PDA

View Full Version : The Genetics of Battle Ax Culture



Angela
09-10-19, 23:03
It's a subset of Corded Ware, of course.

See:

"https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528

"The Neolithic period is characterized by major cultural transformations and human migrations, with lasting effects across Europe. To understand the population dynamics in Neolithic Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea area, we investigate the genomes of individuals associated with the Battle Axe Culture (BAC), a Middle Neolithic complex in Scandinavia resembling the continental Corded Ware Culture (CWC). We sequenced 11 individuals (dated to 3330–1665 calibrated before common era (cal BCE)) from modern-day Sweden, Estonia, and Poland to 0.26–3.24× coverage. Three of the individuals were from CWC contexts and two from the central-Swedish BAC burial ‘Bergsgraven’. By analysing these genomes together with the previously published data, we show that the BAC represents a group different from other Neolithic populations in Scandinavia, revealing stratification among cultural groups. Similar to continental CWC, the BAC-associated individuals display ancestry from the Pontic–Caspian steppe herders, as well as smaller components originating from hunter–gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers. Thus, the steppe ancestry seen in these Scandinavian BAC individuals can be explained only by migration into Scandinavia. Furthermore, we highlight the reuse of megalithic tombs of the earlier Funnel Beaker Culture (FBC) by people related to BAC. The BAC groups likely mixed with resident middle Neolithic farmers (e.g. FBC) without substantial contributions from Neolithic foragers."

bicicleur
09-10-19, 23:25
it confirms what Mittnik already showed : early CWC were 100 % Yamna, only later they admixed with EEF

as for FBC, all samples are from the megalithic era, hence Y-DNA I2
early FBC could have been different, G2a maybe

Angela
09-10-19, 23:26
I don't see anything new in terms of the uniparentals.

"The individuals from BAC and CWC contexts, including oll007 from a megalithic burial, displayed U4 and U5 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, previously associated with Stone Age hunter–gatherers [29 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C29)–34 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C34)], and H1, N1a, and U3 lineages, associated with Neolithic farmers [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32),35 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C35),36 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C36)] (table 1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528TB1); electronic supplementary material, table S4). This broadly coincides with the wide variety of mtDNA lineages found in other individuals from CWC contexts (e.g. [2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)]). However, the U3 and N1a lineages, which were found here (poz44 and ber2), have not been reported from individuals excavated in CWC contexts. The two males in our dataset (ber1 and poz81) belonged to Y-chromosome R1a haplogroups (table 1; electronic supplementary material, table S5), as do the majority of males (16/24) from the previously published CWC contexts (Viby in Sweden, Ardu and Kunila in Estonia, Gyvakarai and Spiginas in Lithuania, Bergrheinfeld and Esperstedt in Germany, and Brandýsek in the Czech Republic) [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),7 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C7),31 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C31),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32),37 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C37)], while a smaller fraction belonged to R1b [3/24] or I2a [3/24] lineages (Tiefbrunn and Esperstedt in Germany, Pikutkowo and Łęki Małe in Poland, and Brandýsek in the Czech Republic) [2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),23 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C23),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32),37 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C37)]. The R1a haplogroup has not been found among Neolithic farmer populations nor in hunter–gatherer groups in central and western Europe, but it has been reported from eastern European hunter–gatherers and Eneolithic groups [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),31 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C31),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)]. Individuals from the Pontic–Caspian steppe, associated with the Yamnaya Culture, carry mostly R1b and not R1a haplotypes [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),31 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C31),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)].Three individuals had enough data for investigating the LCT gene-region (electronic supplementary material, table S6), and one of these individuals (kar1) carried at least one allele (-13910 C->T) associated with lactose tolerance, while the other two individuals (ber1 and poz81) carried at least one ancestral variant each, consistent with previous observations of low levels of lactose tolerance variants in the Neolithic [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),33 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C33),38 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C38)] and a slight increase among individuals from CWC contexts [32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)]. The individuals further displayed a mixed appearance with both light and dark hair and brown and blue eyes (electronic supplementary material, table S6). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for the individuals from modern-day Sweden show a terrestrial diet except for the Ajvide individual (electronic supplementary material, table S1 and figure S3). Strontium isotope data for the two individuals in Bergsgraven have differing signals, indicating recent migration of at least one of the individuals to the area (electronic supplementary material, table S2 and figure S4)."

https://i.imgur.com/BH4C0n5.png

Angela
09-10-19, 23:36
Autosomal:
https://i.imgur.com/U61QQcT.png

Angela
09-10-19, 23:38
@Bicicleur.
I don't know if this shows Corded Ware were all identical to Yamnaya, although there was some overlap.

I agree, though, nothing new here that I can see.

bicicleur
10-10-19, 08:05
the oldest known CWC sample (Mittnik), 3000 BC in Estonia (or Latvia?) had 0% EEF and a typical Yamna EHG-CHG mix
somehow the oldest generation of CWC was whiped out by the 2nd generation, who had gotten admixed with EEF
my guess is that the plague had something to do with it
the oldest generation didn't have any immunity, those admixed with EEF had gained immunity and spread the plague toward eastern Europe
we know there was plague in FBC 5 ka GÖkhem passage grave
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/cms/attachment/2eb371bc-39df-4725-b0a6-8ef4f5ce9de4/rspb20191528f02.gif
as you can see :
3000 BC no LBK, all Yamna
2200 BC some 25 % LBK

kingjohn
10-10-19, 16:21
I don't see anything new in terms of the uniparentals.

"The individuals from BAC and CWC contexts, including oll007 from a megalithic burial, displayed U4 and U5 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, previously associated with Stone Age hunter–gatherers [29 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C29)–34 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C34)], and H1, N1a, and U3 lineages, associated with Neolithic farmers [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32),35 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C35),36 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C36)] (table 1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528TB1); electronic supplementary material, table S4). This broadly coincides with the wide variety of mtDNA lineages found in other individuals from CWC contexts (e.g. [2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)]). However, the U3 and N1a lineages, which were found here (poz44 and ber2), have not been reported from individuals excavated in CWC contexts. The two males in our dataset (ber1 and poz81) belonged to Y-chromosome R1a haplogroups (table 1; electronic supplementary material, table S5), as do the majority of males (16/24) from the previously published CWC contexts (Viby in Sweden, Ardu and Kunila in Estonia, Gyvakarai and Spiginas in Lithuania, Bergrheinfeld and Esperstedt in Germany, and Brandýsek in the Czech Republic) [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),7 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C7),31 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C31),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32),37 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C37)], while a smaller fraction belonged to R1b [3/24] or I2a [3/24] lineages (Tiefbrunn and Esperstedt in Germany, Pikutkowo and Łęki Małe in Poland, and Brandýsek in the Czech Republic) [2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),23 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C23),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32),37 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C37)]. The R1a haplogroup has not been found among Neolithic farmer populations nor in hunter–gatherer groups in central and western Europe, but it has been reported from eastern European hunter–gatherers and Eneolithic groups [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),31 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C31),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)]. Individuals from the Pontic–Caspian steppe, associated with the Yamnaya Culture, carry mostly R1b and not R1a haplotypes [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),31 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C31),32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)].Three individuals had enough data for investigating the LCT gene-region (electronic supplementary material, table S6), and one of these individuals (kar1) carried at least one allele (-13910 C->T) associated with lactose tolerance, while the other two individuals (ber1 and poz81) carried at least one ancestral variant each, consistent with previous observations of low levels of lactose tolerance variants in the Neolithic [1 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C1),2 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C2),33 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C33),38 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C38)] and a slight increase among individuals from CWC contexts [32 (https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1528#RSPB20191528C32)]. The individuals further displayed a mixed appearance with both light and dark hair and brown and blue eyes (electronic supplementary material, table S6). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for the individuals from modern-day Sweden show a terrestrial diet except for the Ajvide individual (electronic supplementary material, table S1 and figure S3). Strontium isotope data for the two individuals in Bergsgraven have differing signals, indicating recent migration of at least one of the individuals to the area (electronic supplementary material, table S2 and figure S4)."

https://i.imgur.com/BH4C0n5.png


thanks for sharing angela
so i see some r1a types expected .....

VladimirTaraskin
11-10-19, 11:08
bicicleur

And can all is easier? Migrant men married local girls, who were more

bicicleur
11-10-19, 15:42
bicicleur
And can all is easier? Migrant men married local girls, who were more

they did not marry the local HG, just farmers, and they were not in Eastern Europe, so those in the east came from west, whiping out those without admix

I1a3_Young
11-10-19, 15:58
Good to confirm what we thought with more data.

I bet the chances are good that Ros5 labeled IJ* will be pre-I1 if some experts analyzed the data.

spruithean
11-10-19, 19:43
Good to confirm what we thought with more data.

I bet the chances are good that Ros5 labeled IJ* will be pre-I1 if some experts analyzed the data.


Some users from Anthrogenica have analyzed the BAMs of these specific samples and these are the results:


oll009; 1930-1750 BC; Olljso; Sweden; LNBA; I1a-DF29

ros5; 3090-2920 BC; Rossberga; Sweden; Funnelbeaker Culture; I2a1-P37>M423>Y3104>L161.1>S2639>L1498>Y3749>pre-S2742


ajv54; 2900-2680 BC; Ajvide; Sweden, Pitted Ware Culture; I2a1-P37>CTS595>S21825>pre-Y4213

https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?8066-Genetic-Genealogy-amp-Ancient-DNA-in-the-News-(DISCUSSION-ONLY)&p=609688&viewfull=1#post609688

bicicleur
12-10-19, 07:48
Some users from Anthrogenica have analyzed the BAMs of these specific samples and these are the results:
https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?8066-Genetic-Genealogy-amp-Ancient-DNA-in-the-News-(DISCUSSION-ONLY)&p=609688&viewfull=1#post609688
TRB spread some 6,3 ka, it's origin would be a merger between farmers and HG between lower Elbe and middle Vistula
If this is true, then the HG would have been I1

around 5,9 ka megalithic farmers arived in Denmark and overwhelmed the original TRB farmers
their pottery remained TRB style, but with more decoration

I2a1-P37>M423>Y3104>L161.1>S2639>L1498>Y3749>pre-S2742 is a typical megalithic clade, it's origin is in MN Iberia - the Alentejo high plain 7,5 ka
so far all Y-DNA of TRB has been I2a, no G2a has been found in TRB except for Salzmünde, Germany
this I1 would be the 2nd non-I2a

I1a3_Young
24-10-19, 21:46
TRB spread some 6,3 ka, it's origin would be a merger between farmers and HG between lower Elbe and middle Vistula
If this is true, then the HG would have been I1

around 5,9 ka megalithic farmers arived in Denmark and overwhelmed the original TRB farmers
their pottery remained TRB style, but with more decoration

I2a1-P37>M423>Y3104>L161.1>S2639>L1498>Y3749>pre-S2742 is a typical megalithic clade, it's origin is in MN Iberia - the Alentejo high plain 7,5 ka
so far all Y-DNA of TRB has been I2a, no G2a has been found in TRB except for Salzmünde, Germany
this I1 would be the 2nd non-I2aI'm not following why you think the DF29 sample above is associated with TRB.

Sent from my SM-G935V using Eupedia Forum mobile app (http://r.tapatalk.com/byo?rid=89698)

I1a3_Young
01-11-19, 21:18
Some users from Anthrogenica have analyzed the BAMs of these specific samples and these are the results:



https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?8066-Genetic-Genealogy-amp-Ancient-DNA-in-the-News-(DISCUSSION-ONLY)&p=609688&viewfull=1#post609688Thanks, this is big news. ool009 is now the earliest sample of known I1 and categorized as Scandinavian Late Neolithic, found in south-central Sweden. This area of Sweden is also the location of the unique I1 branch among modern men.

Sent from my SM-G935V using Eupedia Forum mobile app (http://r.tapatalk.com/byo?rid=89698)

bicicleur
02-11-19, 11:32
I'm not following why you think the DF29 sample above is associated with TRB.

Sent from my SM-G935V using Eupedia Forum mobile app (http://r.tapatalk.com/byo?rid=89698)

that's my guess
because all Y-DNA we have from TRB can be assigned to the megalithic farmers who were not the original founders of TRB, they are all I2a1b
the PWC HG were a branch of I2, not I1
so I guess the original founders of TRB were a merger of G2a2 and I1
well, you could of course think of other sources for I1 to arrive in southern Scandinavia, but we know many of them were not I1

MOESAN
02-11-19, 15:15
@Bicicleur
Have been found some Y-I2a2 among megalithic aspect of TRB yet ? I ask this because Y-I2a2 seem having been a common haplo among last Neolithicers of Britain ad I believed there could have been a link between them and N-Euro Scandinavia at those times...

bicicleur
03-11-19, 01:33
@Bicicleur
Have been found some Y-I2a2 among megalithic aspect of TRB yet ? I ask this because Y-I2a2 seem having been a common haplo among last Neolithicers of Britain ad I believed there could have been a link between them and N-Euro Scandinavia at those times...

the megalithic tribes seem to be I2a1b, I2a1a1 (M26) and I2a2a2, and their origin would be western Iberia
recent studies point to a patrilocal elite in megalithic cultures, based on kinship along the male line
in megalithic TRB only I2a1b appeared
TRB expanded 6,3 ka from middle Elbe-lower Vistula
first megaliths in TRB appeared on the Danish isles 5,95 ka and expanded from there

MOESAN
03-11-19, 17:58
Thanks, Bicicleur. But have we a lot of Y-DNA from last TRB?

bicicleur
03-11-19, 21:07
Thanks, Bicicleur. But have we a lot of Y-DNA from last TRB?
no, just 4 I think

Euro Neo MN Euro TRB Funnelbeaker 3000 BC Gökhem 4 I2a1b1-L161.1 calls I2a1b1 L161.1 xS2639 Funnel Beaker / TRB Sweden Frälsegården [passage grave] Gokhem [Gok 4] M 3500-2500 BC H Malmstrom 2009; Skoglund 2012; Skoglund 2014

Euro Neo MN Euro Germany Salzmünde/
Bernburg [regional TRB] Germany Esperstedt [I0172/ESP 24] M 3360-3086 BC I2a1b1a L1498+, L161.1+, CTS1293+,
CTS1802+, L178+, CTS8239+, M423+, CTS11030+ T2b Brandt 2013; Haak 2015; Mathieson 2015

Euro Neo MN Euro Germany Middle Neolithic Germany Esperstedt [I0172/ESP 24] M 3360-3086 BC I2a1b1a L1498 T2b Mathieson 2015

and now

ros5; 3090-2920 BC; Rossberga; Sweden; Funnelbeaker Culture; I2a1-P37>M423>Y3104>L161.1>S2639>L1498>Y3749>pre-S2742


I2a1b has also been observed in Iberia, British Isles neolithic, megalithic Provence and megalithic Paris Basin and Nuraghe Sardegna

spruithean
07-11-19, 03:52
Thanks, this is big news. ool009 is now the earliest sample of known I1 and categorized as Scandinavian Late Neolithic, found in south-central Sweden. This area of Sweden is also the location of the unique I1 branch among modern men.

Sent from my SM-G935V using Eupedia Forum mobile app (http://r.tapatalk.com/byo?rid=89698)

It's a good find, and certainly a good sign for several origin theories of modern I1. It's taken a long time to find a relevant I1 in the Scandinavian Late Neolithic/Nordic Bronze Age range. Whether I1 arrived in Scandinavia via TRB or whatever else I can't comment on that.