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bicicleur
11-09-19, 11:29
https://www.academia.edu/17646991/Anna_Sz%C3%A9cs%C3%A9nyi-Nagy_et_al._Tracing_the_genetic_origin_of_Europes_ first_farmers_reveals_insights_into_their_social_o rganization?email_work_card=view-paper

also early farmers were pariclocal and mtDNA diversity was much higher than Y-DNA

a pattern very often observed in the bronze age allready existed long before

Johane Derite
11-09-19, 12:04
No E in carpathian farmers, but I-M253

bicicleur
11-09-19, 13:46
No E in carpathian farmers, but I-M253

neither J, L, T, H2, C1a, R1b-V88

Angela
11-09-19, 14:57
So, the Starcevo and LBK absorbed only a very few hunter-gatherer women and men. That backs up what the autosomes show. The genetics of this large group seemed to have remained for about 2500 years. Quite a run.

Perhaps there were fewer hunter-gatherers here, and the ones present mostly left, and perhaps retreated further north and west?

Something happened to mtDna NIa. I wonder what?

Wish they were able to resolve the U2 better. Is it a different line than the one which resulted in the U2e1 and U2e2 in the steppe people and then northern Europeans? Or is it the same one, and it was absorbed by those people?

I have a dim memory of there being a lot of U2e in the Croatian islands. I have to look it up.


"Contrary to the low mtDNA diversity reported from hunter-gatherers of Central/North Europe [28–30], we
identify substantially higher variability in early farming communities of the Carpathian Basin
including the haplogroups N1a, T1, T2, J, K, H, HV, V, W, X, U2, U3, U4, and U5a (Table 1).
Previous studies have shown that haplogroups N1a, T2, J, K, HV, V, W and X are most
characteristic for the Central European LBK and have described these haplogroups as the
mitochondrial ʻNeolithic packageʼ that had reached Central Europe in the 6th millennium BC
[36,37]. Interestingly, most of these haplogroups show comparable frequencies between the
STA, LBKT and LBK, comprising the majority of mtDNA variation in each culture."

"This is predominately based on a high number of ʻNeolithic
packageʼ lineages and low frequencies of haplogroups attributed to hunter-gatherers, which
clearly distinguish this cluster from hunter-gatherers of Central/North [28–30] and southwest
Europe [32,45,46], but also from Neolithic Iberian populations and Central European cultures of
the 3rd/2nd millennium BC (Figure 2)."

"Sequence-based genetic distance maps are largely consistent with PCA and reveal the
greatest similarities of the STA to populations of the Near East (Iraq, Syria) and the Caucasus
(Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia), as well as some European populations, such as Italy, Austria,
Romania, and Macedonia (Figure 3a, Dataset S13). The distance map of the LBKT displays
affinities that are overall similar to the STA, which includes populations from Azerbaijan, Syria,
and Iraq. We also observe similarities to present-day Europeans, such as the populations of Great
Britain, Portugal, Romania, Crete, and Russia (Figure 3b, Dataset S13). These similarity peaks are
likely explained by elevated frequencies of shared lineages due to shared genetic drift in modern
day populations. "

"Three STA individuals belong to the NRY haplogroup
F* (M89) and two specimens can be assigned to the G2a2b (S126) haplogroup, and one each to
G2a (P15) and I2a1 (P37.2) (Dataset S3, S5). The two investigated LBKT samples carry
haplogroups G2a2b (S126) and I1 (M253). "

The I2a doesn't surprise me, but interesting the I1 shows up again.

"Similarly, the Y chromosome distance map discloses the greatest similarities to populations of
the west and south Caucasus, such as Adyghe, Kabardin, Balkarians, Abkhazians, Azerbaijanis and
Georgians as well as to the Sardinians (Figure 4, Dataset S15), which can be explained by the high
frequency of haplogroup G/G2a [50,54] in these populations. This might reflect genetic drift,
caused by isolation and small effective population size after a direct gene flow from the Near
East, which lead to a fixation of this haplogroup [49]. Intriguingly, populations of the northeast
Caucasus show greater distances to the STA-LBK samples due to lower abundance of haplogroup G2/G2a."

"Y chromosomal population genetic studies of modern-day Europeans have proposed that
I1 and I2a1 NRY haplogroups were present in Europe since the Late Upper Palaeolithic. This was
based on consistently high divergence time estimates [51,58], suggesting an expansion from
Franco-Cantabrian (I1) and southeast European glacial refugia (I2a1) after the Last Glacial
Maximum [51]. I2a1 has been recently described in Mesolithic specimens from Loschbour
(Luxemburg) and Motala (Sweden) [33], in a Scandinavian Neolithic hunter-gatherer from Ajvide
(Sweden, 2,900-2,600 BC) [38], as well as in Neolithic remains of southern France and northern
Spain [40,41]. From the Mesolithic Motola site a further three men could be assigned to the
haplogroup I [33]. The fact that almost all Mesolithic males belong to haplogroup I suggests that
this haplogroup might represent a pre-farming legacy of the NRY variation in Europe. "


"Considering the entire set of 32 published NRY records available for
Neolithic Europe thus far, the low paternal diversity is indeed quite remarkable: G2a is the
prevailing haplogroup in the Central European and Carpathian Basin Neolithic, and in French and
Iberian Neolithic datasets [36,40,41]. There are only two exceptions, namely one E1b1b (V13)
[41] individual from the Avellaner cave in Spain (~5,000-4,500 BC), and two I2a [40] individuals
from Treilles, France (~3,000 BC). This very limited variation in NRY haplogroups in contrast to
the high mtDNA haplogroups diversity suggests a larger effective population size for females
than males. One plausible explanation for this phenomenon is patrilocality (where women move
to their husband’s birth place after the marriage). Other possibilities that could lead to similar
observations include polygyny or male-biased adult mortality. A patrilocal residential rule was
possibly linked to a system of descent along the father’s line (patrilineality) in early farming
communities. Ethnographic studies have suggested a change of residential rules at the advent of
Neolithisation, showing different trends in residential rules among modern foragers and
nonforagers [62]. Increasing sedentism promotes territorial defence and control of resources,
favouring men in the inheritance of land and property, which consequently led to patrilocal
residence [62]. At the same time, such residence pattern have to be momentarily flexible in
expanding populations, allowing some of the sons to settle in new territories following
population pressure and natural limitation of resources, e.g. after the carrying capacity of particular region has been reached [61].
Patrilocality has also been raised in recent bioarchaeological studies. It has been suggested by aDNA evidence for the Treilles Neolithic
community [41], and by stable isotope studies for the LBK in Central Europe [63]."

Ralphie Boy
13-09-19, 15:17
It looks like I2a1 was around central Europe and the Balkans long before Slavic ethnogenesis. Not sure if or how that complicates things, as I2a1-Dinaric is strongly associated with Slavs. IE languages must have been brought to I2a1 people from somewhere else, or I2a1 people moved further east, where they got in contact with IE speakers?

Ownstyler
13-09-19, 15:48
It looks like I2a1 was around central Europe and the Balkans long before Slavic ethnogenesis. Not sure if or how that complicates things, as I2a1-Dinaric is strongly associated with Slavs. IE languages must have been brought to I2a1 people from somewhere else, or I2a1 people moved further east, where they got in contact with IE speakers?

It does not complicate things because only a few branches of I2a1 might be associated with Slavic expansions, and this particular sample did not belong to any of them. In fact, it is older than their ages.