematic, direct analysis of the mobility of individuals and their animals. Here, we present a multi-isotopic analysis ofhumans from Iron Age Scythian sites in Ukraine. Mobility and dietary intake were documented through strontium, carbon andoxygen isotope analyses of tooth enamel. Our results provide direct evidence for mobility among populations in the steppeand forest-steppe zones, demonstrating a range of localized mobility strategies. However, we found that very few individualscame from outside of the broader vicinity of each site, often staying within a 90 km radius. Dietary intake varied at the intrasitelevel and was based in agro-pastoralism.While terrestrial protein did form a portion of the diet for some individuals, there were also high levels of a 13C-enriched foodsource among many individuals, which has been interpreted as millet consumption. Individuals exhibiting 87Sr/86Sr ratios thatfell outside the local range were more likely to have lower rates of millet consumption than those that fell within the localrange. This suggests that individuals moving to the site later in life had different economic pursuits and consumed less millet.There is also strong evidence that children and infants moved at the pan-regional scale. Contrary to the popular narrative, themajority of Scythians engaged in localized mobility as part of agricultural lifeways while pan-regional movements includedfamily groups."

"P–001Migration and social organisation studies through ancient genomic analysis of multi-faith populations from Medieval Sicily(ERC Project Sicily in Transition, SICTRANSIT)A. Monnereau1

"Introduction: The Middle Ages (6th to 13th century) in the Mediterranean area witnessed successive conquests bringing withthem new social rules, and ideological regimes, whether Christian or Islamic. The SICTRANSIT project examines the impact ofthese ideological transitions in Sicily, combining archaeological, molecular, anthropological, ceramics and Isotopic studies.Sicily is an ideal location to study these questions: at the confluence of the East, West and Arab world, Sicily has witnessedfour major changes from Byzantine to Aghlabid to Fatimid to Norman to Swabian. Each of these transitions potentially broughtnew networks of exchange, new social rules as well as new groups of migrants with their own genetic patrimony.Objectives: In this project, we apply ancient DNA analysis to over 50 samples from human remains spanning the 6th to 13thcentury from different sites in Sicily, in order to: 1) examine evidence for genetic continuity / discontinuity or for large scalepopulation shifts over this key period; 2) identify the relationship between Medieval populations and contemporary Sicilians;3) to determine to what extent population affinity is linked to faith-based identity (Christians/Muslims cemeteries).Methods: We extract DNA from petrous bones, long bones or teeth, build double-stranded libraries and sequence them usinga whole-genome approach. We characterise the proportion of endogenous DNA, and assess patterns of authenticity based onsequence length and misincorporation patterns. We apply the programs LASER (PCAs) and ADMIXTURE to examine similarityto modern populations (HDGP dataset).Results: Preliminary analyses of both teeth, long and petrous bones, indicate a range of sample preservation, ranging from 0%to at least 15% endogenous DNA. Average fragment length and damage estimates are consistent with authentic ancienttemplate. For samples with low endogenous DNA preservation, only sex identification could be accomplished. For high qualitysamples, nuclear data produced estimates of ancestry, including at least one individual of West African descent.Conclusion: This ongoing project brings new information for reconstructing human migration in the Mediterranean during theMiddle Ages and its consequences on spatial allele variation in the modern population, as well as new insight into faith-basedidentity."

Angela
06-09-18, 00:31
Why were 17 people buried in a well in 12th century Norwich? – genome-wide analysis of Medieval human remains fromChapelfield, Norwich, UKT. Booth1, S. Brace1, Y. Diekmann2, Z. Faltyskova2, M. Thomas2, I. Barnes1

In 2004 human remains were recovered from a spoil heap of construction work on the Chapelfield shopping centre in Norwich,UK. Archaeological investigations discovered that the bones had come from a circular shaft that had probably constituted thebottom of a well. Excavation of the well shaft produced a disarticulated comingled assemblage of human remains representingat least 17 individuals (six adults and 11 children). The stratigraphic relationships between the skeletons combined withradiocarbon dating and pottery typology indicated that the bodies had been buried over a short period of time in 12th-13thCenturies AD, and possibly deposited in a single event. The well was located close to the Jewish quarter of the Medieval city,which may be significant given that late-12th Century Britain is notorious for documented incidents of violence towards Jewishcommunities. However, there were no detectable signs of trauma on the Chapelfield bones. Possible alternative explanationsfor this unusual burial event include a local epidemic, famine or a divergent form of funerary treatment afforded to certainindividuals because of their economic, social or religious circumstances.

Here we present genome-wide shotgun and capture data from the Chapelfield human remains. All individuals analysed showgreatest affinities with modern Ashkenazi Jewish and Southern European populations. Chronological modelling of radiocarbondates using Bayesian inferences produce a range centred on 1190 AD, the date of a historical massacre of Jews in Norwich. Weinfer that the individuals recovered from the Chapelfield site do indeed represent victims of a documented anti-Semiticpogrom. Most recent palaeogenomic studies have been concerned with demographic processes that took place over hundredsor thousands of years, but this result demonstrates their power in producing dramatic material evidence of single historicalevents. In providing information on a European Jewish people who lived before the Medieval population bottleneck, thesedata will also facilitate novel insight into their ancient population history, including admixture with other European groups."

I don't buy it. Why would they choose to be thrown into a well? Maybe they were just tossed in there and left to die.

"First genetic data from the Holocene Green Sahara – new insights into the human mitochondrial phylogenyS. Vai

Ancient DNA studies give us the possibility to directly observe the genetic variation through time and to explore the history ofanatomically modern human populations with a high level of resolution. While genetic data from a high number of individualsare available for almost all the geographical areas in Eurasia covering a wide temporal range, information from Africa is limiteddue to climate conditions that are not favourable to the DNA preservation in most of the continent. For this reason, theknowledge of African genetic variability was restricted to modern data until recently, when studies focused on samples fromsouth and east Africa, Egypt and Morocco were published. Filling the gaps in space and time is extremely important sincepresent-day genetic variability could not properly reflect the past situation: different population genetics dynamics may haveoccurred in different times and with specific regional impacts, modifying haplotype distribution and frequencies. Here wepresent the first genetic data for the Saharan region, characterized by severe climate oscillations that could have drivenpopulation expansion and contractions, migrations, admixture or isolation in the past. We analysed two ~7000-year-old femaleindividuals with signs of natural mummification from Takarkori Rockshelter, Libya. The mitochondrial genomes show a novelmutation motif phylogenetically linked to the haplogroup N root. The divergence of this haplogroup from L3 lineage iscommonly dated around 50-65 ka, probably located in the Arabian Peninsula and linked to the exit of AMH from Africa. Thepresence of this haplotype in Takarkori can represent a past relic of an African origin of haplogroup N or a trace of an ancientmigration from Eurasia not previously documented. Our finding highlights the importance to increase genetic data for pastAfrican populations in order to detect lineages nowadays possibly disappeared or whose geographical distribution andfrequencies changed during time."

"P–012Genetic continuity in the western Eurasian Steppe broken not due to Scythian dominance, but rather at the transition to theChernyakhov culture (Ostrogoths)

The long-held archaeological view sees the Early Iron Age nomadic Scythians expanding west from their Altai region homelandacross the Eurasian Steppe until they reached the Ponto-Caspian region north of the Black and Caspian Seas by around 2,900BP1,2. However, the migration theory has not found support from ancient DNA evidence3, and it is still unclear how much ofthe Scythian dominance in the Eurasian Steppe was due to movements of people and how much reflected cultural diffusionand elite dominance. We present new whole-genome results of 31 ancient Western and Eastern Scythians as well as samplespre- and postdating them that allow us to set the Scythians in a temporal context by comparing the Western Scythians tosamples before and after within the Ponto-Caspian region. We detect no significant contribution of the Scythians to the EarlyIron Age Ponto-Caspian gene pool, inferring instead a genetic continuity in the western Eurasian Steppe that persisted fromat least 4,800–4,400 cal BP to 2,700–2,100 cal BP (based on our radiocarbon dated samples), i.e. from the Yamnaya throughthe Scythian period.However, the transition from the Scythian to the Chernyakhov culture between 2,100 and 1,700 cal BP does mark a shift inthe Ponto-Caspian genetic landscape, with various analyses showing that Chernyakhov culture samples share more drift andderived alleles with Bronze/Iron Age and modern Europeans, while the Scythians position outside modern European variation.Our results agree well with the Ostrogothic origins of the Chernyakhov culture and support the hypothesis that the Scythiandominance was cultural rather than achieved through population replacement."

"Genome-wide data describe Siberian ancestry in ancient FennoscandiaK. Majander
Northeastern Europe has so far remained understudied from the perspective of ancient DNA, especially compared to mainlandEurope, for which studies of ancient population genetics have provided remarkable findings in the last years. In this study, weexplore the genetic connections and migrations in the eastern Fennoscandian by analysing ancient genomes fromarchaeological human remains of Finnish and Northwest Russian origin.A genome-wide sequencing dataset was analysed for 11 ancient individuals, consisting of six individuals from the 3,500-yearoldsite of Bolshoy Oleni Ostrov, in Russian Kola Peninsula, three from an Iron-Age lake burial of Levänluhta in Ostrobothnia,Finland and two from an 18th century Saami cemetery of Chalmny Varre. The ancestral components in modern and ancientpopulations were investigated using F4 statistics and admixture analysis. The ancestry proportions for populations wereestimated using qpAdm. A relative date for the admixture events of interest was obtained based on admixture linkagedisequilibrium decay, as implemented in the alder program.Both modern and ancient populations of northeastern Europe support models of mixture between European and NorthSiberian ancestry, the latter best proxied by the modern-day Nganasan population in the Taimyr Peninsula. A Siberian ancestrycomponent was observed forming a gradient through time. It comprised more than a half of the genomes of the earliestindividuals, from 3,500 years ago (Bolshoy). The component was present in considerable amounts in the samples from IronAgeFinland and both modern and ancient Saami individuals, whereas lower proportions were observed in other modernFinno-Ugrian populations and their close relatives.The arrival of the Siberian component in the population ancestral to the Bolshoy individuals was dated roughly to 4000 yearsbefore present, signaling an early migration and admixture event between Siberia and Europe. However, multiple waves ofimmigration have likely carried the Siberian ancestry component to its westernmost extremity in Fennoscandia. The particularprevalence of this component in the Uralic language speakers may be associated with the spread of the language group."

"New insights into British Neolithic milk consumptionS. Charlton
There has long been debate over the origins of milk drinking and dairy product consumption within European populations.Whilst it has previously been assumed that lactase persistence (LP) was positively selected for following the advent ofagriculture – as the ability to consume raw milk may have provided a selective advantage due to its nutritional qualities –recent genetic studies of prehistoric human remains have revealed that LP may have only emerged in Europe in the last 4,000years, and that Neolithic populations would likely not have had LP. This is in contrast to organic residue analysis of Neolithicpottery indicating the utilisation of dairy, and zooarchaeological mortality profiles indicative of dairying herds recovered fromNeolithic sites. The recent discovery of the preservation of the milk protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG) in human dental calculushowever presents a new way in which we can explore dairy use in the archaeological past – and provides direct evidence ofmilk consumption. Here, we present the results of proteomic analysis of human dental calculus samples from a number ofBritish Neolithic sites which has revealed the presence of BLG peptides – but in individuals who are unlikely to have had LP.The protein results can help us to explore the use of dairy in the British Neolithic, potential processing of milk by Neolithicpopulations, and possible production of new forms of dairy products."

They were consuming milk products in Catalhoyuk and now in British Neolithic. All of that without the common Lactase Persistence gene. What gives?

"Investigating ancient syphilis – macroscopic suspicions and molecular detection of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidumin 150-year-old foetal remains, Marseille, FranceA. Meffray

"Syphilis has been known since the late XVth century for being a chronic, ubiquitous infectious disease among ancientpopulations and, consequently, a severe health burden. In theory, the presence of treponemal spirochetes in bones allowstheir DNA detection in ancient skeletal material by molecular approaches. However, since its first isolation on anarchaeological specimen in 1999, and despite multiple published research articles reporting attempts to isolate treponemalancient DNA (aDNA), little success was encountered in molecular studies of syphilis.Our study aimed to investigate several 150-year-old French foetal and infant specimens exhibiting palaeopathological signs ofprobable congenital syphilis.We performed macroscopic and molecular investigations of Treponema pallidum on six infant remains from the cemetery "LesCrottes" in Marseille city (XVIII-XIXth century). PCR-based amplification methods developed from previous clinical andpalaeomicrobiological studies were used for molecular investigations, following strict protocols warranting absence ofcontaminations and result authenticity. Positive PCR products were processed by Sanger sequencing, and sequence analysiswas performed using NCBI"s online Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST).Studied specimens, buried between 1837 and 1867, showed widespread osteoporotic lesions across the skeleton, possiblyrelated to a systemic infectious disease, including congenital syphilis. Among them, specimen SP332 yielded positive results forall the tested amplification systems, subsequent sequences analysis supporting strong evidence for the effective detection ofTreponema pallidum subspecies pallidum aDNA.This individual is the first PCR-confirmed palaeopathological case of syphilis identified in France, and the youngest specimenever to be diagnosed with certainty for congenital syphilis (29 amenorrhea weeks, approximately 7 months in utero). Thisstudy allows better insights on congenital syphilis manifestations among very young immatures. Those results illustrate thatosteoarchaeological remains of immature individuals are indeed a valuable material for molecular investigations targetingancient syphilis."

So I guess it didn't come from the New World

"Diet and population mobility in the Early Medieval Alpine area (Italy)V. Coia

In the Early Middle Ages, South Tyrol (Alto Adige, Italy) played a key role as strategic territorial junction of relevantgeographical and military power. Limited historical sources documented that many nonlocal groups (Germanic and Slavic),after crossing the Alps, entered the South Tyrolean valleys. The material culture showed the mutual cultural exchanges amongpreviously settled and nonlocal people. Besides that, the nature of these migrations and their demographic and socio-culturalimpacts are still unknown. Stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S) analyses were conducted to explore dietary and migrationpatterns of individuals living in different valleys. Bone collagen of 91 human samples and 33 faunal remains from ninearchaeological sites, located in four valleys at different altitudes (from 395 msl in Adige - 1427 msl in Venosta) were analysed.The results showed significant statistical differences in the isotopic signatures, not only within but also among valleys,indicating variations in subsistence strategies and possible socio-cultural behavior. Highly significant differences in the δ13Cvalues of the individuals found in Venosta indicated a C3 plant based diet (mean and standard deviation: -19.1‰±0.5)compared to Adige, where more positive carbon values (-18‰±0.9) showed a possible intake of C4 plants (e.g. millet).Interestingly, the δ13C data correspond to the different altitudes, with more positive values at lower sites. The δ15N valuesshowed greater protein consumption at higher altitudes and possible differences between sexes in access to dairy productsand animal proteins (e.g., meat). The δ34S data supported the identification of nonlocal individuals in all areas, indicatinggreater mobility in Adige (+8.7‰±2.1). The study suggests that the impact of allochthonous populations in this territory mightnot lead to cultural exchange only, but also to the settling of these people. Ongoing genomic analyses (BioArchEM project) willprovide more information in understanding the origin of Early Medieval populations in South Tyrol."

Angela
06-09-18, 03:16
"Maternal lineages from Iron Age to present in Eastern Fennoscandia S. Översti

Introduction: aDNA has revealed that the Neolithization involved a turnover of maternal lineages in Europe: haplogroup (hg) U, dominating in hunter-gatherers, was widely replaced by the farmer-associated hgs such as H. As a result, modern European populations show different proportions of these hgs. In Finland, mtDNA diversity resembles that observed in other populations, but holds relatively high frequency of U and shows internal substructure: U is more common in the north-east (NE) Finland and farmer-associated hgs in the south-west (SW). This pattern has been interpreted to reflect the arrival of agriculture from the south-west, most likely associated to the spread of the Corded Ware Culture c. 4,500 ya. Objectives: To provide insight into the past of Eastern Fennoscandia, complete mtDNA genomes from Iron Age to Medieval Era were obtained from Finland. These derived from five burial grounds, of which Levänluhta (300-800 AD, N=13), Luistari (600- 1130 AD, N=10) and Kirkkailanmäki (1100-1200 AD, N=16) are located in SW Finland, and Kylälahti (1200-1400 AD, N=14) and Tuukkala (1200-1400 AD, N=19) sites in south-eastern (SE) Finland. Methods: Extraction of aDNA was performed as in Meyer et al. 2010 and mtDNA capture as in Dabney et al. 2013. Raw sequence data processing was performed with EAGER and Schmutzi. Statistical analyses were calculated in Arlequin 3.5.2.2. Results: The 72 haplotypes obtained belong to hgs observed in modern Finns, but the frequencies differ both from the modern population and between studied sites: the SW sites showed higher frequency of U (60%) than the SE sites (19%) or the modern data (23 %). H showed an opposite trend: 52% in SE and 27% in SW. On sequence level, SW sites have higher affinity to the modern NE, while SE sites cluster with modern SW. Furthermore, within the SW sites the distribution of U subhaplogroups is uneven: Levänluhta has high frequency of U5a and Saami-related hg U5b1b1a whereas other SW sites show relatively high frequencies of U4. Conclusion: Our results suggest an interpretation that among the studied sites and modern Finns, there are varying levels of admixture of three ancestries: Saami (U5b1b1), possible non-Saami hunter-gatherers (U4, U5a) and farmers (H, J, T, K). The high prevalence of H in the eastern sites might reflect bidirectional arrival of the farming-associated populations into Finland, challenging the traditional assumption of the spread of agriculture from the south-west."

"Paleogenetic study of ancient archaeological finds related to Kazakh ethnogenesis N. Nurzhibek

Ethnic history of the Kazakh people is rooted in the ancient period of settling the territory of modern Kazakhstan. The 1st archaeological finds in the territory of Kazakhstan belong to the Paleolithic period. According to archaeological and paleoanthropological data, the ancient tribes spread on the territory of Kazakhstan since the Bronze Age. We studied the genetic structure of the modern Kazakhs population based on the information about pedigree analysis (shezhire) and Y-chromosome (875 persons) and mtDNA characteristics (130 persons). The DNA-analysis of two important archaeological finds, which can provide the information about ancient Human migrations and Kazakh ethnogenesis, was conducted: 1) bone remains belonging to the object of Hun elite from Hungarian Natural History Museum, dated to the middle third of the V century CE; 2) a cranium of Eneolithic period human from Botai settlement dated IV-III millennium BC. To the paleo-DNAs analysis the historical data were studied, the archaeological and anthropological evidences were obtained. It was revealed that Hun period bone remains from Hungary are characterized by R1a haplotype of Y-chromosome and D4j12 haplotype of mtDNA, that testifies the Asian origin of ancient object"s paternal and maternal lines. The phylogenetic and bioinformation analysis determines the genetic proximity of the ancient Hun with ancient and modern populations from Asia and suggests the possibility of ancient people migrations from the Asia Minor to Central and East Asia via Tibet. Comparison of ancient object"s DNA with DNAs of modern descendants of the historically mixed protopopulation Argyn, considering intratribal clans, does not reject the genetic affinity of paternal lines between ancient object and the descendants of ArgynMeiram (Suindyk and Karakesek) clan, and ancient maternal line with maternal lines of Argyn-Momyn-Sarzhetim clan descendants. Our results show that Eneolithic period man from settlement Botai, characterizes by Y-chromosome haplotype R1b1a1 and mtDNA haplotype K1b2 and the female individual is Z1mtDNA haplotype. The Eneolithic Botai individuals are closest to each other in the PC space than to any other ancient or present-day individual, and are in proximity to the upper Paleolithic Siberians from the Mal"ta or Afontova Gora archaeological sites. Botai represents a separate group that has genetic similarity with both European and Asian populations."

"Genetic diversity and social stratification in prehistoric Balkans – genomes, culture and the rise of complex societies S. Freilich1 , R. Pinhasi1 1 University of Vienna, Anthropology, Vienna, Austria

New whole genomes from Neolithic and Bronze Age Balkan specimens have been sequenced in order to assess intrapopulation genetic signatures and reconstruct ancestry in the context of social stratification as indicated in the archaeological record. The Balkan Peninsula was an important corridor for the first migrating farmers into Europe, and is a key region for understanding what impact the arrival of Neolithic migrants had on both social organisation and genetic composition in early settlements. A paucity of Balkan specimens means questions remain regarding hunter-gatherer and farmer interactions, and how social stratification developed following the Neolithic transition. Do genetic substructures correlate with intra-cemetery inequalities visible in the funerary record, and how was social status conceived? Almost forty Starčevo inhumations from the Neolithic site of Beli Manastir-Popova Zemlja are found in contracted position with ceramic vessels placed by their head, while a minority are deposited atypically in a channel. In addition, the nearby site of Bronze Age Jagodnjak-Krčevine contains inhumations accompanied by varying numbers and types of grave goods. Aims include identification of SNPs to investigate biogeographic origins, phenotype, admixture, and sex-specific mobility patterns. Furthermore, relationships to other ancient and modern Eurasian samples are investigated, as well as demographic patterns of migration and impacts on human genomic diversity. Petrous bones of 28 specimens were sampled for aDNA and extracts built into libraries. Whole genome shotgun sequencing was performed to above 1X coverage, followed by strict quality control measures and bioinformatic analyses to identify SNPs and perform tests of genomic variation and ancestry. Preliminary results from principal components analysis for nuclear SNP data show Bronze Age samples plotting uniformly, while two Neolithic specimens plot slightly out of expected range. Further measures of genetic diversity including admixture analysis, together with results of haplogroup assignment will be presented to clarify their origin and intra-population genetic substructures. Carbon, nitrogen and strontium stable isotope analysis from the same individuals will complement these results to further investigate dietary status and mobility patterns in relation to the development of social organisation in this understudied area."

"Characterizing the mesolthic to neolthic transition in central and southern Italy using genome-wide data from 10,000 to 6,000-year-old individuals A. Fromentier1

The Mesolithic period in Italy stretches from ~9,000 BC to ~6,200 BC and consists of two main phases, both characterized by different technologies: Mesolithic I (Sauveterrian, ~9,000 BC to ~6,800 BC ) and Mesolithic II (Castelnovian, ~6,800 BC to ~6,200 BC). While the archaeological record in northern Italy is abundant and follows a standard transition from Mesolithic I to II, the record from Central/Southern Italy is much more scarce. Additionally, many Mesolithic sites found in the Center/South still display Paleolithic features, and are immediately followed by the Neolithic originating in the Fertile Crescent, which reached the Adriatic coast around 6,200 BC before spreading quickly in the Italian peninsula. Overall, the Paleolithic/Mesolithic/Neolithic transitions within Central/Southern Italy remains poorly understood. In particular, the existence of both possible contacts between Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers and possible exchanges between Sicily and Tunisia, as suggested from cultural evidence, remain unclear. In order to answer these questions, we have developed a project aimed at collecting genome-wide sequence data from multiple individuals of the Mesolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in Central/Southern Italy and Tunisia."

"Investigation of mitochondrial genomes of medieval populations (6-12th centuries AD) lived in the Ural and Volga-Kama region in context with early Hungarian

Different scientific theories exist about the origin of early Hungarians and their migration from North-Central Asia to Central Europe in the 8-9th centuries. The Hungarian conquerors arrived in the Carpathian Basin 895 AD. Until their arrival they migrated with attached folk elements that joint along the way westwards from the Ural region through the Middle-Volga region on the East-European steppe. The first relics from archaeological cultures that are most probably connected with Hungarian ancestors – the Kusnarenkovo and Karajakupovo cultures – were found in the regions of the Central and Southern Urals. The exact origin, route and chronology of the migration is still unclear and intensively debated by historians, linguists and archaeologists. In our research, we are approaching these issues with archeogenetic methods. We investigate Medieval (6-12th century) populations from the Ural region, the Carpathian Basin and principal sites of the supposed migration route, which territories had archaeological connections to each other and to early Hungarians. Our test object is the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), which makes possible to determine the maternal descent line due to its special inheritance. We compare our complete mitochondrial genome sequences with modern and ancient populations, thereby we aim to explore the migration of Hungarian Conquerors. We examined samples from east side of the Central-Ural, from its west side and from Volga-Kama region. We sequenced the whole mitochondrial DNA of more than 65 samples, and determined mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Based on our preliminary results, the populations are heterogeneous, in all of them appear both European and Asian haplogroups, but in different proportions. The Uralian populations show Central and Northeast Asian mtDNA composition, whereas the WestUralian population has more connections to Eastern Europe and to the Caucasus. Certain haplotypes connect the investigated Central Eurasian communities to the first Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin, although the Asian lineages were diluted along the way of migration and during the conquest of the new homeland. With these new information, we can get closer to understand the migration of Hungarian Conquerors and the maternal genetic composition of the Medieval populations of Central Eurasia."

"Population dynamics at Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Arslantepe, Anatolia E. Skourtanioti1

While Anatolia was highlighted as the genetic origin of early Neolithic European farmers, the genetic substructure in Anatolia itself as well as the demographic and cultural changes remain unclear. In eastern Anatolia, the archaeological record reflects influences from North-Central Anatolia, the northeastern sectors of Fertile Crescent and the Caucasus, and suggests that some of these were brought along with the movement of people. Central to this question is the archaeological site of Arslantepe (6th-1st millennium BC), strategically located at the Upper Euphrates, the nexus of all three regions. Arslantepe also developed one of the first state societies of Anatolia along with advanced metal-technologies. Archaeological research suggests that conflicts with surrounding groups of pastoralists affiliated to the Caucasus might have contributed to the collapse of its palatial system at the end of the Chalcolithic period (4th millennium BC). To test if these developments were accompanied by genetic changes, we generated genome-wide data from 18 ancient individuals spanning from the Late Chalcolithic period to the Early Bronze Age of Arslantepe. Our results show no evidence for a major genetic shift between the two time periods. However, we observe that individuals from Arslantepe are very heterogeneous and differentiated from other ancient western and central Anatolians in that they have more Iran/Caucasus related ancestry. Our data also show evidence for an ongoing but also recent confluence of Anatolian/Levantine and Caucasus/Iranian ancestries, highlighting the complexity of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age periods in this region."

After the early Neolithic, there was genetic admixture.

"Paleogenomics of populations in France, from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age S. Brunel

Expanding from Anatolia into Europe about 7,500 years ago, the Neolithic culture based on agriculture followed two different routes, through the Balkans along the Danube northwards to the Hungarian plain and from there westwards to arrive in the Parisian Basin, and along the coastline of the Mediterranean basin to arrive in Southern France and Spain. Both migration waves eventually reached the territory of present-day France, where the Neolithic culture further evolved and was later replaced by the Bronze Age culture, over the course of the third and second millennia BC. While France is a geographic crossroads that provided multiple opportunities for interaction between populations of different origins, as is well documented by the archaeological record, the underlying demographic processes were not yet explored at a territory-wide scale . Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes, Y chromosome markers and genotypes on a number of nuclear loci of interest obtained through a DNA enrichment approach of 163 Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age individuals sampled from three regions of present-day France, the North, the East, and the South. This study provides, for the first time, a highresolution 4000-year transect of the dynamics of maternal and paternal lineages in France as well as of autosomal genotypes associated with known phenotypes. This transect that comprises two major cultural transitions (Mesolithic-Neolithic and Neolithic-Bronze Age), reveals contrasting population dynamics between northern and southern France. The study of 120 nuclear SNPs, covering both physical and physiological traits, allowed us to follow the evolution of the allelic frequency over time of several phenotypes that characterize modern Europeans. This study fills a large gap in the understanding of the peopling of western Europe from the Mesolithic to the Bronze Age, completing the knowledge of the global process of the Neolithization of Europe."

"After the plague – genetic history of the human population of Medieval Cambridge T. Kivisild

"After the plague" is a collaborative project that combines methods of archaeology, history, osteoarchaeology, isotopes and ancient DNA of both humans and pathogens for the study of the people of Medieval Cambridge. Low coverage shotgun sequence data has been generated from more than 80 individual samples from an urban cemetery of the Hospital of St John the Evangelist, contextualized with similar data produced from other contemporary local cemeteries, including individuals of various social background, and a time transect of Cambridgeshire, with an aim to understand the effects of the Black Death epidemic(s) of 1347-1351 on the health status and genetic composition of a Medieval town population. Analyses focused on the reads mapping to the human reference genome aimed to explore how the epidemic influenced genetic diversity of the population at the scale of the entire genome and whether individual genes, those associated with immunity in particular, have shown more change than other genes. Genome-wide data has also been used to assess the diversity of urban Medieval Cambridge after the establishment of the university and the level of immigration from continental Europe among various social groups of the town."

This Zink group is as slow as molasses. Are they just skiing all the time?

"Genomic diversity of ancient individuals from the Iceman´s territory in the Eastern Italian Alps V. Coia

"Since the prehistory, the Eastern Italian Alps have been a meeting point for people with different origin. Various cultural material as well as funerary rituals documented in this region during the Copper Age (~3700-2200 a.C), suggests several contacts with non-local cultures from east and west Europe during that time. The Tyrolean Iceman (3360-3100 cal. BC) is the best representative of the Copper Age in the Eastern Alps. So far, besides the Tyrolean Iceman, only one Mesolithic sample (Veneto Dolomites) has been genetically analysed from this area. Therefore, there is a lack of regional ancient genomic data to better understand the genomic diversity of prehistoric alpine groups. Comparison with ancient and modern samples, have shown that the Iceman clusters with Early Neolithic farmers from different parts of Europe and with Neolithic individuals from Anatolia. In addition, European individuals contemporary of the Iceman cluster together. These Copper Age individuals also differ from the Iceman in their ancestry and admixture patterns, showing different proportions of Neolithic, hunter gatherers and Eastern (Yamnaya) ancestry components. Since the Iceman alone cannot be considered as representative of the genomic diversity of this alpine area, we are analyzing in this study seven additional prehistoric individuals from the Iceman´s territory. Two samples have approximately the same dating of the Iceman while the other are dating to the Middle Neolithic and to the Copper-Early Bronze Age. The new data will give us the opportunity to better understand the genomic diversity of Eastern Italian Alps and the Iceman´s genetic history. Furthermore, with additional genomic data from this crucial South-eastern European area, we will contribute to know more about the main demographic events that occurred in prehistoric Europe. First shotgun analyses of four pars petrosa samples indicate high percentage of endogenous content (from ~9% to 52%) and low mitochondrial contamination rates. All individual will be now further subjected to deeper sequencing aiming to perform genome-wide comparative analyses with the Iceman and a dataset of European and Near Eastern ancient individuals."

"Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes from Britain, France, Germany and Spain reveal extensive strain diversity during the First Plague Pandemic (541-750 CE) M. Keller

The first historically reported pandemic unambiguously assigned to Yersinia pestis is the Justinianic Plague (541-544). It was later followed by numerous outbreaks in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East until the mid-8th century, often referred to as the "First Pandemic". Despite the lack of historical records in southern Germany, the identification and characterization of the causative lineage has thus far been based solely on ancient genomes found in two early Medieval cemeteries in this region. These two genomes, that are identical, occupy a distinct phylogenetic position in the modern diversity of Y. pestis on a now extinct or undocumented branch. We aim to elucidate the evolutionary history of Y. pestis during the "First Pandemic" by sampling on a broader spatial and temporal scale, including the Mediterranean basin that is known to have been heavily affected by plague as well as more questionable regions such as Britain. After screening of more than 150 samples and performing targeted DNA enrichment of positive candidates, we recovered three new genomes from Germany, and one from each of Britain, France and Spain with 5 to 10-fold mean coverage. Only two of the genomes were identical to those previously published, having stemmed from relatively nearby cemeteries. The newly sequenced strains reveal a rapid diversification of strains during the Justinianic Plague, similar to the radiation events described in association with the "Second" (14th to 18th c.) and "Third" (19th to 20th c.) Pandemics. At least four independent strains seem to have emerged during this event, two of which were found in southern Germany. The British genome substantiates the bacterium"s presence in this region already at, likely, the onset of the "First Pandemic". However, the genomes recovered from Spain and France appear phylogenetically distinct, reflecting historical records that testify that Y. pestis affected the western Mediterranean basin multiple times during the late 6th and 7th centuries. In addition, the French genome falls in the most derived position on this branch, and seems to lack a genomic region that includes two previously identified virulence genes. Overall, the genomes we present substantially contribute to the understanding of the "First Pandemic" which remains, to, date comparatively understudied by the field of archaeogenetics."

"16th-century Yersinia pestis genome from Logroño, Spain underlines plague persistence in Europe during the Second Pandemic G. U. Neumann1

The Black Death caused by Yersinia pestis ravaged Europe between 1346-1353 AD and was followed in numerous places by further major outbreaks until the 18th century. It is still under discussion whether these were due to reintroductions of the pathogen from Asia or its persistence in local reservoirs within Europe. Here, we analyzed 55 teeth from individuals buried in the necropolis of La Inquisición at Logroño, Spain, an important station along one of the main pilgrim routes of the Camino de Santiago. From the 13th century until 1512 this site was a pilgrim hospital (Hospital de Santa María de Rocamador) and included a cemetery that probably maintained its funerary function in the following decades. In 1564, the city of Logroño was struck by a mass mortality event that is referred to as pestilencia in written historical records. During this event a great number of corpses were buried in the cemetery of the abandoned hospital. Through a qPCR based assay specific to the Yersinia pestis pla gene, located on the pPCP1 plasmid, ten of these teeth showed possible preservation of this pathogen"s DNA. Subsequently, UDG-treated DNA libraries from these extracts were prepared and were whole-genome captured for Yersinia pestis DNA. After high throughput sequencing, the data were mapped against the Yersinia pestis CO92 reference genome for authentication, as well as SNP and phylogenetic analyses. We present here a post-Black Death genome retrieved from the Iberian pensinsula and are able to show that the 1564 outbreak of pestilencia at Logroño was caused by Yersinia pestis. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the Logroño genome occupies a position within the European Yersinia pestis cluster in close relation to the previously published genomes of Ellwangen, Germany and Marseilles, France. Our data provide further support for the hypothesis of a western Eurasian focus of post-Black Death plague instead of a re-introduction from Asia and provide insights into the local diversification of Yersinia pestis during the second pandemic."

"Population transformations in the 6000-2000 BC period of the Carpathian Basin A. Szécsényi-Nagy

Here we present the population versus cultural dynamics of Neolithization and later prehistoric times in the region of today"s Hungary. We use a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with over 100 samples from the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Bronze Age periods (ca. 6000–2000 BC), carefully selecting from a series of succeeding archaeological cultures. We find that Neolithic genetic diversity was shaped predominantly by local processes, with slightly different sources and proportions of hunter-gatherer ancestry compared to other regions of Europe. The most probable scenario for a Neolithic population transformation in the Carpathian Basin was an initial (small-scale) admixture pulse between the farmer and hunter-gatherer populations that was followed by continuous gene flow over many centuries. The admixture between groups with different ancestry profiles was pervasive and resulted in observable population transformation across almost all cultural transitions. At the end of the Chalcolithic period new migration waves reached the Carpathian Basin from East (Yamnaya) and Northwest (Bell Beaker). The Early Bonze Age newcomer individuals lived in the Beaker culture complex began to admix with the descendant of the Neolithic farmers, and the new steppe type genetic ancestry reformed the genomic structure of the successor Bronze Age populations. Our results published in Lipson & Szécsényi-Nagy et al. 2017 and Olalde et al. 2018 Nature papers demonstrate the potential of time-series-based sampling and modelling approaches that clarify multiple dimensions of historical population interactions."

holderlin
06-09-18, 22:32
"Maternal lineages from Iron Age to present in Eastern Fennoscandia S. Översti

Introduction: aDNA has revealed that the Neolithization involved a turnover of maternal lineages in Europe: haplogroup (hg) U, dominating in hunter-gatherers, was widely replaced by the farmer-associated hgs such as H. As a result, modern European populations show different proportions of these hgs. In Finland, mtDNA diversity resembles that observed in other populations, but holds relatively high frequency of U and shows internal substructure: U is more common in the north-east (NE) Finland and farmer-associated hgs in the south-west (SW). This pattern has been interpreted to reflect the arrival of agriculture from the south-west, most likely associated to the spread of the Corded Ware Culture c. 4,500 ya. Objectives: To provide insight into the past of Eastern Fennoscandia, complete mtDNA genomes from Iron Age to Medieval Era were obtained from Finland. These derived from five burial grounds, of which Levänluhta (300-800 AD, N=13), Luistari (600- 1130 AD, N=10) and Kirkkailanmäki (1100-1200 AD, N=16) are located in SW Finland, and Kylälahti (1200-1400 AD, N=14) and Tuukkala (1200-1400 AD, N=19) sites in south-eastern (SE) Finland. Methods: Extraction of aDNA was performed as in Meyer et al. 2010 and mtDNA capture as in Dabney et al. 2013. Raw sequence data processing was performed with EAGER and Schmutzi. Statistical analyses were calculated in Arlequin 3.5.2.2. Results: The 72 haplotypes obtained belong to hgs observed in modern Finns, but the frequencies differ both from the modern population and between studied sites: the SW sites showed higher frequency of U (60%) than the SE sites (19%) or the modern data (23 %). H showed an opposite trend: 52% in SE and 27% in SW. On sequence level, SW sites have higher affinity to the modern NE, while SE sites cluster with modern SW. Furthermore, within the SW sites the distribution of U subhaplogroups is uneven: Levänluhta has high frequency of U5a and Saami-related hg U5b1b1a whereas other SW sites show relatively high frequencies of U4. Conclusion: Our results suggest an interpretation that among the studied sites and modern Finns, there are varying levels of admixture of three ancestries: Saami (U5b1b1), possible non-Saami hunter-gatherers (U4, U5a) and farmers (H, J, T, K). The high prevalence of H in the eastern sites might reflect bidirectional arrival of the farming-associated populations into Finland, challenging the traditional assumption of the spread of agriculture from the south-west."

"Paleogenetic study of ancient archaeological finds related to Kazakh ethnogenesis N. Nurzhibek

Ethnic history of the Kazakh people is rooted in the ancient period of settling the territory of modern Kazakhstan. The 1st archaeological finds in the territory of Kazakhstan belong to the Paleolithic period. According to archaeological and paleoanthropological data, the ancient tribes spread on the territory of Kazakhstan since the Bronze Age. We studied the genetic structure of the modern Kazakhs population based on the information about pedigree analysis (shezhire) and Y-chromosome (875 persons) and mtDNA characteristics (130 persons). The DNA-analysis of two important archaeological finds, which can provide the information about ancient Human migrations and Kazakh ethnogenesis, was conducted: 1) bone remains belonging to the object of Hun elite from Hungarian Natural History Museum, dated to the middle third of the V century CE; 2) a cranium of Eneolithic period human from Botai settlement dated IV-III millennium BC. To the paleo-DNAs analysis the historical data were studied, the archaeological and anthropological evidences were obtained. It was revealed that Hun period bone remains from Hungary are characterized by R1a haplotype of Y-chromosome and D4j12 haplotype of mtDNA, that testifies the Asian origin of ancient object"s paternal and maternal lines. The phylogenetic and bioinformation analysis determines the genetic proximity of the ancient Hun with ancient and modern populations from Asia and suggests the possibility of ancient people migrations from the Asia Minor to Central and East Asia via Tibet. Comparison of ancient object"s DNA with DNAs of modern descendants of the historically mixed protopopulation Argyn, considering intratribal clans, does not reject the genetic affinity of paternal lines between ancient object and the descendants of ArgynMeiram (Suindyk and Karakesek) clan, and ancient maternal line with maternal lines of Argyn-Momyn-Sarzhetim clan descendants. Our results show that Eneolithic period man from settlement Botai, characterizes by Y-chromosome haplotype R1b1a1 and mtDNA haplotype K1b2 and the female individual is Z1mtDNA haplotype. The Eneolithic Botai individuals are closest to each other in the PC space than to any other ancient or present-day individual, and are in proximity to the upper Paleolithic Siberians from the Mal"ta or Afontova Gora archaeological sites. Botai represents a separate group that has genetic similarity with both European and Asian populations."

"Genetic diversity and social stratification in prehistoric Balkans – genomes, culture and the rise of complex societies S. Freilich1 , R. Pinhasi1 1 University of Vienna, Anthropology, Vienna, Austria

New whole genomes from Neolithic and Bronze Age Balkan specimens have been sequenced in order to assess intrapopulation genetic signatures and reconstruct ancestry in the context of social stratification as indicated in the archaeological record. The Balkan Peninsula was an important corridor for the first migrating farmers into Europe, and is a key region for understanding what impact the arrival of Neolithic migrants had on both social organisation and genetic composition in early settlements. A paucity of Balkan specimens means questions remain regarding hunter-gatherer and farmer interactions, and how social stratification developed following the Neolithic transition. Do genetic substructures correlate with intra-cemetery inequalities visible in the funerary record, and how was social status conceived? Almost forty Starčevo inhumations from the Neolithic site of Beli Manastir-Popova Zemlja are found in contracted position with ceramic vessels placed by their head, while a minority are deposited atypically in a channel. In addition, the nearby site of Bronze Age Jagodnjak-Krčevine contains inhumations accompanied by varying numbers and types of grave goods. Aims include identification of SNPs to investigate biogeographic origins, phenotype, admixture, and sex-specific mobility patterns. Furthermore, relationships to other ancient and modern Eurasian samples are investigated, as well as demographic patterns of migration and impacts on human genomic diversity. Petrous bones of 28 specimens were sampled for aDNA and extracts built into libraries. Whole genome shotgun sequencing was performed to above 1X coverage, followed by strict quality control measures and bioinformatic analyses to identify SNPs and perform tests of genomic variation and ancestry. Preliminary results from principal components analysis for nuclear SNP data show Bronze Age samples plotting uniformly, while two Neolithic specimens plot slightly out of expected range. Further measures of genetic diversity including admixture analysis, together with results of haplogroup assignment will be presented to clarify their origin and intra-population genetic substructures. Carbon, nitrogen and strontium stable isotope analysis from the same individuals will complement these results to further investigate dietary status and mobility patterns in relation to the development of social organisation in this understudied area."

"Characterizing the mesolthic to neolthic transition in central and southern Italy using genome-wide data from 10,000 to 6,000-year-old individuals A. Fromentier1

The Mesolithic period in Italy stretches from ~9,000 BC to ~6,200 BC and consists of two main phases, both characterized by different technologies: Mesolithic I (Sauveterrian, ~9,000 BC to ~6,800 BC ) and Mesolithic II (Castelnovian, ~6,800 BC to ~6,200 BC). While the archaeological record in northern Italy is abundant and follows a standard transition from Mesolithic I to II, the record from Central/Southern Italy is much more scarce. Additionally, many Mesolithic sites found in the Center/South still display Paleolithic features, and are immediately followed by the Neolithic originating in the Fertile Crescent, which reached the Adriatic coast around 6,200 BC before spreading quickly in the Italian peninsula. Overall, the Paleolithic/Mesolithic/Neolithic transitions within Central/Southern Italy remains poorly understood. In particular, the existence of both possible contacts between Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers and possible exchanges between Sicily and Tunisia, as suggested from cultural evidence, remain unclear. In order to answer these questions, we have developed a project aimed at collecting genome-wide sequence data from multiple individuals of the Mesolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in Central/Southern Italy and Tunisia."

"Investigation of mitochondrial genomes of medieval populations (6-12th centuries AD) lived in the Ural and Volga-Kama region in context with early Hungarian

Different scientific theories exist about the origin of early Hungarians and their migration from North-Central Asia to Central Europe in the 8-9th centuries. The Hungarian conquerors arrived in the Carpathian Basin 895 AD. Until their arrival they migrated with attached folk elements that joint along the way westwards from the Ural region through the Middle-Volga region on the East-European steppe. The first relics from archaeological cultures that are most probably connected with Hungarian ancestors – the Kusnarenkovo and Karajakupovo cultures – were found in the regions of the Central and Southern Urals. The exact origin, route and chronology of the migration is still unclear and intensively debated by historians, linguists and archaeologists. In our research, we are approaching these issues with archeogenetic methods. We investigate Medieval (6-12th century) populations from the Ural region, the Carpathian Basin and principal sites of the supposed migration route, which territories had archaeological connections to each other and to early Hungarians. Our test object is the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), which makes possible to determine the maternal descent line due to its special inheritance. We compare our complete mitochondrial genome sequences with modern and ancient populations, thereby we aim to explore the migration of Hungarian Conquerors. We examined samples from east side of the Central-Ural, from its west side and from Volga-Kama region. We sequenced the whole mitochondrial DNA of more than 65 samples, and determined mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Based on our preliminary results, the populations are heterogeneous, in all of them appear both European and Asian haplogroups, but in different proportions. The Uralian populations show Central and Northeast Asian mtDNA composition, whereas the WestUralian population has more connections to Eastern Europe and to the Caucasus. Certain haplotypes connect the investigated Central Eurasian communities to the first Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin, although the Asian lineages were diluted along the way of migration and during the conquest of the new homeland. With these new information, we can get closer to understand the migration of Hungarian Conquerors and the maternal genetic composition of the Medieval populations of Central Eurasia."

"Population dynamics at Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Arslantepe, Anatolia E. Skourtanioti1

While Anatolia was highlighted as the genetic origin of early Neolithic European farmers, the genetic substructure in Anatolia itself as well as the demographic and cultural changes remain unclear. In eastern Anatolia, the archaeological record reflects influences from North-Central Anatolia, the northeastern sectors of Fertile Crescent and the Caucasus, and suggests that some of these were brought along with the movement of people. Central to this question is the archaeological site of Arslantepe (6th-1st millennium BC), strategically located at the Upper Euphrates, the nexus of all three regions. Arslantepe also developed one of the first state societies of Anatolia along with advanced metal-technologies. Archaeological research suggests that conflicts with surrounding groups of pastoralists affiliated to the Caucasus might have contributed to the collapse of its palatial system at the end of the Chalcolithic period (4th millennium BC). To test if these developments were accompanied by genetic changes, we generated genome-wide data from 18 ancient individuals spanning from the Late Chalcolithic period to the Early Bronze Age of Arslantepe. Our results show no evidence for a major genetic shift between the two time periods. However, we observe that individuals from Arslantepe are very heterogeneous and differentiated from other ancient western and central Anatolians in that they have more Iran/Caucasus related ancestry. Our data also show evidence for an ongoing but also recent confluence of Anatolian/Levantine and Caucasus/Iranian ancestries, highlighting the complexity of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age periods in this region."

After the early Neolithic, there was genetic admixture.

"Paleogenomics of populations in France, from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age S. Brunel

Expanding from Anatolia into Europe about 7,500 years ago, the Neolithic culture based on agriculture followed two different routes, through the Balkans along the Danube northwards to the Hungarian plain and from there westwards to arrive in the Parisian Basin, and along the coastline of the Mediterranean basin to arrive in Southern France and Spain. Both migration waves eventually reached the territory of present-day France, where the Neolithic culture further evolved and was later replaced by the Bronze Age culture, over the course of the third and second millennia BC. While France is a geographic crossroads that provided multiple opportunities for interaction between populations of different origins, as is well documented by the archaeological record, the underlying demographic processes were not yet explored at a territory-wide scale . Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes, Y chromosome markers and genotypes on a number of nuclear loci of interest obtained through a DNA enrichment approach of 163 Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age individuals sampled from three regions of present-day France, the North, the East, and the South. This study provides, for the first time, a highresolution 4000-year transect of the dynamics of maternal and paternal lineages in France as well as of autosomal genotypes associated with known phenotypes. This transect that comprises two major cultural transitions (Mesolithic-Neolithic and Neolithic-Bronze Age), reveals contrasting population dynamics between northern and southern France. The study of 120 nuclear SNPs, covering both physical and physiological traits, allowed us to follow the evolution of the allelic frequency over time of several phenotypes that characterize modern Europeans. This study fills a large gap in the understanding of the peopling of western Europe from the Mesolithic to the Bronze Age, completing the knowledge of the global process of the Neolithization of Europe."

"After the plague – genetic history of the human population of Medieval Cambridge T. Kivisild

"After the plague" is a collaborative project that combines methods of archaeology, history, osteoarchaeology, isotopes and ancient DNA of both humans and pathogens for the study of the people of Medieval Cambridge. Low coverage shotgun sequence data has been generated from more than 80 individual samples from an urban cemetery of the Hospital of St John the Evangelist, contextualized with similar data produced from other contemporary local cemeteries, including individuals of various social background, and a time transect of Cambridgeshire, with an aim to understand the effects of the Black Death epidemic(s) of 1347-1351 on the health status and genetic composition of a Medieval town population. Analyses focused on the reads mapping to the human reference genome aimed to explore how the epidemic influenced genetic diversity of the population at the scale of the entire genome and whether individual genes, those associated with immunity in particular, have shown more change than other genes. Genome-wide data has also been used to assess the diversity of urban Medieval Cambridge after the establishment of the university and the level of immigration from continental Europe among various social groups of the town."

This Zink group is as slow as molasses. Are they just skiing all the time?

"Genomic diversity of ancient individuals from the Iceman´s territory in the Eastern Italian Alps V. Coia

"Since the prehistory, the Eastern Italian Alps have been a meeting point for people with different origin. Various cultural material as well as funerary rituals documented in this region during the Copper Age (~3700-2200 a.C), suggests several contacts with non-local cultures from east and west Europe during that time. The Tyrolean Iceman (3360-3100 cal. BC) is the best representative of the Copper Age in the Eastern Alps. So far, besides the Tyrolean Iceman, only one Mesolithic sample (Veneto Dolomites) has been genetically analysed from this area. Therefore, there is a lack of regional ancient genomic data to better understand the genomic diversity of prehistoric alpine groups. Comparison with ancient and modern samples, have shown that the Iceman clusters with Early Neolithic farmers from different parts of Europe and with Neolithic individuals from Anatolia. In addition, European individuals contemporary of the Iceman cluster together. These Copper Age individuals also differ from the Iceman in their ancestry and admixture patterns, showing different proportions of Neolithic, hunter gatherers and Eastern (Yamnaya) ancestry components. Since the Iceman alone cannot be considered as representative of the genomic diversity of this alpine area, we are analyzing in this study seven additional prehistoric individuals from the Iceman´s territory. Two samples have approximately the same dating of the Iceman while the other are dating to the Middle Neolithic and to the Copper-Early Bronze Age. The new data will give us the opportunity to better understand the genomic diversity of Eastern Italian Alps and the Iceman´s genetic history. Furthermore, with additional genomic data from this crucial South-eastern European area, we will contribute to know more about the main demographic events that occurred in prehistoric Europe. First shotgun analyses of four pars petrosa samples indicate high percentage of endogenous content (from ~9% to 52%) and low mitochondrial contamination rates. All individual will be now further subjected to deeper sequencing aiming to perform genome-wide comparative analyses with the Iceman and a dataset of European and Near Eastern ancient individuals."

"Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes from Britain, France, Germany and Spain reveal extensive strain diversity during the First Plague Pandemic (541-750 CE) M. Keller

The first historically reported pandemic unambiguously assigned to Yersinia pestis is the Justinianic Plague (541-544). It was later followed by numerous outbreaks in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East until the mid-8th century, often referred to as the "First Pandemic". Despite the lack of historical records in southern Germany, the identification and characterization of the causative lineage has thus far been based solely on ancient genomes found in two early Medieval cemeteries in this region. These two genomes, that are identical, occupy a distinct phylogenetic position in the modern diversity of Y. pestis on a now extinct or undocumented branch. We aim to elucidate the evolutionary history of Y. pestis during the "First Pandemic" by sampling on a broader spatial and temporal scale, including the Mediterranean basin that is known to have been heavily affected by plague as well as more questionable regions such as Britain. After screening of more than 150 samples and performing targeted DNA enrichment of positive candidates, we recovered three new genomes from Germany, and one from each of Britain, France and Spain with 5 to 10-fold mean coverage. Only two of the genomes were identical to those previously published, having stemmed from relatively nearby cemeteries. The newly sequenced strains reveal a rapid diversification of strains during the Justinianic Plague, similar to the radiation events described in association with the "Second" (14th to 18th c.) and "Third" (19th to 20th c.) Pandemics. At least four independent strains seem to have emerged during this event, two of which were found in southern Germany. The British genome substantiates the bacterium"s presence in this region already at, likely, the onset of the "First Pandemic". However, the genomes recovered from Spain and France appear phylogenetically distinct, reflecting historical records that testify that Y. pestis affected the western Mediterranean basin multiple times during the late 6th and 7th centuries. In addition, the French genome falls in the most derived position on this branch, and seems to lack a genomic region that includes two previously identified virulence genes. Overall, the genomes we present substantially contribute to the understanding of the "First Pandemic" which remains, to, date comparatively understudied by the field of archaeogenetics."

"16th-century Yersinia pestis genome from Logroño, Spain underlines plague persistence in Europe during the Second Pandemic G. U. Neumann1

The Black Death caused by Yersinia pestis ravaged Europe between 1346-1353 AD and was followed in numerous places by further major outbreaks until the 18th century. It is still under discussion whether these were due to reintroductions of the pathogen from Asia or its persistence in local reservoirs within Europe. Here, we analyzed 55 teeth from individuals buried in the necropolis of La Inquisición at Logroño, Spain, an important station along one of the main pilgrim routes of the Camino de Santiago. From the 13th century until 1512 this site was a pilgrim hospital (Hospital de Santa María de Rocamador) and included a cemetery that probably maintained its funerary function in the following decades. In 1564, the city of Logroño was struck by a mass mortality event that is referred to as pestilencia in written historical records. During this event a great number of corpses were buried in the cemetery of the abandoned hospital. Through a qPCR based assay specific to the Yersinia pestis pla gene, located on the pPCP1 plasmid, ten of these teeth showed possible preservation of this pathogen"s DNA. Subsequently, UDG-treated DNA libraries from these extracts were prepared and were whole-genome captured for Yersinia pestis DNA. After high throughput sequencing, the data were mapped against the Yersinia pestis CO92 reference genome for authentication, as well as SNP and phylogenetic analyses. We present here a post-Black Death genome retrieved from the Iberian pensinsula and are able to show that the 1564 outbreak of pestilencia at Logroño was caused by Yersinia pestis. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the Logroño genome occupies a position within the European Yersinia pestis cluster in close relation to the previously published genomes of Ellwangen, Germany and Marseilles, France. Our data provide further support for the hypothesis of a western Eurasian focus of post-Black Death plague instead of a re-introduction from Asia and provide insights into the local diversification of Yersinia pestis during the second pandemic."

"Population transformations in the 6000-2000 BC period of the Carpathian Basin A. Szécsényi-Nagy

Here we present the population versus cultural dynamics of Neolithization and later prehistoric times in the region of today"s Hungary. We use a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with over 100 samples from the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Bronze Age periods (ca. 6000–2000 BC), carefully selecting from a series of succeeding archaeological cultures. We find that Neolithic genetic diversity was shaped predominantly by local processes, with slightly different sources and proportions of hunter-gatherer ancestry compared to other regions of Europe. The most probable scenario for a Neolithic population transformation in the Carpathian Basin was an initial (small-scale) admixture pulse between the farmer and hunter-gatherer populations that was followed by continuous gene flow over many centuries. The admixture between groups with different ancestry profiles was pervasive and resulted in observable population transformation across almost all cultural transitions. At the end of the Chalcolithic period new migration waves reached the Carpathian Basin from East (Yamnaya) and Northwest (Bell Beaker). The Early Bonze Age newcomer individuals lived in the Beaker culture complex began to admix with the descendant of the Neolithic farmers, and the new steppe type genetic ancestry reformed the genomic structure of the successor Bronze Age populations. Our results published in Lipson & Szécsényi-Nagy et al. 2017 and Olalde et al. 2018 Nature papers demonstrate the potential of time-series-based sampling and modelling approaches that clarify multiple dimensions of historical population interactions."

Wow lots of stuff here.

The 13000BC Anatolian sample is probably the most interesting, at least to me. I know that some people were expecting more Villabruna related genotypes in this region during this time, but that doesn't seem to be the case.

Angela
07-09-18, 00:08
There's frankly too much for me to completely absorb, and I only posted a fraction of the presentations. As the papers are published I'll take them one at a time. Perhaps the data won't completely reflect the blurbs too.

As to the 13,000 BC Anatolian sample I'll be very interested to see the complete analysis and what relatedness they see to other groups both in Anatolia and the Balkans.

I really want to see what they mean by this: "We find a high degree of genetic continuity between the hunter-gatherer and early farmers of Anatolia and detect two distinct ancestry waves entering central Anatolia during the Neolithic transition."

Angela
19-09-18, 18:35
Conference started today and some tweets are coming out.

ToBeOrNotToBe
19-09-18, 18:50
Conference started today and some tweets are coming out.

Any links? Can't find any