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real expert
13-09-21, 17:10
Biomolecularinsights into North African-related ancestry, mobility and diet ineleventh-century Al-Andalus


Abstract
Historical records document medieval immigration from North Africa to Iberia to create Islamic al-Andalus. Here, we present a low-coverage genome of an eleventh century CE man buried in an Islamic necropolis in Segorbe, near Valencia, Spain. Uniparental lineages indicate North African ancestry, but at the autosomal level he displays a mosaic of North African and European-like ancestries, distinct from any present-day population. Altogether, the genome-wide evidence, stable isotope results and the age of the burial indicate that his ancestry was ultimately a result of admixture between recently arrived Amazigh people (Berbers) and the population inhabiting the Peninsula prior to the Islamic conquest. We detect differences between our sample and a previously published group of contemporary individuals from Valencia,exemplifying how detailed, small-scale aDNA studies can illuminate fine-grained regional and temporal differences. His genome demonstrates how ancient DNA studies can capture portraits of past genetic variation that have been erased by later demographic shifts—in this case, most likely the seventeenth century CE expulsion of formerly Islamic communities as tolerance dissipated following the Reconquista by the Catholic kingdoms of the north.




Although Arabs were the urban and political elite during the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling from 711 CE until the end of the Caliphate of Cordoba in 1031 CE, they are thought to have been a minority amongst the new settlers. Berbers formed the bulk of the army who first seized Visigothic Spain in the eighth century CE21 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR21). Berbers had converted to Islam as a result of the Arab conquest of North Africa in the preceding century and embarked in a slow and complex process of Arabisation that lasted centuries. However, they were far from culturally homogeneous; a deep division existed between nomadic and sedentary Berber groups, and it was the latter who first settled in the rural areas of Spain18 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR18). Although Berber numbers in Iberia were likely larger than those oft the Arabs, they initially wielded no significant political power, but this changed during the eleventh–thirteenth centuries CE with the establishment of the Almoravid and Almohad Berber empires18 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR18).





Discussion

We analysed individual UE2298/MS060 excavated from the Islamic necropolis of Plaza del Almudín, in Segorbe, dating to the eleventh century CE. The archaeologists responsible for the excavation in 1999 considered this individual unusual due to his considerable height compared with other individuals found at the same site (despite periods of disease and/or malnutrition in childhood)27 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR27),and dubbed him the “Segorbe Giant”. The subsequent anthropological analysis suggested some African morphological features and a link was postulated to the Berber-speaking populations that settled in the region in medieval times 26 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR26),27 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR27). Analysis of the uniparental markers from UE2298/MS060 fits well with this assumption, pointing to an origin in the Maghreb, most likely from a Berber group. MtDNA lineage U6a is not only connected to modern Amazigh populations 30 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR30),but has also been found in Moroccan remains associated with Iberomaurusian culture, and in the Moroccan Early Neolithic site ofIfri n’Amr or Moussa2 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR2),32 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR32) (Fig. 1 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#Fig1)b). He also carries the Y-chromosome E1b1b1b1 (E–M310) lineage. E1b1bis extremely common amongst extant North Africans and has been found in ancient North African and Levantine remains2 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR2),32 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR32),33 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR33),37 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR37) (SupplementaryFig. S7 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#MOESM1)). Due to low coverage, we could only assign him to a basal position within E1b1b1b1, but it is possible that he may belong to a more derived subclade. One possibility would be E1b1b1b1a (E–M81), which is the most common haplogroup amongst modern Berber males today 42 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR42),53 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR53),and has been linked to Islamic remains in southern France38 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR38). Another would be its descendant E1b1b1b1a1-M183 lineage, identified in three Guanche males, in two Islamic individuals from Granada, and in an earlier sixth century CE male from the Visigoth phase of Pla del'Horta, in Catalonia 6 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR6),33 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#ref-CR33).

Although he carries both uniparental markers of North African origin, autosomal evidence paints a more complex picture. The individual is positioned in the PCA mid-way between modern/ancient Iberian populations, and Late Neolithic Moroccan, Guanches and modern North African individuals (Fig. 3 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#Fig3)a),and formal tests of admixture point to high proportions of Iberian-like ancestry (Fig. 4 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#Fig4);Supplementary Table S7 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3#MOESM3)).
Considering the archaeological and historical records for this period in the region of Valencia, we envisage three possible scenarios to explain the observed ancestry in UE2298/MS060. One would be to assume that this individual is a direct migrant from North Africa (whose unique genetic composition has not yet been examined using aDNA), or derives from a population that moved into Iberia but retained its genetic identity. A second scenario is that he descends from pre-Islamic Iberian genetic diversity. Finally, the third scenario is that he ist he result of admixture between Iberian and North African sources.


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3

Jovialis
13-09-21, 17:25
It is too bad it is not in BAM format, maybe Salento could help with converting the FASTQ file.

Populations from North Africa, when compared of other west Eurasians, are best viewed in a 3D PCA.

https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB47085?show=reads

Angela
13-09-21, 17:34
Well, at first glance the discussion is more nuanced than the abstract.

Autosomally, if I remember correctly, he's less "Berber" like than the samples found in the Islamic cemetery in France.

kingjohn
13-09-21, 17:35
He was tall i jelous :grin:

He was dubbed as “the Giant” by the archaeologists responsible for the excavation (here referred to as the “Segorbe Giant”), due to his unusual height (184–190 cm) compared with the other individuals found in the site (Barrachina 2004) (Supplementary Method

Jovialis
13-09-21, 21:04
I predict the sample will surely exist on this orange line. This is the side view of a 3D PCA of West Eurasian populations; see the Z-axis.:

https://i.imgur.com/SOoF6EH.png

kingjohn
13-09-21, 21:13
Well, at first glance the discussion is more nuanced than the abstract.
Autosomally, if I remember correctly, he's less "Berber" like than the samples found in the Islamic cemetery in France.
Unfortuntely 🤔
We don't have there autosomal file
Since the researcher never releasd them
We only know there uniparental markers
Y haplogroup and mtdna ...
It is possible they were also southwest european admixed autosomally:thinking:

P.s
Although chances are low since they are much earlier in time than this dude so they had less chance to mix with natives around them

Salento
14-09-21, 02:43
It is too bad it is not in BAM format, maybe Salento could help with converting the FASTQ file.

Populations from North Africa, when compared of other west Eurasians, are best viewed in a 3D PCA.

https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB47085?show=reads

Hi Jovialis, … sent u a pm with Data.

… low coverage and ENA says that MS060 admixture types is extinct.

… MS060 was a Genius, … high IQ, though we’re all Smart here :)

https://i.imgur.com/FAIgBvZ.jpg



MS060_Dod_K12b,14.19,3.22,12.10,6.53,42.24,0.00,0. 00,3.29,18.44,0.00,0.00,0.00

Duarte
14-09-21, 03:29
Hi Jovialis, … sent u a pm with Data.

… low coverage and ENA says that MS060 admixture types is extinct.

… MS060 was a Genius, … high IQ, though we’re all Smart here :)

https://i.imgur.com/FAIgBvZ.jpg



MS060_Dod_K12b,14.19,3.22,12.10,6.53,42.24,0.00,0. 00,3.29,18.44,0.00,0.00,0.00



:good_job:
Hi Salento. This giant was indeed unique.



Distance to:
MS060_Dod_K12b


32.40672461
Spanish_Canarias


32.49677369
Spanish_Asturias


33.02812438
Duarte


33.80348799
Spanish_Andalusia


34.27320965
Portuguese


34.29727540
Sardinian


34.64341207
Spanish_Castilla-Leon


34.80077298
Spanish_Galicia


34.92755216
Moroccan


35.15567380
Spanish_Valencia


35.54483225
Spanish_Aragon


36.41521523
Spanish_La_Rioja


36.51573086
French_Corsica


36.78470742
Spanish_Catalonia


36.97950378
Spanish_Cantabria


37.04114334
Spanish_Baleares


37.20951088
Algerian


37.66392571
French_Southwest


38.24548862
Spanish_Basque


38.25534342
Italian_Liguria


38.64841006
Italian_Emilia


38.69286239
Italian_Tuscany


39.08841005
Italian_Piedmont


39.28545914
Morocco_Jews


39.48167803
Italian_Romagna










Target: MS060_Dod_K12b
Distance: 22.8079% / 22.80785884 | R2P



53.7
Moroccan





46.3
Spanish_Basque








Target: MS060_Dod_K12b
Distance: 20.4406% / 20.44055150



39.0
Spanish_Basque





31.9
Moroccan





9.0
Kuwait2





7.2
Sardinian





7.0
Meena





4.9
Dai





1.0
Yukagir

Salento
14-09-21, 04:13
Nice Duarte, … MS060 is a bit closer to Ancient samples,

… portraits of past genetic variation that have been erased by later demographic shifts …




Distance to:
MS060_Dod_K12b


23.61283761
I12645_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


24.79208946
I7423_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


25.08076953
RomanVillaGranadaSpain_I4055


26.02724726
I3583_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


26.74427789
I7805_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana


26.93600007
I3578_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


27.23854438
I7500_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


27.53878356
I8147_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


28.43170589
I3879_Malak_Preslavets


28.46250692
HispanoRomanMaghrebiCordobaCaliphate_I7497


28.53120397
I3575_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


28.56757778
I7674_NE_Iberia_c.6-8CE_ES


28.76668385
I3980_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


28.83534463
MedievalTaifaofValencia_I12649


28.87918455
I2426_Balkans_Chalcolithic


29.00413074
LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3576


29.14109984
EarlyMedievalIberiaGranada_I3981


29.20464689
I15939_Sardinia_BA_contam_Anghelu_Ruju


29.50904268
I9128_Bronze_Age_Minoan_Moni_Odigitria_Heraklion_C rete


29.67159922
I3574_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


29.67297087
I7800_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana


29.70212282
I3582_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


29.72514928
I3982_SE_Iberia_c.3-4CE


29.98840609
CarthagoMaghrebiAndalusia_I7457


29.99961833
LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3581

Duarte
14-09-21, 04:28
Nice Duarte, … MS060 is a bit closer to Ancient samples,

… portraits of past genetic variation that have been erased by later demographic shifts …




Distance to:
MS060_Dod_K12b


23.61283761
I12645_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


24.79208946
I7423_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


25.08076953
RomanVillaGranadaSpain_I4055


26.02724726
I3583_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


26.74427789
I7805_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana


26.93600007
I3578_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


27.23854438
I7500_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


27.53878356
I8147_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE


28.43170589
I3879_Malak_Preslavets


28.46250692
HispanoRomanMaghrebiCordobaCaliphate_I7497


28.53120397
I3575_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


28.56757778
I7674_NE_Iberia_c.6-8CE_ES


28.76668385
I3980_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


28.83534463
MedievalTaifaofValencia_I12649


28.87918455
I2426_Balkans_Chalcolithic


29.00413074
LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3576


29.14109984
EarlyMedievalIberiaGranada_I3981


29.20464689
I15939_Sardinia_BA_contam_Anghelu_Ruju


29.50904268
I9128_Bronze_Age_Minoan_Moni_Odigitria_Heraklion_C rete


29.67159922
I3574_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


29.67297087
I7800_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana


29.70212282
I3582_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE


29.72514928
I3982_SE_Iberia_c.3-4CE


29.98840609
CarthagoMaghrebiAndalusia_I7457


29.99961833
LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3581




:good_job:a
Despite the distances, the Iberian bias of this individual is evident.