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    Because (i) the major growth of steppic lineages...

    Because (i) the major growth of steppic lineages seems to pre-date the expansion of apparently steppic cultures, and (ii) we can see from Armenian samples that steppic autosomal DNA was already...
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    Yes, I'm sure some steppic DNA leaked into...

    Yes, I'm sure some steppic DNA leaked into Anatolia at various points, especially originating from predominantly R1b communities - after all, the Steppe really isn't that far away. As I've pointed...
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    If you're talking about modern Armenians, they...

    If you're talking about modern Armenians, they are probably derived from a mixture of different populations. One MBA sample was identified as Trialeti, although it looks an atypical 'outlier' to the...
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    yDNA data from yfull suggests two separate waves...

    yDNA data from yfull suggests two separate waves of steppic people spread South of the Caucasus - Before 2,200 BC, it estimates these populations developed in tandem, with expansions in R1a-Z2124 and...
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    Dating - If we take R1a-Z93 as a proxy for...

    Dating - If we take R1a-Z93 as a proxy for steppic DNA South of the Caucasus, and take the expansion in the number of its extant lineages as a proxy for the expansion and dispersal of its...
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    Which time period you are looking at? And which...

    Which time period you are looking at? And which samples for Eastern Anatolia?
    All I can think of is that mountainous areas are often refuges for marginalised or fleeing populations. Perhaps the...
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    I've carried out further analysis, and am now...

    I've carried out further analysis, and am now less confident still that a worsening climate episode is the single predominant cause of the arrival of Steppe DNA South of the Caucasus. The data...
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    Thanks, this is interesting. The programme that I...

    Thanks, this is interesting. The programme that I use is my own.

    Your combination has got pretty close, and you appear to access a bigger database than me. The Armenian samples I used were...
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    Ah, I haven't looked beyond the MBA, and...

    Ah, I haven't looked beyond the MBA, and generally avoid questions of language.


    Yes, I think this might have happened more often than people generally imagine.
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    In my analyses, the Yamnaya-like ancestry in...

    In my analyses, the Yamnaya-like ancestry in Armenians is most like Srubnaya, and this in turn is most like a derivation from Lithuanian Plinkaigalis (which although identified as early CWC, is not...
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    The DNA arriving in Armenia 2,500-1900 BC has...

    The DNA arriving in Armenia 2,500-1900 BC has multiple hallmarks of Eastern Baltic. Related R1a-Z93 samples turning up in Poltavka and Sintashta 2,700-2,000 BC each have profiles originating to their...
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    Because the Armenian MBA autosomal profiles are...

    Because the Armenian MBA autosomal profiles are so diverse, I have tried running analysis on each cluster separately. This yields curious and striking results:
    1. The more steppic samples best match...
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    One of the Armenian samples is an unspecified...

    One of the Armenian samples is an unspecified R1b-P297 and the other two have Middle Eastern E1b lineages. Curiously, it is the R1b that has by far the least steppic profile; it would seem any common...
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    Yes, four samples, at least one of which is...

    Yes, four samples, at least one of which is associated with Trialeti. None of the three male samples are R1a, but they look R1a-influenced autosomally.
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    The best fit I found for new steppic DNA within...

    The best fit I found for new steppic DNA within middle Bronze Age Armenian samples was 10% Srubnaya and 11% mainstream Poltavka, although (as suggested by halfalp) a small element of Catacomb in...
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    Yes, I agree - I'm just looking at the part that...

    Yes, I agree - I'm just looking at the part that went South of the Caucasus by the Middle Bronze Age.


    Yes, I've checked this, and a combination of Catacomb and Srubnaya seems to fit equally...
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    I wonder whether these are trick questions. ...

    I wonder whether these are trick questions.

    Based on current genetic data, I think Z93 most likely formed somewhere over the area between the Eastern Baltic states, Belarus and Northern Ukraine....
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    Steppe DNA South of the Caucasus

    My analysis suggests there was an insertion of steppic DNA South of the Caucasus by the middle Bronze Age, with a profile best matching a 50:50 mix of Srubnaya:Poltavka; and that Srubnaya has a...
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    If you're G-L140, you are quite likely to be...

    If you're G-L140, you are quite likely to be PF3345. Do you have STR readings?
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    I suspect his lineage went around the Pontic and...

    I suspect his lineage went around the Pontic and through the Balkans/Carpathians with L51, then retreated up the Dniester admixing with WHG on the Chalcolithic collapse. It is probably quite...
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    I'm not going anywhere in particular, and am not...

    I'm not going anywhere in particular, and am not tied to any particular viewpoint. As I say, I'm just curious.

    This is only one sample, so we cannot conclude too much from it - but its signature...
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    Of course, it is possible that a dead lineage can...

    Of course, it is possible that a dead lineage can be found in a similar location to its most recent modern relatives - all other things being equal, this is the most likely location for it to be...
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    The only likely Z2103 I can find in Turkmenistan...

    The only likely Z2103 I can find in Turkmenistan is of the Steppic branch, rather than the South Caucasus/Iranian branches. It is very similar to samples from Ukraine and Belarus, and my guess is...
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    Cogotas looks like a dead lineage, although its...

    Cogotas looks like a dead lineage, although its nearest modern relatives are also Iberian (estimated split point - late 3rd millennium BC, per yfull). It has an autosomal profile that looks similar...
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    Where is this map? I doubt it. Perhaps at the...

    Where is this map? I doubt it. Perhaps at the lower end of this range in the districts bordering Armenia, but I don't think so as a whole.
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