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View Full Version : Viking world population genomics



Tomenable
17-07-19, 23:10
Link: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/703405v1

"Abstract

The Viking maritime expansion from Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) marks one of the swiftest and most far-flung cultural transformations in global history. During this time (c. 750 to 1050 CE), the Vikings reached most of western Eurasia, Greenland, and North America, and left a cultural legacy that persists till today. To understand the genetic structure and influence of the Viking expansion, we sequenced the genomes of 442 ancient humans from across Europe and Greenland ranging from the Bronze Age (c. 2400 BC) to the early Modern period (c. 1600 CE), with particular emphasis on the Viking Age. We find that the period preceding the Viking Age was accompanied by foreign gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east: spreading from Denmark and eastern Sweden to the rest of Scandinavia.

Despite the close linguistic similarities of modern Scandinavian languages, we observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, suggesting that regional population differences were already present 1,000 years ago. We find evidence for a majority of Danish Viking presence in England, Swedish Viking presence in the Baltic, and Norwegian Viking presence in Ireland, Iceland, and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial foreign European ancestry entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. We also find that several of the members of the only archaeologically well-attested Viking expedition were close family members. By comparing Viking Scandinavian genomes with present-day Scandinavian genomes, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the last millennia.

Finally, we are able to trace the allele frequency dynamics of positively selected loci with unprecedented detail, including the lactase persistence allele and various alleles associated with the immune response. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial foreign engagement: distinct Viking populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, while Scandinavia also experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent."

Tomenable
17-07-19, 23:26
More:

"In order to explore the genomic history of the Viking era, we shotgun sequenced 442 ancient human
remains, from the Bronze Age c. 2400 BC to the Medieval Age c. 1600 AD (Fig. 1). The majority of
these individuals (n=376) were sequenced to between 0.1 and 11X average depth of coverage. The
dataset includes Bronze Age (n=2) and Iron Age (n=10) individuals from Scandinavia; Early Viking
Age (n=43) individuals from Estonia (n=34), Denmark (n=6) and Sweden (n=3); ancient individuals
associated with Norse culture from Greenland (n=23), VA individuals from Denmark (n=78), Faroe
Islands (n=1), Iceland (n=17), Ireland (n=4), Norway (n=29), Poland (n=8), Russia (n=33), Sweden
(n=118), UK (n=42), Ukraine (n=3) as well as medieval individuals from Faroe Islands (n=16), Italy
(n=5), Norway (n=7), Poland (n=2) and Ukraine (n=1). The VA individuals were supplemented with
additional published genomes (n=21) from Sigtuna, in Sweden6. The skeletons originate from major
archaeological sites of VA Scandinavian settlements and activities from Europe to Greenland
(Supplementary Table 1). The data from the ancient individuals were analyzed together with
previously published data from a total of 3,855 present-day individuals across two reference panels,
and data from 922 individuals of ancient origin (Supplementary Note 6)."

elghund
18-07-19, 05:18
The haplogroups...



VK1
J1c3g
Female
N/A


VK6
T2a1a
Female
N/A


VK9
J1c3g
Female
N/A


VK11
J1c3g
Female
N/A


VK14
J1c1a
Male
I1


VK15
J1b1a1
Female
N/A


VK16
X2b4
Male
I1


VK17
U5a2a1b
Male
T1a1a


VK18
H1b1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a


VK19
J1c
Female
N/A


VK20
H6c
Male
I1


VK21
H5a1
Female
N/A


VK22
T2b
Male
I


VK23
U4a1a
Male
I1


VK24
J1b1a1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1


VK25
H3a1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a3b1a


VK27
U5a1g1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a2


VK29
T2b3b
Male
I1


VK30
U5b1c2b
Male
R1a1a1


VK31
I4a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1


VK33
K1a4a1
Female
N/A


VK34
HV+16311
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2a1b1a4b1


VK35
T2f1a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a


VK39
T2b4b
Male
G2a2b2a1a1b1a


VK40
T1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2b1c1b


VK42
T2b11
Male
J2a1a1b2a1b1


VK44
H3a1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1a1a1a1a


VK45
H3a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a


VK46
H5
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2b1a


VK48
H10e
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1a1a


VK50
H1+16189
Male
I1a1a1a1a


VK51
U5b1e1
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK53
HV9b
Male
I2a1a2b1a1


VK56
H6a1a
Female
N/A


VK57
J1c6
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a


VK58
I4a1
Female
N/A


VK60
H13a1a1b
Male
R1a1a1b1a2b


VK63
H56
Female
N/A


VK64
I1a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a2a


VK65
V25
Female
N/A


VK69
H2a2a1
Female
N/A


VK70
H7d4
Male
I1a1b1a1


VK71
U5a1a
Male
I1


VK74
U4b1b1b
Female
N/A


VK75
H54
Male
R1b1a1b1a1


VK76
U4a1
Male?
N/A


VK77
I2
Female
N/A


VK78
H1i2
Female
N/A


VK84
J1c2p
Female
N/A


VK86
T1a1c
Female
N/A


VK87
K1c2
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2a1b1a


VK90
H3+152
Female
N/A


VK92
H1c3b
Female
N/A


VK94
U5a1b1
Female
N/A


VK95
H6a1a3a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1a1a1a1a


VK98
T2b3b
Male
I1a1b1a4a2


VK99
I2a1
Female
N/A


VK101
U5b1g
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2d1a1


VK102
J1c3f
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1


VK108
J2b1a
Female
N/A


VK110
H10+(16093)
Male
I1a1b1a1


VK111
H10+(16093)
Female
N/A


VK113
J1b1a1a
Female
N/A


VK114
R1a1a
Female
N/A


VK116
U6a3
Male
F


VK117
H1a3a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1


VK118
H1bb
Female
N/A


VK122
H24a
Female
N/A


VK123
J1c9
Male
R2a2b1


VK124
H10a1
Female
N/A


VK125
U3a1c
Not_Assigned
N/A


VK127
H3g1b
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2b


VK128
H+195
Female
N/A


VK129
U5b1b1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK133
K1a4a1a3
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2a1b1a


VK134
H1cg
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b1


VK135
H6a2
Female
N/A


VK138
T2b5
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2b1c1


VK139
J1c3k
Male
R1a1a1b1a1a1c1


VK140
H27f
Male
G2a


VK141
H1as
Female
N/A


VK143
[email protected]
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c1a2b


VK144
V1a1
Male
I1


VK145
H17
Male
R1a1a1b


VK146
J1c3e1
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a


VK147
T1a1q
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK148
H6a1a
Male
I1


VK149
H1a1
Male
I1


VK150
H1+16239
Male
I2a1b1a2b1a2


VK151
T2b4+152
Male
I1a1


VK153
H1c3
Male
R1a1a


VK154
H1c3
Female
N/A


VK155
H1c
Female
N/A


VK156
J1c2c2a
Male
R1a1a1b1a2a


VK157
H1c
Male
I1


VK158
N1b1a
Female
N/A


VK159
U2e2a1d
Male
R1b1a1b1a1


VK160
C4a1a+195
Male
R1a1a1b1a1a1c1c


VK161
T2b
Male
F


VK163
U2e2a1a1
Male
I1


VK164
I3a1
Male
BT


VK165
U4b1b1
Male
I1a1b1


VK166
H3ag
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2a1b1a1


VK167
H4a1a4b
Male
I1


VK168
H4a1a4b
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1b


VK170
HV9b
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1b1a


VK171
H2a2b4
Female
N/A


VK172
I1a1e
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK173
U5a1b+16362
Male
I2a1b1a1a1


VK174
H1+16239
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2a1b1b1a


VK175
H1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1


VK176
H10
Male
I1a1b1a1


VK177
H82
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2b


VK178
K2a5
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2b


VK179
K1a3a
Male
I1


VK180
J1c3b
Male
IJ


VK182
H2a1
Male
I


VK183
T2b21
Male
I1


VK184
H4a1a4b
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK185
H4a1a1
Male
CT


VK186
H1ao
Male
I1


VK187
T2a1a
Female
N/A


VK189
H54
Female
N/A


VK190
K1a+195
Male
I1a


VK191
W
Female
N/A


VK193
U3a1
Female
N/A


VK196
U5b1e1
Female
N/A


VK200
J1b1a1b
Male
R


VK201
H3k1a
Male
I2a1b1a


VK202
H1ai1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a3a2a1d


VK203
H4a1a1a1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1


VK204
H1m
Male_(XXY?)
R1b1a1b1a1a1b1a


VK205
H3
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1a


VK206
J2b1a
Female
N/A


VK207
U4b1b1
Female
N/A


VK208
J1b1a1
Female
N/A


VK210
H5e1a1
Male
I2a


VK211
W6
Male
R1b1a1b


VK212
H1+152
Male
R1a1a1b


VK213
H1
Female
N/A


VK214
X2c1
Female
N/A


VK215
J1c2k
Male
R1b1a1b


VK216
J1c2k
Female
N/A


VK217
J1b1b1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a


VK218
H5
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c


VK219
T2b6a
Male
I1a1b1


VK220
J2b1a
Male
I1a1


VK221
K1d
Male
I1a1b1


VK222
H63
Male
BT


VK223
H13a1a1c
Male
I1a


VK224
H7a1
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a


VK225
H3v+16093
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2b


VK226
H3a1a
Female
N/A


VK227
K1b2a2
Female
N/A


VK228
T2b4
Female
N/A


VK230
H10+(16093)
Female
N/A


VK232
N1a1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1


VK234
H3a1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a3b1a


VK236
H3a1a
Female
N/A


VK237
J2a2c
Male
R1a1a1b1a


VK238
H3a1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2a


VK239
H5
Male
R1b1a1b


VK240
H1ap1
Female
N/A


VK241
H17
Female
N/A


VK242
H3a1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1f1


VK244
H2a2a2
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK245
H3a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2b1a


VK247
H10e1
Female
N/A


VK248
H49a
Male
I1


VK251
U5b1e1
Male
R1


VK252
H26a1
Male?
N/A


VK253
V13
Female
N/A


VK254
HV0a1
Female
N/A


VK255
U4c1
Female
N/A


VK256
H1c7
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK257
H5a1c1a
Male
I1a1


VK258
K1a4a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a


VK259
I2
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1b1a


VK260
H1e1a
Male
Q1b


VK261
H52
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK262
J1c4
Male
I1a2a


VK263
K1a4d
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a2b2b


VK264
N1a1a1a2
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a


VK265
H13a1a
Female
N/A


VK266
V
Female
N/A


VK267
T2b4b
Male
R1b


VK268
K1c1
Male
R1b1a1b


VK269
H1e1a
Male
R1b1a1b


VK270
U4
Female
N/A


VK272
K1b2b
Female
N/A


VK273
U5a2a1b1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK274
T2b+152
Male
R1a1a1b1a2b3a


VK275
H
Male
I1c


VK276
HV0
Female
N/A


VK278
U5a2a1
Female
N/A


VK279
I4a
Male
I1a1b


VK280
H11a
Male
I2a1b1a


VK281
T2
Male
I1a1b1a1


VK282
H4a1a4b
Male
R1a1a1b1a2b


VK284
J1c5a1
Female
N/A


VK285
H7a1
Female
N/A


VK286
J1c+16261
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2b1a1


VK287
T2b
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a2a1a1a1


VK288
H3b3
Female
N/A


VK289
J2b1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1a


VK290
I1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b1b3b


VK291
U5a1a2b
Male
I1a1b1a4a


VK292
J1c2c1
Male
R1a1a


VK294
U5a1b1h
Female
N/A


VK295
T1a1
Male
I1a


VK296
HV6
Male
I1a1b1a1


VK297
J1c2h
Male
I1a1b1


VK298
U5a1a1d
Female
N/A


VK300
H3
Female
N/A

elghund
18-07-19, 05:28
VK301
R0a2b
Male
I1a2a


VK303
T2a1b1a1
Female
N/A


VK304
K1a1b1e
Male
F


VK306
H15a1
Male
I1a


VK308
H1c
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1b1a1


VK309
K1b1c
Male
R1a1a


VK312
H13a1a1a
Female
N/A


VK313
H1b
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1


VK314
H6a1b2
Female
N/A


VK315
T1a1b
Male
I1a1b1


VK316
K1a4
Male
I1


VK317
H2a2a1
Male
J2a1a1a2b2


VK318
K1b2a2
Male?
N/A


VK319
H1bq
Female
N/A


VK320
U5a1a1
Male
I1a1b


VK322
K1a4a1c
Female
N/A


VK323
K2a6
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c1a2b1


VK324
N1a1a1a2
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b1b4


VK325
U5b3e
Female
N/A


VK326
[email protected]
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a


VK327
H6a1a5
Male
I1a2a1a1a1a


VK328
U5a1d2a
Female
N/A


VK329
H3+152
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2a1a1a2


VK330
H3
Female
N/A


VK332
T2b24
Male
I2a1b1a2b1


VK333
H2a2a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2e


VK334
U5a2b
Female
N/A


VK335
K1b2a3
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a


VK336
K2a3a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK337
U5a1b3a
Male
I1a2a1a1a


VK338
W3a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b1a1b2


VK339
T2a1a
Female
N/A


VK340
H1c
Female
N/A


VK342
H2a1
Male
I2a1b1a2b


VK343
H3h
Male
I1


VK344
J1c2t
Male
R1a1a1b1a


VK345
H4a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1b2a1a1


VK346
H2a2b
Male
J2


VK347
T2b28
Male
I2a1b1


VK348
T2b28
Male
I2a1b1a2b1a2a


VK349
H1e2a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a4b2c1a


VK350
H3n
Female
N/A


VK352
H64
Male
I1a1


VK353
H1e1a
Female
N/A


VK354
H2a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2a1


VK355
U5b1b1a
Male
L2


VK357
J2b1a
Male
I1a2a1a1a


VK358
U3a1
Female
N/A


VK359
H1f+16093
Male
CT


VK361
X2b+226
Female
N/A


VK362
V7b
Male
E1b1b1a1b1a


VK363
U4b1a1a1
Male
I1a2a1a1a


VK364
H3u
Female
N/A


VK365
U8a2
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK366
J2a1a1a
Female
N/A


VK367
J1b1a1
Male
I1


VK368
H26a1
Female
N/A


VK369
H1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK370
H7b2
Female
N/A


VK371
H1a1
Female
N/A


VK372
U5a1a2a
Female
N/A


VK373
J2b1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2b1a1


VK379
U3b1b
Male
I1


VK380
H27
Male
I1


VK382
H3g1
Male
I1a1b1a4a2


VK383
H5c
Female
N/A


VK384
H3g1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b1a1a1a


VK385
U4c1
Female
N/A


VK386
J1b1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1f1a


VK387
U5a1a1
Female
N/A


VK388
J1c5
Male
I1


VK389
T2b
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2a1b1a4b


VK390
K2a3
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK391
I3
Female
N/A


VK392
H1g1
Female
N/A


VK393
U8a1a
Female
N/A


VK394
H13a1a1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a3


VK395
X2c1
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a2a1a2


VK396
J1c2t
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c1a1


VK397
J1b1a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a


VK398
H1b1+16362
Male
T1a2b1


VK399
H4a1a1a
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK400
H1+16239
Male
I1a1b


VK401
H2a2b
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2


VK402
J2a1a1
Female
N/A


VK403
K1a4a1a2b
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2a1b1a


VK404
U4a2
Male
I1a1b


VK405
K1a10
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1


VK406
K1a4a1
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK407
H1c21
Male
I1


VK408
H74
Male
R1a1a1b1


VK409
H3h
Male
I1a


VK410
X2b+226
Male
I1


VK411
H1a1
Male
F


VK413
[email protected]
Female
N/A


VK414
H6a1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2a


VK415
H6a1a
Female
N/A


VK417
H7b
Female
N/A


VK418
J1c2c1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1b


VK419
U5b1b1g1
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK420
I4a
Male
I1


VK421
U5b2c2b
Male
R1a1a


VK422
J1b1a1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2


VK424
K2b1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b1


VK425
U3a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2b


VK426
U6a1a1
Male
R1b1a1b


VK427
K1a4
Male
I2a1b1a


VK428
K1a4a1a2b
Female
N/A


VK429
H70
Female
N/A


VK430
T1a1b
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a


VK431
H2a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK432
J1b1a1
Female
N/A


VK433
H5
Female
N/A


VK434
U5b2a2
Female
N/A


VK435
T1a5a
Female
N/A


VK437
V
Female
N/A


VK438
H1
Male
R1a1a1b


VK439
U4a2a
Female
N/A


VK440
T2b+152
Female
N/A


VK441
J1c1b1a
Female
N/A


VK442
U2e1f1
Female
N/A


VK443
U5b2b5
Male
I1a2a1a1d2


VK444
K1a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2a1b1b1


VK445
U3b
Male
I1a2a2


VK446
U5a1a1+16362
Male
I1a2a2


VK448
H5a2
Female
N/A


VK449
H6a2a
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1b


VK450
J1c1b1a
Female
N/A


VK452
T2b
Male
R1a1a1b1a


VK453
H8c
Male
R1a1a1


VK454
HV9
Female
N/A


VK455
U5a2c1
Female
N/A


VK456
I1a1e
Female
N/A


VK457
I5a
Female
N/A


VK458
I1a1a3
Female
N/A


VK459
W3a1
Female
N/A


VK460
I3
Female
N/A


VK461
H7b
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a2a1a


VK462
H1e1a
Female
N/A


VK463
H1b5
Male
R1a1a1b1a2b


VK464
H1
Female
N/A


VK466
H6a1a4
Male
R1


VK467
H1a
Male
CT


VK468
H1a1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2b1a


VK469
H3ac
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2a1b1a


VK470
HV0
Female
N/A


VK471
H1m
Male
R1a1


VK472
H13a1a1b
Female
N/A


VK473
N1a1a1a1
Male
I1a1b


VK474
J1d
Male
E1b1b1b2a1a4


VK475
H1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a2b


VK476
X2+225
Female
N/A


VK477
H1b1+16362
Female
N/A


VK478
H1m
Female
N/A


VK479
H1a1
Male
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2a1a


VK480
U4a2a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a2a


VK481
T2a1a
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK482
H1a
Male
I1


VK483
H16
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a


VK484
H6a1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a2b3a


VK485
H16
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a


VK486
U4a2a
Male
R1a1a1b1a2b3a


VK487
H17a2
Male
R1a1a1b


VK488
H5c
Male
I1a1b1


VK489
T2e1
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK490
H16
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a1a


VK491
H6a1a
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a1a


VK492
H1b5
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a


VK493
H2a2a1
Male
R1a1a1b1


VK494
X2c2
Male
R1a1a


VK495
H1b
Male
I1a


VK496
H1a
Male
I1a2a2a


VK497
H16
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a1a


VK498
H1q
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2a1


VK504
H28a
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a


VK505
J1b1a1b
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK506
J1c2
Male
I1a


VK507
HV6
Male
I1a1b1


VK508
J1c5
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK509
H1n+146
Male
I1a1b1


VK510
H10e
Male
I1a1b1


VK511
T2a1a
Male
I1a1b1a1


VK512
H2a2b1
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK513
J1c1b
Male
R1a1a1


VK514
K2b1a1
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK515
H52
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a


VK516
H6a1a
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a2


VK517
J1c3f
Male
I2a1b1a2b1a2a


VK518
U5b1b1a
Female
N/A


VK519
HV0a1
Male
I1


VK520
U5b2a1a2
Female
N/A


VK521
H16b
Male
I1a2a2a


VK522
H1a3b
Female
N/A


VK523
I1a1
Female
N/A


VK524
HV0a1
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a


VK525
U5a1a2a
Female
N/A


VK526
J2b1a3
Female
N/A


VK527
J1c3f
Female
N/A


VK528
K1a4a1b
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a4d1


VK529
H7
Male
I1a1b1a4a2


VK530
H1as
Female
N/A


VK531
U2e2a
Male
R1b1a1


VK532
U2e2a1a
Male
I1a2a


VK533
H13a1a1e
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK534
H1
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2


VK535
T1a5
Male
R1b1a1b1b3a


VK536
H3h6
Female
N/A


VK537
V
Female
N/A


VK538
H+16291
Male
L1a1b


VK539
V
Male
I1


VK540
V
Female
N/A


VK541
H7
Male
R1a1a1b1a1a1c1


VK542
H5a2a
Male
I2a1a2b1a1a


VK543
I2
Male
R1a1a1


VK544
H24a
Female
N/A


VK545
H1bb
Male
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1a1a1a1a1a


VK546
HV6
Male
R1a1a1


VK547
V
Male
I1a1b1a4a2


VK548
A12a
Female
N/A


VK549
T2b5a
Male
I1a1b1


VK550
V
Male
N1a1a1a1a1a1a1b


VK551
J2a1a1a2
Male
R1a1a1b1a3a1


VK552
H10e
Male
I1a2a1a1d


VK553
K1c1h
Male
I1a1b1


VK554
W6a
Male
I1


VK555
U3b1b
Male
I1a2a1a1d1a


VK579
H1s
Male
N1a1a1a1a


VK582
H6a1b3
Male
I2a1b1a

kingjohn
18-07-19, 12:00
Thanks for sharing kudos 😉
2 e1b1b1 haplotypes :
1 M78-v13 from funen dennmark
800-1050ad late Viking age
1 m123 from gotland Sweden 900-1050 ad late Viking age
the auther say the presence of those e1b1b1 although rare is probably geneflow from south since both were found in late viking age ....

Ownstyler
18-07-19, 12:27
Thanks for sharing kudos ������
2 e1b1b1 haplotypes :
1 M78-v13 from funen dennmark
800-1050ad late Viking age
1 m123 from gotland Sweden 900-1050 ad late Viking age
the auther say the presence of those e1b1b1 although rare is probably geneflow from south since both were found in late viking age ....

The E-V13 one has non-scandinavian autosomal results. It is very likely from further south.

Ownstyler
18-07-19, 12:28
A sample from 11-12th cent. Puglia, Italy, is autosomally ~90% southern European and belongs to Y-haplogroup R1b-Z2103>Z2108/Z2109.

Tomenable
18-07-19, 14:48
Vikings sorted by Polish admixture:

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/07/17/703405/DC3/embed/media-3.xlsx?download=true]https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/ear...x?download=true

I think that VK157, VK156 and VK154 have similar results to what I would score here (or my mother, as she has strong "Finnish / Fennoscandian" admix):

https://i.imgur.com/k7opkhA.png

In other words, VK157, VK156 and VK154 were probably like your average modern North-Western Pole (such as my aunt from Tuchola; I need to test her).

=====

In Gotland 5/18 Viking samples (or ca. 28%) have over 50% of Polish-like admixture. Unexpected.

Tomenable
18-07-19, 15:20
As for the issue of British/Irish gene flow to Norway vs. Norwegian gene flow to Britain/Ireland:

Quote from the study: "(...) The genetic impacts are stronger in the other direction. The ‘British-like’ populations of Orkney became ‘Scandinavian’ culturally, whilst other British populations found themselves in Iceland and Norway, and beyond. Present-day Norwegians vary between 12 and 25% in their ‘British-like’ ancestry, whilst it is still (a more uniform) 10% in Sweden. (...)"

^^^ This conclusion is based on a comparison of actual DNA from Pre-Viking Scandinavians and modern Scandinavians - modern Scandinavians, especially West Norwegians, have British admixture that was, apparently, still completely absent from Pre-Viking Scandinavia.

My guess is that Vikings from Orkney and other areas which became culturally Viking later migrated ("back-migrated") a lot to Scandinavia proper.

This is how this British DNA was absorbed.

In absolute numbers, I'm quite sure more people migrated from Norway to Ireland and Britain than the other way around.

HOWEVER, at that time Norway was very sparsely populated and had a very small population compared to the British Isles.

So the overall impact of the gene flow, percentage-wise, could actually be stronger in Scandinavia than in Britain/Ireland.

Example: 500 people moving from Ireland to Norway could make a stronger impact in DNA than 3000 people migrating from Norway to Ireland.

=====

Let's use a modern example too, who would make more impact on overall genetics of the other country?:

- 3 million Swedes moving to Nigeria

OR:

- 1 million Nigerians moving to Sweden

^^^ The answer is obvious, you just need to compare the size of native populations in both countries.

kingjohn
18-07-19, 15:58
The E-V13 one has non-scandinavian autosomal results. It is very likely from further south.

thanks :)
and the e-m123 is actuality L-791 https://www.yseq.net/product_info.php?products_id=7398
so we are not related at all as i am e-m84 the other branch of e-m34
E-L791 is the line of napoleon though :)

Tomenable
18-07-19, 16:09
Modern Orcadians are quite diverse, some look like they might have no Germanic admixture at all (despite their language/culture).

Sample S_Orcadian-1.DG from Reich dataset is almost 100% Insular Celtic (very similar to Late Bronze Age Scotland samples).

On the other hand, sample S_Orcadian-2.DG from the same dataset is more Germanic-influenced.

Studies such as POBI also show that Orkney Islands have several distinct genetic clusters, despite the small size of these islands!

Tomenable
18-07-19, 16:20
PCA with Viking Age Gotland samples... :

https://i.imgur.com/HaI7l6A.jpg

Joey37
18-07-19, 17:52
Whoa,

VK139
J1c3k
Male
R1a1a1b1a1a1c1


That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?

Dibran
18-07-19, 18:42
Whoa,

VK139
J1c3k
Male
R1a1a1b1a1a1c1


That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?

I think so. Assuming he’s closer to the 9th century. I believe there was a medieval samples from the 11th century before.

Hopefully we get some gedmatch kits soon

paul333
18-07-19, 18:44
Quote Post #8.

I think they believe they were Scandinavian 'Varangian/Rus' vikings, the five 'Bodzia'cemetary, Mtdna results were -
157 (E864/1)was H1c.
156 (E58) was J1c2c2a.
155 E870) was H1c
154 (E37) was H1c3.
153 (E63) was H1c3.

Dibran
18-07-19, 18:56
Quote Post #8.

I think they believe they were Scandinavian 'Varangian/Rus' vikings, the five 'Bodzia'cemetary, Mtdna results were -
157 (E864/1)was H1c.
156 (E58) was J1c2c2a.
155 E870) was H1c
154 (E37) was H1c3.
153 (E63) was H1c3.

I believe the L1029 samples from Lutsk is Rus Viking. A lot of Varangian were incorporated from Kievan Rus. The later folk were more ethnically mixed. Became like a mercenary corps of sorts.

Tomenable
18-07-19, 19:59
Dibran,


I believe the L1029 samples from Lutsk is Rus Viking.

Ukrainian sample VK541 from Lutsk (autosomally >95% Polish, Y-DNA R1a-L1029) was a prince:

https://i.postimg.cc/pX0SLvr5/Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-40.jpg
https://i.postimg.cc/QjdGG4CW/Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-41.jpg
https://i.postimg.cc/MpvFcLfP/Screen-Hunter-2771-Jul-18-15-41.jpg

Dibran
18-07-19, 20:18
Dibran,



Ukrainian sample VK541 from Lutsk (autosomally >95% Polish, Y-DNA R1a-L1029) was a prince:

https://i.postimg.cc/pX0SLvr5/Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-40.jpg
https://i.postimg.cc/QjdGG4CW/Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-41.jpg
https://i.postimg.cc/MpvFcLfP/Screen-Hunter-2771-Jul-18-15-41.jpg

yup. So it looks like a distinct possibility. This could explain how it got to England too. With either these Vikings in Denmark bearing the line or maybe early wends assimilated into some of the Saxon movements.

Dibran
18-07-19, 20:22
Whoa,

VK139
J1c3k
Male
R1a1a1b1a1a1c1


That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?

Also,

look up the Jomsviking league. It was originally a mixed Scando-Slavic Viking group on Wolins island/city.

By the 11th century they were composed predominantly of Vinds(per the Swedish Sagas). Vinds were their name for Wends. They were some of the most viscous Vikings.

They also staged some unsuccessful raids of Denmark in the 11th century.

In the case of English and Irish L1029, it is probably from these, If not earlier assimilated wends that may have moved with Saxon’s.

kingjohn
18-07-19, 20:32
from Supplementary
page 12 -Among the ancient samples, two individuals were derived haplogroups were identified as E1b1b1- M35.1, which are frequently encountered in modern southern Europe, Middle East and NorthAfrica . Interestingly, the individuals carrying these haplogroups had much less Scandinavian ancestry compared to the most samples inferred from haplotype based analysis. A similar pattern was also observed for less frequent haplogroups in our ancient dataset, such as G (n=3), J (n=3) and T (n=2),, indicating a possible non-Scandinavian male genetic component in the Viking Age NorthernEurope. Interestingly, individuals carrying these haplogroups were from the later Viking Age (10th century and younger), which might indicate some male gene influx into the Viking population during the Viking period. Worth mentioning, that due to the small sample size of the rare haplogroups, these differences might be of stochastic nature therefore the results based on uniparental markers should be interpreted with caution.

Wheal
19-07-19, 16:33
There were 29 U106 samples in this group.

kingjohn
19-07-19, 17:35
There were 29 U106 samples in this group.

u106 is the germanic branch if i am not mistaken .....
the vikings descendants from north germanic tribes .....

Wheal
19-07-19, 17:51
u106 is the germanic branch if i am not mistaken .....
the vikings descendants from north germanic tribes .....

yes I think so,

My father matches SaamiKola25, kit # M109244, 17 segments with the largest at 5.2cM for a total of 63.0 cM.

Ygorcs
20-07-19, 01:23
Vikings sorted by Polish admixture:

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/07/17/703405/DC3/embed/media-3.xlsx?download=true]https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/ear...x?download=true

I think that VK157, VK156 and VK154 have similar results to what I would score here (or my mother, as she has strong "Finnish / Fennoscandian" admix):

https://i.imgur.com/k7opkhA.png

In other words, VK157, VK156 and VK154 were probably like your average modern North-Western Pole (such as my aunt from Tuchola; I need to test her).

=====

In Gotland 5/18 Viking samples (or ca. 28%) have over 50% of Polish-like admixture. Unexpected.

And, if I may ask, what are Polish like autosomally in terms of ancient, Iron Age ancestry? Do you think that Polish-like admixture is a truly "Proto-Slavic" sign, or do Polish people in fact inherit a mix of Slavic, Baltic and Germanic speakers' admixtures (and maybe even others)?

kingjohn
20-07-19, 02:43
it is wired how vk-474 the E-L791 dude is 98.4% polish like autosomaly maybe he was a Baltic warrior who end up somehow in gotland .... :thinking:

those tribes were so close to gotland
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Prussians#/media/File:Baltic_Tribes_c_1200.svg

JWeske64
22-07-19, 14:50
Hi! I'm a real newbie to all of this and have no clue as to what I'm doing, lol. I was searching for posts related to my haplogroup U5b1c2b and found this thread. So, this means I'm related to VK30? Also, can someone help me to find good educational information about how to understand and conduct beginning level genetic research? This is all extraordinarily fascinating to me, but I'm completely lost in the woods here, LOL! Thank you!!

leperrine
22-07-19, 21:26
One of the J2a samples is L-70 (my haplogroup) I'm a direct male descendant of Normans. I wonder if they have more information on this guy.

Yaan
26-07-19, 07:35
One of the J2a samples is L-70 (my haplogroup) I'm a direct male descendant of Normans. I wonder if they have more information on this guy.

Yes I am also J2a-L70, so is my maternal GrandPa. The interesting thing is that if I am not mistaken one of the J2 Vikings is also MT H2a2a1, which is my female line. But I do not know if it is the L70 or M67 Viking.

Can somebody publish here the autosomal results of the male line J2(I think 3 of them) and female line H2a2a1( I think there are 4 of them) ? Thanks in advance!

mihaitzateo
27-07-19, 23:18
If some of the Vikings had Polish-like admixture, that does not means that they were ethnic Poles, they were clearly having mother tongue Old Norse, that is well known.
Besides, this Polish like admixture might have been shared between the ancestors of Poles and ancestors of some of the Vikings.

mihaitzateo
27-07-19, 23:32
Anyway, I see a lot of J maternal lines, which does not look very European like.
There are 47 persons that have J maternal lines from a total of 440 persons.
10% J maternal lines is not really looking very European.
28 persons got T maternal lines.
That is more than 5%.
Just for the statistics, 200 persons with H or H+V or V maternal lines.
This is looking quite European.

td120
30-07-19, 00:48
They're as European as they can be. Check out reliable sources please (Ian Logan's Genbank accession # ref.list ; Yfull tree ; FTDNA mt Public tree etc.)

Yaan
30-07-19, 08:54
Anyway, I see a lot of J maternal lines, which does not look very European like.
There are 47 persons that have J maternal lines from a total of 440 persons.
10% J maternal lines is not really looking very European.
28 persons got T maternal lines.
That is more than 5%.
Just for the statistics, 200 persons with H or H+V or V maternal lines.
This is looking quite European.



Т and J female lines are really European, please read some more :)

Angela
08-08-19, 20:52
There's definitely some R1a in far Southern Europe, but I don't know if it's all been fully classified. I would think some is Z93, but maybe there's a few "Viking" R1a as well as some I1 and U-106.

https://geogenetics.ku.dk/research_groups/willerslev/viking-dna/1000px-Viking_Expansion.svg.png

As a nice adjunct to the genetics:
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-07/p-trt071719.php

Joey37
08-08-19, 22:16
26 samples had J1c mtdna. This is a map of J1c frequency. Pretty non-European, right?11272

MOESAN
08-08-19, 23:10
I suppose Vikings could be compared to some sea-nomads in a way; pshychologically or culturally close to land nomads when they were raiders and plunderers. Basically Scandinavians, they can have taken with them some skillful outsiders pushed by the same wants of money and glory, wherever they had found these last ones. I think a part of the R-L21 of Western Norwegian is not due to slaves but rather to 'Gael-Gals', these mixes of Norwegians and Irishmen living in Viking communities in the Great Isles.
It seems there have been some Slavs so why not Slavs, Finns and others with the Eastern Vikings of Swedish origin? Even if scandinavian language kept on the 'koine'?

spruithean
10-08-19, 06:02
This paper was definitely a good haul for Haplogroup I1, lots of subclades (Z59, Z140, Z73, etc) no matter how lacking in depth they may have been. Certainly one of the more interesting pieces (at least to me, Orkney & Shetland are fascinating to me) was the Pictish population of Orkney adopting Scandinavian culture and going "Viking".

KerrieAnneChristian
07-10-19, 03:59
I found the article interesting as I am H1bb from my 3x gt grandmother from the Isle of Skye Scotland - and there were 2 mentions of H1b and 2 of H1bb in the list. The map of Viking activity was also very helpful.

I1a3_Young
11-10-19, 18:00
A total lack of I1-Z63. I'm in the Z63 research group on FTDNA/FaceBook and I think the emerging consensus is that most of the Z63 in modern Scandinavia was due to more recent migrations.

As for the talk of Wends, etc and the Saxons/English:

There are many wendish place names in the old Saxon kingdoms of southern England. The Saxons and Angles were each the largest group and leader of large conglomerations of Germanic tribes. I believe it's entirely reasonable that some of their migration included individuals just to the east of the Saxon lands in Germany, meaning over to Pomerania and western Poland, which were ethnically Germanic at that time (before Slavic expansion). The earliest historical sample of Z63 is from the Wielbark culture closely contemporary to the Anglo-Saxon migrations to Britain.

I1a3_Young
11-10-19, 19:14
A total lack of I1-Z63. I'm in the Z63 research group on FTDNA/FaceBook and I think the emerging consensus is that most of the Z63 in modern Scandinavia was due to more recent migrations.

As for the talk of Wends, etc and the Saxons/English:

There are many wendish place names in the old Saxon kingdoms of southern England. The Saxons and Angles were each the largest group and leader of large conglomerations of Germanic tribes. I believe it's entirely reasonable that some of their migration included individuals just to the east of the Saxon lands in Germany, meaning over to Pomerania and western Poland, which were ethnically Germanic at that time (before Slavic expansion). The earliest historical sample of Z63 is from the Wielbark culture closely contemporary to the Anglo-Saxon migrations to Britain.Maybe not emerging consensus about recent Z63 in Scandinavia but certainly plenty of anecdotal evidence.

Here's a link about Rugians and Wends in England:

https://www.wilcuma.org.uk/who-are-the-anglo-saxons/rugians-wends-tribal-slavonic-settlers/

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paul333
12-10-19, 02:02
Reading the link, and regarding the name of county of 'Wiltshire' as coming from a people of the Wiltsaetas.

It actually is believed to of came from, either the place/farm on the river Wylye, ie later village of Wilton, or the tun near the Willows the Willow- Tun, on the river Wylye ( meaning- an Anglo-Saxon settlement near the willows ) hence todays village of Wilton, whereby Wiltshire is derived from.

It has nothing to do with a Slavic tribe from the Baltic, in my opinion.

torzio
12-10-19, 03:00
Maybe not emerging consensus about recent Z63 in Scandinavia but certainly plenty of anecdotal evidence.

Here's a link about Rugians and Wends in England:

https://www.wilcuma.org.uk/who-are-the-anglo-saxons/rugians-wends-tribal-slavonic-settlers/

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your link says polabians

the only Polabian (wends) where

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veleti#/media/File:Polabian_Slavs.png