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View Full Version : A 5700 year-old human genome and oral microbiome from chewed birch pitch



jose luis
18-12-19, 18:45
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13549-9

Angela
18-12-19, 19:12
The most important part of the study imo is the fact that ancient dna can be recovered from chewed birch pitch, and how to recover it.

That's great.

The other interesting information was in what they ate, the diseases they suffered from, and the viruses and bacteria they carried.

The Epstein Barr virus is horrible for people whose immune response it permanently heightens, leading to all sorts of debilitating and sometimes lethal diseases like MS, lupus, etc.

Interesting they had so much tooth decay, given we were told so often that only came about with the Neolithic and consumption of starches.

In actuality, for these people it was probably all the hazelnuts they ate, which was also the case for some hunter-gatherers in North Africa according to a paper which came out a few days ago. I'm sure the hunter-gatherers in the Levant, with all the wild growing grain and lots of bees for honey, might have had more than their share as well.

Silesian
18-12-19, 19:23
The most important part of the study imo is the fact that ancient dna can be recovered from chewed birch pitch, and how to recover it.
That's great.
The other interesting information was in what they ate, the diseases they suffered from, and the viruses and bacteria they carried.
The Epstein Barr virus is horrible for people whose immune response it permanently heightens, leading to all sorts of debilitating and sometimes lethal diseases like MS, lupus, etc.
Interesting they had so much tooth decay, given we were told so often that only came about with the Neolithic and consumption of starches.
In actuality, for these people it was probably all the hazelnuts they ate, which was also the case for some hunter-gatherers in North Africa according to a paper which came out a few days ago. I'm sure the hunter-gatherers in the Levant, with all the wild growing grain and lots of bees for honey, might have had more than their share as well.
This study is very important. Why?

Angela
18-12-19, 19:29
This study is very important. Why?

I'm sorry, I thought I made it clear.



"The most important part of the study imo is the fact that ancient dna can be recovered from chewed birch pitch, and how to recover it.
That's great.
The other interesting information was in what they ate, the diseases they suffered from, and the viruses and bacteria they carried."


The fact that a Scandinavian hunter-gatherer is WHG should not be earth shattering news for anyone, should it?

It would be like being over the moon that a farmer from France was mostly Anatolian Neolithic and some WHG. Interesting, glad to have it, but hardly a groundbreaking study, yes?

Unless I'm misunderstanding your point?

bicicleur
18-12-19, 23:17
Interesting they had so much tooth decay, given we were told so often that only came about with the Neolithic and consumption of starches.

In actuality, for these people it was probably all the hazelnuts they ate, which was also the case for some hunter-gatherers in North Africa according to a paper which came out a few days ago. I'm sure the hunter-gatherers in the Levant, with all the wild growing grain and lots of bees for honey, might have had more than their share as well.

The Iberomaursians came from the same branch as the Natufians - E1b1b1b-M35.
They had similar lifestyle and also ate a lot of plant food.
Their caries and the habit in some of their tribes to extract the incisors at young age must have been desastrous.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/Mechta_el-Arbi.png/260px-Mechta_el-Arbi.png

Silesian
18-12-19, 23:46
Our genome has between 20-25K genes. The microbiome has vastly more genes. Some bacteria we do not even know, as they cannot survive outside the host. We can use the human genome to parse populations as well as archaeogenetics of ancient bacteria [as the study above shows]for example. Using bacteria also makes a great deal of sense, to the point of being able to parse women of different nationalities by the bacteria microbes they harbor with in reproductive tract. The microbiome has adapted and co-evolved with human genes to help in specific human needs[symbiotic relationship between mtdna for example] , and we can see that in the bacteria of the skin, mouth, gut, reproductive[women]. Some bacteria are harmful and when introduced to a new population- pathogenic like Yersinia pestis,[stomach bacterias] , and e coli[produce] for example. Others are beneficial like specialty cheeses, Kefir, yogurt-[ two strains of bacteria, that co-evolved from the Bulgarian eco-system] etc...

Archaeogentic testing of specific regional strains of bacteria, also has implications for potential linguistics. As a particular bacteria co-evolved within a specific region, say for example, nomadic pastoralism on the steppe using dairy or mares milk and co-evolving with certain strains of bacteria. Or say specific yeasts like grape yeasts that only live in Georgia, as another example.

Gnarl
19-12-19, 11:20
The fact that a Scandinavian hunter-gatherer is WHG should not be earth shattering news for anyone, should it?

Well, its a little bit interesting. The subject seems to be nearly 100 % WHG. No admixture with Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers. Also lacks Farmer DNA although both the location and time period is within the Funnelbeaker culture area. We also seem to be within the time frame of the Atlantic Megalith culture, although I am not sure if Scandinavia was quite there on it yet. We just had a paper showing that the Y-chromosomes of the Megalith builders were WHG in origin, and that the DNA showed a more male-dominated WHG gene transfer -except in Scandinavia.

I also got the impression that this was a fairly large site. Its food for speculation if nothing else.

EDIT: Also seems within the WHG resurgence period.

bicicleur
19-12-19, 12:02
no EHG admixture in island southern Denmark
and no EHG despite K1e mtDNA

in Europe there seems to have been quite some exchange of females between HG and farmers, while in the Caucasus there was not (Wang paper)

Angela
19-12-19, 15:32
Well, its a little bit interesting. The subject seems to be nearly 100 % WHG. No admixture with Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers. Also lacks Farmer DNA although both the location and time period is within the Funnelbeaker culture area. We also seem to be within the time frame of the Atlantic Megalith culture, although I am not sure if Scandinavia was quite there on it yet. We just had a paper showing that the Y-chromosomes of the Megalith builders were WHG in origin, and that the DNA showed a more male-dominated WHG gene transfer -except in Scandinavia.

I also got the impression that this was a fairly large site. Its food for speculation if nothing else.

EDIT: Also seems within the WHG resurgence period.

All good points.