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Maciamo
17-09-20, 10:38
A new paper just came out: Population genomics of the Viking world (Margaryan et al 2020) (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2688-8#Sec35)

Abstract

The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age (about AD 750–1050) was a far-flung transformation in world history. Here we sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites across Europe and Greenland (to a median depth of about 1×) to understand the global influence of this expansion. We find the Viking period involved gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east. We observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, with diversity hotspots in the south and restricted gene flow within Scandinavia. We find evidence for a major influx of Danish ancestry into England; a Swedish influx into the Baltic; and Norwegian influx into Ireland, Iceland and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial ancestry from elsewhere in Europe entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. Our ancient DNA analysis also revealed that a Viking expedition included close family members. By comparing with modern populations, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the past millennium, and trace positively selected loci—including the lactase-persistence allele of LCT and alleles of ANKA that are associated with the immune response—in detail. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial transregional engagement: distinct populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, and Scandinavia experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.

Here is the supplementary information (https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-2688-8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf) (178 pages). There are also Excel tables in supplements. I haven't read anything yet.

"The 442 ancient individuals were divided into five broad categories (Figure 1 in the main text) and the majority (n=376) were sequenced to between 0.1 and 11X average depth of coverage. The data set includes Bronze Age (n=2) and Iron Age (n=10) individuals from Scandinavia; early VA (n=43)individuals from Estonia (n=34), Denmark (n=6), and Sweden (n=3); ancient individuals associated with Norse culture from Greenland (n=23), VA individuals from Denmark (n=78), the Faroe Islands(n=1), Iceland (n=17), Ireland (n=4), Norway (n=29), Poland (n=8), Russia (n=33), Sweden (n=118),the Isle of Man (n=1), Scotland (n=8), England (n=32), Wales (n=1), and Ukraine (n=3), as well as individuals from the medieval and early modern periods from the Faroe Islands (n=16), Italy (n=5),Norway (n=7), Poland (n=2), and Ukraine (n=1). The VA individuals were supplemented with published genomes from Sigtuna, Sweden (n=21, samples VK557-VK578)35, and Iceland."

Maciamo
17-09-20, 10:50
Here is the summary of the Y-DNA of all samples in the study.

https://www.eupedia.com/images/Viking-Y-DNA.png

The paper says:

"The ancient samples in the present study are mainly distributed in two clades, I1a1b1-L22, which accounts for 71% of the I1 haplotypes in a Y chromosome survey of Finland, and I1a2a-S246. Of particular interest, the clade I1a2a1a1d1a-S247 is especially well represented inEstonian samples, and is found mostly in present-day Finnish and northern Scandinavian groups."

I checked the Excel tables, but unfortunately the Y-DNA list does not give the SNPs. I wanted to know what percentage of R1b-L21 was present in Scandinavia, and especially in Norway, before the Vikings settled Britain and Ireland.

Maciamo
17-09-20, 11:09
Here is what the study says regarding the skin, hair and eye pigmentation of the Vikings. It's almost identical to modern Danes.

"The SNPs with strongest association with lighter hair and eye pigmentation phenotypes such as theones in HERC2, OCA2, and TYR genes in humans are elevated in the Viking population, and theprofile of allele frequency distribution is close to the present-day northern European populationrepresented here by the 'CEU' (1000 Genomes Project) and the modern Danish population ('DK')from IPSYCH case-cohort study. The frequencies of informative SNPs associated with pigmentationare presented in Figure S13.1. This suggests that the genetic profile of pigmentation SNPs we observein northern Europeans today had been largely formed at the onset of the Viking period."

https://www.eupedia.com/images/Viking_pigmentation.png

According to these charts, the main difference between the Vikings tested and modern Danes is that the Vikings had twice the frequency of derived OCA2 (rs1800407), one of the mutation associated with blue eyes. That doesn't mean much as modern Tuscans have an even higher frequency of derived OCA2.

real expert
17-09-20, 12:23
Here is what the study says regarding the skin, hair and eye pigmentation of the Vikings. It's almost identical to modern Danes.

"The SNPs with strongest association with lighter hair and eye pigmentation phenotypes such as theones in HERC2, OCA2, and TYR genes in humans are elevated in the Viking population, and theprofile of allele frequency distribution is close to the present-day northern European populationrepresented here by the 'CEU' (1000 Genomes Project) and the modern Danish population ('DK')from IPSYCH case-cohort study. The frequencies of informative SNPs associated with pigmentationare presented in Figure S13.1. This suggests that the genetic profile of pigmentation SNPs we observein northern Europeans today had been largely formed at the onset of the Viking period."

https://www.eupedia.com/images/Viking_pigmentation.png

According to these charts, the main difference between the Vikings tested and modern Danes is that the Vikings had twice the frequency of derived OCA2 (rs1800407), one of the mutation associated with blue eyes. That doesn't mean much as modern Tuscans have an even higher frequency of derived OCA2.

The scientists who wrote the study stated on daily mail and National geographic the contrary. They concluded that Vikings back then were much darker than the average modern Dane. Plus according to the authors modern Scandinavians have only 15-30% Viking DNA. What is your take on this paper? I personally think this genetic study is misleading.

Bygdedweller
17-09-20, 13:01
The scientists who wrote the study stated on daily mail and National geographic the contrary. They concluded that Vikings back then were much darker than the average modern Dane. Plus according to the authors modern Scandinavians have only 15-30% Viking DNA. What is your take on this paper? I personally think this genetic study is misleading.
The study itself is fine, but their communication to the press regarding the results has been borderline dishonest in my opinion, and misleading at best.

real expert
17-09-20, 13:49
The study itself is fine, but their communication to the press regarding the results has been borderline dishonest in my opinion, and misleading at best.

There is a pattern. This is not the first study that was presented in the media in a very misleading way where the gullible public was misinformed.

To me it's frustrating that genetic studies are often not used in a strictly scientific, neutral and educational way.

The data as such isn't the issue, a problem, but the fact that the data is being presented in a sophisticated way to say what certain people want it to say. In my opinion this Viking study is being and will be used to shake the Scandinavian's national identity. The media and certain scientific magazines already played the same game with the Cheddar man in order to challenge, question the native British identity. And I also remember the headlines about the Roman paper that stated: Ancient Romans had more in common with Greeks, modern Syrians and Lebanese than Europeans. Plenty people after reading the article falsely believed that modern Italians had nothing to with the ancient ones.

Maciamo
17-09-20, 18:17
The scientists who wrote the study stated on daily mail and National geographic the contrary. They concluded that Vikings back then were much darker than the average modern Dane. Plus according to the authors modern Scandinavians have only 15-30% Viking DNA. What is your take on this paper? I personally think this genetic study is misleading.

Why would they say the opposite of what they write in their paper to the Daily Mail? Or is it the journalists from the Daily Mail who distorted what he said?

It's completely ridiculous to say that modern Scandinavians have only 15-30% of Viking DNA! What would be the remaining 70-85% then?

Northener
17-09-20, 20:52
Here is what the study says regarding the skin, hair and eye pigmentation of the Vikings. It's almost identical to modern Danes.

"The SNPs with strongest association with lighter hair and eye pigmentation phenotypes such as theones in HERC2, OCA2, and TYR genes in humans are elevated in the Viking population, and theprofile of allele frequency distribution is close to the present-day northern European populationrepresented here by the 'CEU' (1000 Genomes Project) and the modern Danish population ('DK')from IPSYCH case-cohort study. The frequencies of informative SNPs associated with pigmentationare presented in Figure S13.1. This suggests that the genetic profile of pigmentation SNPs we observein northern Europeans today had been largely formed at the onset of the Viking period."

https://www.eupedia.com/images/Viking_pigmentation.png

According to these charts, the main difference between the Vikings tested and modern Danes is that the Vikings had twice the frequency of derived OCA2 (rs1800407), one of the mutation associated with blue eyes. That doesn't mean much as modern Tuscans have an even higher frequency of derived OCA2.

They also concluded this:

A binomial test of the number of black hair color risk alleles found in higher frequency in the VA sample and the present-day sample, also returned a significant difference.

Jovialis
17-09-20, 21:22
It is a shame that WGExtract is unable to process these BAM files. If there is another means to do so, I would like to utilize it.

real expert
17-09-20, 22:59
Why would they say the opposite of what they write in their paper to the Daily Mail? Or is it the journalists from the Daily Mail who distorted what he said?

It's completely ridiculous to say that modern Scandinavians have only 15-30% of Viking DNA! What would be the remaining 70-85% then?


I'm only informing people here about what's going on outside the archeogenetic community, and how this Viking study was presented to the public by the media. I read articles about the Vikings in daily mail, National Geographic, the Guardian to see how they differ in their report. But daily mail, NG, the Guardian basically reported the same, that Vikings were dark and modern Scandinavians are only a bit Viking. However, when I tried to set the record straight a smartass told me to deal with the fact that Vikings were all dark haired, swarthy and that modern Scandinavians have not much Viking blood. In my opinion the researchers are part of the problem because they play by the rules and games of the media. My assumption is that the authors picked up Vikings who were of mixed heritage or Vikings that were Picts or Celts and compared their genes with those of the modern Scandinavians. Therefore, I suspect that they used flawed, questionable methods to make modern Scandinavians appear less related to the Vikings. This is my guess. Anyway, anyone who learnt how to read genetic papers knows that you can make populations look closer related to their ancestors or less related depending on the methods you use. The thing is that not only the media but also the authors of genetic studies find sensationalism more exciting that confirming what was already known. Therefore, sometimes they exaggerate the results of their paper. Scientists want to make headlines too or break stereotype, old beliefs, etc.

Again, when going by the interviews of the researchers from the mainstream media you think that the Vikings weren't that Scandinavian and modern ones didn't have much of them in their ancestry. We live in crazy times.

Joanne
18-09-20, 09:27
What Y DNA is the red at
the top?

kingjohn
18-09-20, 17:27
What Y DNA is the red at
the top?

you mean in second post of maciamo .....:thinking:
i think the red is -
Q1B -0.35% :cool-v:

ThirdTerm
18-09-20, 23:49
I'm only informing people here about what's going on outside the archeogenetic community, and how this Viking study was presented to the public by the media. I read articles about the Vikings in daily mail, National Geographic, the Guardian to see how they differ in their report. But daily mail, NG, the Guardian basically reported the same, that Vikings were dark and modern Scandinavians are only a bit Viking.


The paper actually finds that pigmentation phenotype in VA Scandinavians may not have differed much from the present-day occupants of the region. Margaryan et al. (2020) also find that present-day populations are still structured according to the ancient Viking population groups within Scandinavia. The component that associated as Norwegian-like is present at 45-65% in present-day Norway. Moreover, the ancient Swedish-like ancestry is present at 15-30% within Sweden. Of the four Swedish clusters, one cluster is more related to the ancient Finnish, and a second cluster is more related to Danes and Norwegians. Danish-like ancestry is high across the whole region today. Margaryan et al. (2020) further detect an influx of low levels of “eastern” ancestry starting in the early VA, mostly constrained among groups from eastern and central Sweden with contributions of either East Asian- or Caucasus-related ancestry (Supplementary Note 10).



Pigmentation-associated SNPs

Exploring twenty-two SNPs with large effect associated with eye color and hair pigmentation, we observe that their frequencies are very similar to those of present-day Scandinavians (Supplementary Note 13). This suggests that pigmentation phenotype in VA Scandinavians may not have differed much from the present-day occupants of the region (although see section on complex traits below for an analysis including alleles of small effect). Nevertheless, it is important to stress that there is quite a lot of variation in the genotypes of these SNPs across the sequenced samples, and that there is therefore not a single ‘Viking phenotype’. For example, two of the ancient samples with the highest coverage have different pigmentation phenotypes: VA individual VK42 from Skara, Sweden has alleles associated with brown eyes and darker hair coloration while VK1 from Greenland was likely to have had blue eyes and lighter hair.

Joanne
19-09-20, 04:15
Maciamo, please label red section at top of circular diagram.

Archetype0ne
19-09-20, 09:52
It is a bit sad we do not have SNPs. The rough breakdown is still useful, but rather not informative and relevant to the time period.

MOESAN
19-09-20, 11:38
What do they think by "Viking": all Scandinavians of a time, or rather a lifestyle and specific brotherhood involving non-Scandinavians too?
As others, I think the MOST of the media, papers an Co are found of sensationalism, what a pity in a world subject to changes and doubts about history.

Joanne
20-09-20, 07:29
Maciamo, what is the population labelled TSI in the 6th diagram - lower far right

Bygdedweller
20-09-20, 10:31
Maciamo, what is the population labelled TSI in the 6th diagram - lower far right
Pretty sure that’s Italians from Tuscany.

Jovialis
20-09-20, 14:53
Pretty sure that’s Italians from Tuscany.
Weren't the Italians samples from medieval Foggia? Southern Italy is where the Normans had territory. TSI could just be a proxy for that. TSI is usually used as a generic Italian population in DNA studies.

Jovialis
20-09-20, 15:37
We see an increase of CHG and Anatolian_N across the board in Northern Europe from the Iron Age to the present. Perhaps that has to do with intermingling with Southern Europe in general within that timeframe:

https://i.imgur.com/z0pgATg.png
https://i.imgur.com/jWrS2gm.png

MOESAN
20-09-20, 16:50
@Jovialis
Thanks for some docs I had not seen.
I have some doubt sometimes concerning admixture charts. That said, some increase in "foreign" DNA in far North is sensible by time; Now, a nb 11 sample for a country is too low, if it is supposed to represent all regions of a vaste country, spite it's sufficient for an homogenous region.

Pax Augusta
20-09-20, 16:55
Maciamo, what is the population labelled TSI in the 6th diagram - lower far right

Tuscans from Italy.



Weren't the Italians samples from medieval Foggia? Southern Italy is where the Normans had territory. TSI could just be a proxy for that. TSI is usually used as a generic Italian population in DNA studies.


TSI is Tuscans from Italy. It's used also in Raveane, and all individuals from TSI join one of northern-central clusters of Italy.

Jovialis
20-09-20, 16:59
Tuscans from Italy.
TSI is Tuscans from Italy. It's used also in Raveane, and all individuals from TSI join one of northern-central clusters of Italy.
Indeed, South Italian or Sicilian samples would probably be better samples to use. Those are the populations the Normans interacted with.

Pax Augusta
20-09-20, 17:18
Indeed, South Italian or Sicilian samples would probably be better samples to use. Those are the populations the Normans interacted with.


I have given up expecting completely accurate genetic studies.

torzio
20-09-20, 22:38
@Jovialis

Do you have any info , more than this for .......

Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )

Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362

Jovialis
21-09-20, 00:47
@Jovialis

Do you have any info , more than this for .......

Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )

Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362
Unfortunately the BAM files do not process into raw data with the tools I am using.

Bygdedweller
21-09-20, 01:33
Weren't the Italians samples from medieval Foggia? Southern Italy is where the Normans had territory. TSI could just be a proxy for that. TSI is usually used as a generic Italian population in DNA studies.
Foggia, yes. But like you mentioned Tuscanese are usually used as a generic Italian population. They mention a type of Southern European and "Eastern" shift in the Viking Age-Scandinavians in the paper, so I guess the Tuscanese and the Finnish are included as the best proxies for those respectively. Sidenote: I must say, if that's the case, I find it a bit funny how they insist on labelling the Finnish/Baltic shift in such exotic terms.

Salento
21-09-20, 03:14
@Jovialis
Do you have any info , more than this for .......
Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )
VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )
Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362
VK17 mtDNA U5a2a1b - y T1a1a

I know people with that exact mtDNA from Benevento:

... and R850 (650 BC Latin Tribe Ardea) is also y T1a1a according to MTA !

https://i.imgur.com/JJlJJSD.jpg

Flann Fina
21-09-20, 05:46
@Jovialis

Do you have any info , more than this for .......

Varnhem ( 950 yBP - Viking Age )

VK398 ( 950 ± 100 yBP )

Y-DNA: T1a2
mtDNA: H1b1+16362


Varnhem
Västergötlands Museum IM16-107025, RAÄ 60, Västergötland, Sweden (Prepared by Maria Vretemark, Västergötlands Museum)


Varnhem in the central part of Västergötland is well known for its large church with the adjacent ruins of a Cistercian abbey. Less attention has been paid to the history of Varnhem before the abbey was founded in the middle of the 12th century CE. In order to learn more about this earlier period, the Museum of Västergötland started an archaeological research project in 2005 named ‘Varnhem – innan munkarna kom’ (Varnhem – before the monks arrived). The archaeological excavations revealed a large settlement area and a VA church with a surrounding churchyard. Thick cultural layers, foundations of buildings, a church ruin, and hundreds of Christian VA graves were discovered. All of this presents an image of a prominent farmstead with roots going back into the Iron Age.


Varnhem is situated in an area with a great density of prehistoric sites. Graves and settlements dating from all periods are found here. Fertile soil, rich pasture and meadowland for harvesting and grazing, together with woodlands and lakes provided the right conditions for the emergence of a strong wealthy community. Among the rich archaeological finds discovered in the area, the large silver treasure found in 1873 deserves particular mention. This VA hoard consists of 476 silver coins from the early 11th century CE. Most of the coins are Anglo-Saxon and they point to contact with the west. Rune stones in the region bear witness to men killed in England. Several rune inscriptions also mention ‘thegnar’ - a title of a follower of the Danish kings Sven Forkbeard and Cnut the Great, and as such a member of the English/Danish royal forces in England after the conquest in 1015 CE and the subsequent Danish occupation. Some of these thegnar obviously came from Västergötland, a region that had long been part of the Danish sphere of influence. The most successful Viking soldiers might have received a share of the taxes known as the Danegeld, which was paid in silver coins. They returned home after their service ended, and this could explain how the large number of Anglo-Saxon silver coins ended up in Varnhem.


The presence of a large Iron Age farmstead was confirmed through the discovery of the remains of houses, hearths, trenches, pits and postholes, along with pottery, animal bones, and other artefacts. A series of radiocarbon dates indicated that the site had been continuously settled for a thousand years, from the Roman Iron Age to the early medieval period. This was most likely an aristocratic manor. A church, built at the expense of the landowner, was included as one of the buildings on the prominent farm.

In past decades, remains of early churches and early Christian burial grounds have emerged in several places in central parts of Västergötland. The oldest churches in this region have been dated to the period around the year 1000 CE. They were privately built farm churches, predating the centralised church organisation of the 12th century with its system of parish churches based on a territorial division of the landscape. The foundations of this private church were excavated as part of the archaeological project at Varnhem (Extended Data Fig. 1d). The first church in Varnhem was built in the late 10th century CE. It was a small wooden church. Sometime during the period 1030-1050 CE the wooden church was replaced by a larger church built of locally quarried limestone. This church was probably one of the first stone buildings in Sweden.


Surrounding the foundations of the church in Varnhem, there is an extensive (nearly 4000 m2) Christian burial place containing at least 2000 graves and perhaps as many as 3000. Approximately 350 graves have been excavated so far and a well-preserved assemblage of human bones has been recovered for osteological analysis. The rest of the graves remain untouched under the grass of the park. The graves at Varnhem exhibit signs of a socially stratified society. Members of the family that owned the magnate’s farm were buried closest to the church. This is indicated by the presence of limestone coffins. Further away from the church, the dead had been interred in wooden coffins or in simpler graves without a coffin. The social division of the churchyard is also reflected in the state of health that can be observed in the skeletons. There was also a division by gender. Men were buried to the south of the church and women to the north. The dating of the graves is interesting. The burial ground at Varnhem was used continuously for Christian burials from the first half of the 10th century CE to the end of the 12th century, a period of 250-300 years. Christianity was obviously established in the area by the middle of the 10th century CE at the latest71.




Page 30 of the Supplementary.

https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-2688-8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Flann Fina
21-09-20, 05:54
Weren't the Italians samples from medieval Foggia? Southern Italy is where the Normans had territory. TSI could just be a proxy for that. TSI is usually used as a generic Italian population in DNA studies.


1.2.2.14. Italy
(Prepared by Gabriele Scorrano, University of Copenhagen, Enrico Cappellini University of Copenhagen, Pasquale Favia, University of Foggia, and Italo M. Muntoni, Soprintendenza Archeologia)


San Lorenzo in Carminiano, Foggia
The medieval settlement of San Lorenzo in Carminiano (then Carmignano) was the main village in northern Apulia between the late Middle Ages and the modern period. It is located in the central area of the Tavoliere delle Puglie plain, just outside the city of Foggia. The settlement had three subdivisions, bounded by ditches—a northern trapezoidal one (enclosure I), probably surrounded by walls and extending over seven hectares and dating to c. 13th-16th centuries CE; another in the northwestern position (enclosure II), which is smaller in size and has a half-circular morphology; and a third southern one (enclosure III), which is elliptical and very broad (up to 15 ha). In the site only a small church dedicated to San Lorenzo has been found. Outside the church, along the bottom wall, various paving slabs have been discovered, both in cobwebs (USR 932-841) covered with a combustion ground, in tessellato, with stone tiles and brick sections and finally a wider lacer with brick remains157. Some post holes have also been found and they may perhaps refer to a late medieval stage. The excavation in the area in front of the church identified at least four phases: the first three referring to the Middle Ages, the latter probably to the 17th-18th century CE157. The oldest traces of a funeral attendance are represented by a simple burial in the ground (t.2), hosting three individuals.
Samples used for DNA analysis:

VK534 Italy_Foggia-869
VK535 Italy_Foggia-891


Cancarro, Troia, Foggia
The church of Cancarro is situated 3.5 km southwest of Troia, at 430 m ASL. The city of Troia was built on the ruins of the Roman town of Aecae, which occupied a strategic position on the Via Traiana. The church was used between the 11th and the 13th centuries CE158. Next to the church archaeologists unearthed a cemetery with 54 well-preserved burials, often overlying each other. Two graves held two individuals and five pits were ossuaries158. A minimum of 79 skeletons, mainly women, were confidently identified from reused graves158. Based on artifacts, the cemetery was used between the late 11th century CE (Norman Age) and the second half of the 13th century CE (Swabian-Angevin Age)158.
Samples used for DNA analysis:

VK536 Italy_Foggia-1240
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248
VK538 Italy_Foggia-1249


Page 73 of the Supplementary

https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-2688-8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Lukas
21-09-20, 18:57
Hi I will prepare some Foggia today:) I'm curious what it be.

Jovialis
21-09-20, 19:10
Hi I will prepare some Foggia today:) I'm curious what it be.

Great, could you make coordinates for Dodecad K7b?

Lukas
21-09-20, 19:57
Great, could you make coordinates for Dodecad K7b?

VK535 Italy_Foggia-891

Whole file:) Check it out where you want to.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1H9v5MiUqDFE9v6WwH9CzrobfDE54_Jjq/view?usp=sharing

K13 extended

Components %
North_Atlantic 17,07
Baltic 8,36
West_Med 24,98
West_Asian 14,34
East_Med 23,80
Red_Sea 5,71
South_Asian 2,03
East_Asian 1,00
Siberian 0,00
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,53
Northeast_African 1,03
Sub-Saharan 1,15



Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Apulia @ 7,226
2 100% Central_Greek @ 7,333
3 100% East_Sicilian @ 7,463
4 100% Sicily @ 7,503
5 100% Basilicata @ 7,693
6 100% West_Sicilian @ 7,797
7 100% Greek_Peloponnese @ 7,814
8 100% Molise @ 7,883
9 100% Abruzzo @ 8,012
10 100% Campania @ 8,692

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 5,795
2 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 5,905
3 50% Turk_Cypriot + 50% Piedmont @ 6,054
4 50% Greek_Chios + 50% FrenchCorsica @ 6,069
5 50% West_Sicilian + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 6,110
6 50% Greek_Chios + 50% Tuscany @ 6,136
7 50% Malta + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 6,152
8 50% Sicily + 50% Torbeshi_North-Macedonia-East @ 6,238
9 50% Veneto + 50% Turk_Cypriot @ 6,244
10 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia + 50% Calabria @ 6,287

kingjohn
21-09-20, 19:59
VK535 Italy_Foggia-891

Whole file:) Check it out where you want to.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1H9v5MiUqDFE9v6WwH9CzrobfDE54_Jjq/view?usp=sharing

K13 extended

Components %
North_Atlantic 17,07
Baltic 8,36
West_Med 24,98
West_Asian 14,34
East_Med 23,80
Red_Sea 5,71
South_Asian 2,03
East_Asian 1,00
Siberian 0,00
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,53
Northeast_African 1,03
Sub-Saharan 1,15



Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Apulia @ 7,226
2 100% Central_Greek @ 7,333
3 100% East_Sicilian @ 7,463
4 100% Sicily @ 7,503
5 100% Basilicata @ 7,693
6 100% West_Sicilian @ 7,797
7 100% Greek_Peloponnese @ 7,814
8 100% Molise @ 7,883
9 100% Abruzzo @ 8,012
10 100% Campania @ 8,692

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 5,795
2 50% Sicily + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 5,905
3 50% Turk_Cypriot + 50% Piedmont @ 6,054
4 50% Greek_Chios + 50% FrenchCorsica @ 6,069
5 50% West_Sicilian + 50% Greek_Peloponnese @ 6,110
6 50% Greek_Chios + 50% Tuscany @ 6,136
7 50% Malta + 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia @ 6,152
8 50% Sicily + 50% Torbeshi_North-Macedonia-East @ 6,238
9 50% Veneto + 50% Turk_Cypriot @ 6,244
10 50% Greek_Eastern-Macedonia + 50% Calabria @ 6,287


looks south european to me ( close to apulia) :smile:
great work lukas :good_job:
kudos:cool-v:

Jovialis
21-09-20, 20:16
https://i.imgur.com/o6z2C8M.png

https://i.imgur.com/xHk6TdD.png

Hmm, some pretty striking difference between the sample and I, notably the 17.8% North African. I am Pugliese as well, but from the province of Bari. I wonder if this person had some connection with the area of Lucera, in the province of Foggia. Which was where many of the Moors were deported to, before being sacked by the Christians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_settlement_of_Lucera

kingjohn
21-09-20, 20:48
https://i.imgur.com/o6z2C8M.png

https://i.imgur.com/xHk6TdD.png

Hmm, some pretty striking difference between the sample and I, notably the 17.8% North African. I am Pugliese as well, but from the province of Bari. I wonder if this person had some connection with the area of Lucera, in the province of Foggia. Which was where many of the Moors were deported to, before being sacked by the Christians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_settlement_of_Lucera


you might have a point ( about lucera) :smile:
personaly for me would be more interesting to see
the earlier age foggia samples :thinking:
VK536 Italy_Foggia-1240
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248
VK538 Italy_Foggia-1249

Jovialis
21-09-20, 20:54
you might have a point ( about lucera) :smile:
personaly for me would be more interesting to see
the earlier age foggia samples :thinking:
VK536 Italy_Foggia-1240
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248
VK538 Italy_Foggia-1249



Indeed,

@Lukas, how were you able to process it? I tried with WGSExtract, but kept getting an error. If possible, could you make raw data files for these samples as well? Thanks!

Lukas
21-09-20, 22:30
Indeed,

@Lukas, how were you able to process it? I tried with WGSExtract, but kept getting an error. If possible, could you make raw data files for these samples as well? Thanks!
Try with older version...

Lukas
21-09-20, 22:32
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Up0gaiX6AQvTj4-SXXb1IC8An3oYsqJf/view?usp=sharing

kingjohn
21-09-20, 23:53
VK537 Italy_Foggia-1248

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Up0gaiX6AQvTj4-SXXb1IC8An3oYsqJf/view?usp=sharing

Nice:good_job:
Lukas can you post his eurogenes k13 values?
(I still like this calculator )
Kind regards
Adam

Jovialis
22-09-20, 00:38
https://i.imgur.com/XkDWB6p.png

This one has 11.4% North African in them, it should be noted that the settlement of Muslims in Foggia started in 1225 AD, and lasted for 75 years. However, these people were killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. I am not certain if their specific legacy was able to prevail.

kingjohn
22-09-20, 01:54
https://i.imgur.com/XkDWB6p.png

This one has 11.4% North African in them, it should be noted that the settlement of Muslims in Foggia started in 1225 AD, which predates all of the samples, and lasted for 75 years. However, these people were killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. I am not certain if their specific legacy was able to prevail.



What does his eurogenes k13 values ?
I mean north atlantic , baltic , west med, west asian, east med, red sea... ?
Does he score small % sub-sharan like the previews one vk535?
Regards
Adam

Jovialis
22-09-20, 01:58
What does his eurogenes k13 values ?
I mean north atlantic , baltic , west med, west asian, east med, red sea... ?
Does he score small % sub-sharan like the previews one vk535?
Regards
Adam

I'm not an expert on eurogenes calculators, tbh.

kingjohn
22-09-20, 02:11
I'm not an expert on eurogenes calculators, tbh.

But overall from those 2 foggia samples
We can say they are southern european autosomaly with north african tendecy which are lack in modern apulians ? ..:thinking:

Jovialis
22-09-20, 02:39
But overall from those 2 foggia samples
We can say they are southern european autosomaly with north african tendecy which are lack in modern apulians ? ..:thinking:

I think traces are likely, but these two seem to have a more significant amount. However, I think it is also likely that Puglesi are different from one another at least on the provincial level. Me and Salento are pretty similar, but I think people from Foggia are probably somewhat different; perhaps closer to Basilicata as per the graphic below. Again, I am not sure that this North African element survived to the extent of the Medieval samples in modern Foggia. We would need to compare them to Modern Foggia:

https://i.imgur.com/STYXZOW.png

torzio
22-09-20, 04:00
Maybe you are like Salento ...an ancient Iapygian ( daunian, or Messapic or Peucetian)

The Daunians (Greek (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language): Δαύνιοι, romanized (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanization_of_Greek): Daúnioi; Latin (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_language): Daunii) were an Iapygian (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iapygians) tribe that inhabited northern Apulia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apulia) in classical antiquity (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_antiquity). Two other Iapygian tribes, the Peucetians (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peucetians) and the Messapians (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messapians), inhabited central and southern Apulia respectively. All three tribes spoke the Messapic language
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messapic_language)Presence in ancient Italy
There are numerous testimonies among ancient authors (Pseudo-Scylax (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudo-Scylax), Virgil (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgil), Festus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Festus_(historian)), Servius (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurus_Servius_Honoratus)) of a presence of the Daunians beyond the Apennines in Campania (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campania) and Latium (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latium) where some towns claimed Diomedian origins. The most notable instance is Ardea (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardea,_Lazio), the centre of the Rutulians (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutulians) who were considered Daunians: Vergil writes that Turnus' father was Daunus. Festus writes that a King Lucerus (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lucerus&action=edit&redlink=1) of Ardea fought along with Romulus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus) against Titus Tatius (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titus_Tatius) and this is the origin of the name of the Roman Luceres (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_tribes).[6] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daunians#cite_note-6)
Foggia was settled by the Iapygian Daunians

Aaron1981
22-09-20, 04:30
The reason for the difference is because during the "Viking Age", central Sweden appears to be the source of migration of many raiders(?) I suppose. These lineages are a legacy of the LN Battle Axe period, rich in I1 and R1a such as the Estonian ship burial and the genomes from the recent Icelandic study a couple years back. However, northern Germany and Denmark are considerably richer in R1b, and we should see this with when Single Grave culture remains come out later this year. We've also seen a reflux of a variety of R1b lineages in the Late Bronze Age. It could be that some of the R1b lines from SGC, which are earlier plot with central Swedes and eastern Norwegians "vikings". (ie: U106, L238, and L11x(P312/U106) In my view there was probably a haplogroup division between northern, or at least northwestern Germany, Denmark, and southern Scandinavia being richer in R1b, but central Sweden and eastern Norway pretty much lacking R1b.

The two questions I have are as follows:

1. Who are the original Germanic speakers? (I think the southerners, because Anglo-Saxons were never in Scandinavia)
2. Why is L21+ so high in southern and western Norway? A recent phenomenon?

Salento
22-09-20, 04:47
those samples carry an extra ethnicity than me and most Pugliesi, I think, ...

last part of my EU K13:

https://i.imgur.com/dMAzJSe.png

Salento
22-09-20, 05:52
Maybe you are like Salento ...an ancient Iapygian ( daunian, or Messapic or Peucetian)

The Daunians (Greek (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language): Δαύνιοι, romanized (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanization_of_Greek): Daúnioi; Latin (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_language): Daunii) were an Iapygian (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iapygians) tribe that inhabited northern Apulia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apulia) in classical antiquity (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_antiquity). Two other Iapygian tribes, the Peucetians (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peucetians) and the Messapians (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messapians), inhabited central and southern Apulia respectively. All three tribes spoke the Messapic language
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messapic_language)Presence in ancient Italy
There are numerous testimonies among ancient authors (Pseudo-Scylax (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudo-Scylax), Virgil (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgil), Festus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Festus_(historian)), Servius (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurus_Servius_Honoratus)) of a presence of the Daunians beyond the Apennines in Campania (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campania) and Latium (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latium) where some towns claimed Diomedian origins. The most notable instance is Ardea (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardea,_Lazio), the centre of the Rutulians (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutulians) who were considered Daunians: Vergil writes that Turnus' father was Daunus. Festus writes that a King Lucerus (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lucerus&action=edit&redlink=1) of Ardea fought along with Romulus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus) against Titus Tatius (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titus_Tatius) and this is the origin of the name of the Roman Luceres (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_tribes).[6] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daunians#cite_note-6)


Foggia was settled by the Iapygian Daunians

I'm not sure I'm an Ancient Iapygian,
maybe I’m, ... I speculate, ... I look for clues :)

Lukas
22-09-20, 08:35
Nice:good_job:
Lukas can you post his eurogenes k13 values?
(I still like this calculator )
Kind regards
Adam

Check in Admixturestudio this file for other calcs.

Components %
North_Atlantic 20,22
Baltic 7,68
West_Med 19,16
West_Asian 13,86
East_Med 29,90
Red_Sea 6,73
South_Asian 0,00
East_Asian 0,00
Siberian 0,70
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,00
Northeast_African 0,11
Sub-Saharan 1,64



Mixed Mode:
1 50,39% Lebanese_Christian + 49,61% AostaValley @ 1,948
2 50,39% AostaValley + 49,61% Lebanese_Christian @ 1,978
3 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Yemenite_Jewish @ 2,059
4 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Saudi @ 2,140
5 62,11% Cyprian + 37,89% French @ 2,151
6 62,11% Greek_Cypriot + 37,89% French @ 2,151
7 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Egyptian @ 2,253
8 52,73% Nusayri + 47,27% Swiss_Italian @ 2,287
9 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Bedouin @ 2,312
10 93,36% Basilicata + 6,64% Palestinian @ 2,313

Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Basilicata @ 2,946
2 100% Abruzzo @ 3,755
3 100% Molise @ 3,829
4 100% Campania @ 4,104
5 100% Apulia @ 4,385
6 100% Sicily @ 4,435
7 100% Malta @ 4,828
8 100% Greek_Andros_Island @ 4,841
9 100% East_Sicilian @ 4,940
10 100% West_Sicilian @ 5,412

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Lebanese_Christian + 50% AostaValley @ 1,950
2 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,622
3 50% Nusayri + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,623
4 50% Samaritan + 50% AostaValley @ 2,752
5 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss-Italian @ 2,754
6 50% Piedmont + 50% Nusayri @ 2,767
7 50% Sephardic_Jewish + 50% Greek_Central-Macedonia @ 2,816
8 50% Lombardy + 50% Nusayri @ 2,845
9 50% Piedmont + 50% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,869
10 50% Basilicata + 50% Malta @ 2,888

Using 3 populations approximation
1 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Nusayri @ 2,437
2 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,510
3 33% Basilicata + 33% Basilicata + 33% Malta @ 2,599
4 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,600
5 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Nusayri @ 2,674
6 33% Basilicata + 33% Abruzzo + 33% Malta @ 2,735
7 33% Malta + 33% Greek_Andros_Island + 33% West_Sicilian @ 2,746
8 33% Tuscany + 33% Tuscany + 33% Lebanese_Druze @ 2,840
9 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Syrian @ 2,874
10 33% Greek_Symi_Island + 33% Sephardic_Jewish + 33% Friuli-VG @ 2,908

Using 4 populations approximation
1 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Palestinian @ 2,414
2 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_German @ 2,510
3 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Malta @ 2,568
4 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Jordanian @ 2,617
5 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Ashkenazi @ 2,619
6 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Marche @ 2,667
7 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Abruzzo + 25% Malta @ 2,676
8 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_French @ 2,730
9 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Syrian @ 2,737
10 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Umbria @ 2,750

torzio
22-09-20, 19:09
I'm not sure I'm an Ancient Iapygian,
maybe I’m, ... I speculate, ... I look for clues :)


If you have close matches with the ancient Dalmatian samples , then you should have matches with the Iapygian , as the Iapygian lived initially North-East of the Dalmatians

torzio
22-09-20, 19:13
The Viking sample VK398 which is branch T1a2 appears in Yfull


https://i.postimg.cc/KzNFN4Xv/vik.png (https://postimg.cc/wy7SxqTS)

kingjohn
22-09-20, 20:17
Check in Admixturestudio this file for other calcs.

Components %
North_Atlantic 20,22
Baltic 7,68
West_Med 19,16
West_Asian 13,86
East_Med 29,90
Red_Sea 6,73
South_Asian 0,00
East_Asian 0,00
Siberian 0,70
Amerindian 0,00
Oceanian 0,00
Northeast_African 0,11
Sub-Saharan 1,64



Mixed Mode:
1 50,39% Lebanese_Christian + 49,61% AostaValley @ 1,948
2 50,39% AostaValley + 49,61% Lebanese_Christian @ 1,978
3 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Yemenite_Jewish @ 2,059
4 94,92% Basilicata + 5,08% Saudi @ 2,140
5 62,11% Cyprian + 37,89% French @ 2,151
6 62,11% Greek_Cypriot + 37,89% French @ 2,151
7 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Egyptian @ 2,253
8 52,73% Nusayri + 47,27% Swiss_Italian @ 2,287
9 94,14% Basilicata + 5,86% Bedouin @ 2,312
10 93,36% Basilicata + 6,64% Palestinian @ 2,313

Least-squares method.

Using 1 populations approximation
1 100% Basilicata @ 2,946
2 100% Abruzzo @ 3,755
3 100% Molise @ 3,829
4 100% Campania @ 4,104
5 100% Apulia @ 4,385
6 100% Sicily @ 4,435
7 100% Malta @ 4,828
8 100% Greek_Andros_Island @ 4,841
9 100% East_Sicilian @ 4,940
10 100% West_Sicilian @ 5,412

Using 2 populations approximation
1 50% Lebanese_Christian + 50% AostaValley @ 1,950
2 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,622
3 50% Nusayri + 50% Swiss_Italian @ 2,623
4 50% Samaritan + 50% AostaValley @ 2,752
5 50% Lebanese_Muslim + 50% Swiss-Italian @ 2,754
6 50% Piedmont + 50% Nusayri @ 2,767
7 50% Sephardic_Jewish + 50% Greek_Central-Macedonia @ 2,816
8 50% Lombardy + 50% Nusayri @ 2,845
9 50% Piedmont + 50% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,869
10 50% Basilicata + 50% Malta @ 2,888

Using 3 populations approximation
1 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Nusayri @ 2,437
2 33% Tuscan + 33% Tuscan + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,510
3 33% Basilicata + 33% Basilicata + 33% Malta @ 2,599
4 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2,600
5 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Nusayri @ 2,674
6 33% Basilicata + 33% Abruzzo + 33% Malta @ 2,735
7 33% Malta + 33% Greek_Andros_Island + 33% West_Sicilian @ 2,746
8 33% Tuscany + 33% Tuscany + 33% Lebanese_Druze @ 2,840
9 33% Romagna + 33% Romagna + 33% Syrian @ 2,874
10 33% Greek_Symi_Island + 33% Sephardic_Jewish + 33% Friuli-VG @ 2,908

Using 4 populations approximation
1 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Palestinian @ 2,414
2 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_German @ 2,510
3 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Malta @ 2,568
4 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Jordanian @ 2,617
5 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Ashkenazi @ 2,619
6 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Marche @ 2,667
7 25% Basilicata + 25% Basilicata + 25% Abruzzo + 25% Malta @ 2,676
8 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Greek_Symi_Island + 25% Sephardic_Jewish + 25% Swiss_French @ 2,730
9 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Marche + 25% Syrian @ 2,737
10 25% Malta + 25% Malta + 25% Greek_Andros_Island + 25% Umbria @ 2,750



Thanks lukas :good_job:
Cool results for him:cool-v:

Archetype0ne
22-09-20, 21:57
From the supplement:

https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-2688-8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Öland, Sweden
(Prepared by Helene Wilhelmson, Sydsvensk arkeologi AB, Kristianstad, and Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University)

Many human remains from the late Iron Age (400-1050 CE) have been excavated from burials and other contexts on the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. Throughout the period the burials are both cremations as well as inhumations. There is considerable variation in inhumation burial form (pit coffin, stone cist, etc.) during the VA76–80. The uncremated human remains from burials (and other contexts) were recently studied using an interdisciplinary bioarchaeological perspective80 integrating new radiocarbon dates for many graves. The individuals studied for aDNA here are the majority of the late Iron Age population discussed in that study.

The most recent dietary isotope analysis of human remains, show a great individual variation in diet5 supporting the archaeozoological finds and point towards a population with highly varied subsistence strategies. First generation migration to Öland was investigated through 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O isotopes and the results were interpreted to show extensive immigration to the island with 68% non-local individuals in the late Iron Age. The immigrants appear to be both regional and interregional. The greater variation in individual diet could not be concluded to correlate to provenance of an individual. The people living in Öland during the late Iron Age have therefore been interpreted as a population of mixed provenance resulting in a creolized society with a combination of non-local and local traditions for burial and subsistence practices80.

The 29 individuals we sampled were included in the study of Wilhelmson80 and consist of all types of burials. They are from 20 sites in Öland, excavated on separate occasions between 1931 and 1975. About half of the individuals (n=15) are dated by 14C and the rest are dated by typology. The burials are inhumations of varied type. They have different orientations (east-west, north-south or southnorth), feature different architecture (lime stone cists, pits, coffins, full boat burial), and include single as well as multiple burials in one grave. Two more skeletons sampled in this study (id 1099, 1052) are from the early Iron Age. The table shown below presents details of the selected individuals.

https://i.imgur.com/EfQC9Gc.png
https://i.imgur.com/lbNteU3.png

This ancient sample was added to YFull:
L283: J-Z1043>Z8424>Y36972

Google maps of the Island: https://www.google.com/maps/place/%C3%96land/@56.7767145,15.6389021,8z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x46f878f635aa5b57:0x4a8d9 53c2ace7c35!8m2!3d56.6648948!4d16.6364773
Location of find:
https://www.google.com/maps/place/387+93+L%C3%A5ngl%C3%B6t,+Sweden/@56.7809687,16.8546797,10.09z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x46f876dfea1054e5:0xa00fef5b28d12 40!8m2!3d56.7460808!4d16.7268612

This particular sample seems to be classified as "local". Albeit the finds on the island are a mix between local and nonlocal.

The samples from the island are dated (400-1050 CE).

Not too sure about VK346.

Ygorcs
24-09-20, 07:58
https://i.imgur.com/jWrS2gm.png

So is their "Swedish-like" basically Baltic IE-like in fact? Is that based on IA Swedish samples? I wonder if those were really Germanic Scandinavians, not Baltic people who once lived on the other side of the sea, too, and Germanic tribes were actually and mostly living more to the west at that time (Denmark, Norway, Western Sweden, Northern Germany and Poland).

Jovialis
27-09-20, 14:02
https://i.imgur.com/qj3DZo3.png

Fwiw, my grandfather's surname is a Latinized version of a Norman surname, first found in Burgundy. His family was also well-to-do, they had wealth inherited back from generations. I wonder if the "Yamnaya Bulgaria" component could be a proxy for some Scandinavian/French/Norman admixture. It could also help explain why I am pulled "North" and "East" of the Mediterraeanean_C6 sample average. Just a theory.

Barese has old-French and Norman linguistic influences: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bari_dialect

Jovialis
28-09-20, 17:05
https://i.imgur.com/xWEGIMG.png

https://i.imgur.com/nSfdFEL.png

Much different results when utilizing the samples as individuals. Only 534 and 535 coming out with some North African admixture, but have a larger share of Eastern Mediterranean. 536 comes with Mediterranean, with some Mycenaean. 537 is mostly Mediterranean, with some Eastern Mediterranean. Finally 538 mostly gets Balkan_BA.

Northener
30-09-20, 19:48
A new paper just came out: Population genomics of the Viking world (Margaryan et al 2020) (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2688-8#Sec35)

Abstract

The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age (about AD 750–1050) was a far-flung transformation in world history. Here we sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites across Europe and Greenland (to a median depth of about 1×) to understand the global influence of this expansion. We find the Viking period involved gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east. We observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, with diversity hotspots in the south and restricted gene flow within Scandinavia. We find evidence for a major influx of Danish ancestry into England; a Swedish influx into the Baltic; and Norwegian influx into Ireland, Iceland and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial ancestry from elsewhere in Europe entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. Our ancient DNA analysis also revealed that a Viking expedition included close family members. By comparing with modern populations, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the past millennium, and trace positively selected loci—including the lactase-persistence allele of LCT and alleles of ANKA that are associated with the immune response—in detail. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial transregional engagement: distinct populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, and Scandinavia experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.

Here is the supplementary information (https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-2688-8/MediaObjects/41586_2020_2688_MOESM1_ESM.pdf) (178 pages). There are also Excel tables in supplements. I haven't read anything yet.

"The 442 ancient individuals were divided into five broad categories (Figure 1 in the main text) and the majority (n=376) were sequenced to between 0.1 and 11X average depth of coverage. The data set includes Bronze Age (n=2) and Iron Age (n=10) individuals from Scandinavia; early VA (n=43)individuals from Estonia (n=34), Denmark (n=6), and Sweden (n=3); ancient individuals associated with Norse culture from Greenland (n=23), VA individuals from Denmark (n=78), the Faroe Islands(n=1), Iceland (n=17), Ireland (n=4), Norway (n=29), Poland (n=8), Russia (n=33), Sweden (n=118),the Isle of Man (n=1), Scotland (n=8), England (n=32), Wales (n=1), and Ukraine (n=3), as well as individuals from the medieval and early modern periods from the Faroe Islands (n=16), Italy (n=5),Norway (n=7), Poland (n=2), and Ukraine (n=1). The VA individuals were supplemented with published genomes from Sigtuna, Sweden (n=21, samples VK557-VK578)35, and Iceland."

Map based on Germanics vs Celtic (Eurogenes)
- above Celtic
- middle Germanic (close to Anglo-Saxons/ Elb-Germans), gross of the Vikings
- beneath Baltic/ NE Europe
- besides Romance/Italic

As known this is build around latest (what's in a name) drift. Regarding Germanics what I can see is that Elb-Germanic (the Bavarian samples) and the Saxon samples are representing the core Germanic space. We as North Dutch are in that space: Chauken/ North Sea amalgam with a little touch Bronze Age population (substrate).


But see Jutland IA, on the border of the Celtic space, Cimbri? How come?


The rest of the Celtic-Viking space is known: the Orkney samples were not Scandic, and Iceland and Faroe contain mixes. All clear.


The 'Baltic' or may be better NE Europe corner is also clear this also showed up in Sigtuna.


What really is interesting is the 'Romance' sphere with Swede Karda VA and some DNK Langeland samples. They seem to have a Italic or even a Greece mixture.




https://www.mupload.nl/img/8r5n9d7pzy.38.56.png

HenryGrayson
07-10-20, 12:40
I read it, it's very interesting