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  1. Replies
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    Poland as an eventual high-income country is very...

    Poland as an eventual high-income country is very plausible. However, Poland is struggling with a relatively high emigration rate and low birth rate, and most recently with a strong anti-immigrant...
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    I have little to add here, since Ygorcs explained...

    I have little to add here, since Ygorcs explained it all quite eloquently and detailed.

    Basque is indeed a non-Indo-European language (no doubt about this?). There are loanwords from...
  3. One point I'd like to make: this discussion has...

    One point I'd like to make: this discussion has been focusing a lot on genetics, whereas we're actually talking (or should be talking) about a language family. One important point to make is that the...
  4. The date "3000 years old" in the original post...

    The date "3000 years old" in the original post doesn't really make sense to me. Eblaite, an East Semitic language closest related with Akkadian of Mesopotamia, is attested from roughly the later part...
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    That author is fooling himself by wishful...

    That author is fooling himself by wishful make-belief. He reads a gibberish that looks like Turkic from the runestone because he wants it to be Turkic. The Möjbro stone, at the upper left, you can...
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    As I said before, the product is gibberish. Also...

    As I said before, the product is gibberish. Also the author of that link uses modern (Anatolian!) Turkish which doesn't make any sense. Even then it doesn't really make sense (for example, above it...
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    This topic of the Old Turkic script being related...

    This topic of the Old Turkic script being related with Nordic runes - or even Nordic runes are supposedly readable as Turkic - is an urban legend that refuses to die.

    First:
    - the Runes are the...
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    Good work! Your tree is heavily genetics-based...

    Good work! Your tree is heavily genetics-based (in particular based off Y-DNA phylogeny), and there's some points where one would disagree on linguistic grounds. My main example there would be...
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    1) Why is the map horizontally flipped and turned...

    1) Why is the map horizontally flipped and turned by 90 degrees?


    2) As the others have said (approximately):
    - only the north of Italy had a Celtic presence (you fixed that in the second map)...
  10. I'd like to make a few points: first, "Celts" is...

    I'd like to make a few points:
    first, "Celts" is originally a linguistic concept. The Celtic language family is part of the Indo-European languages. If we associate the Beaker-Bell culture with the...
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    Which part of the Germanic substrate hypothesis?...

    Which part of the Germanic substrate hypothesis? Do you mean the "a substrate language left distinct vocabulary in Proto-Germanic" (probably accurate), "a large share (a third?) the lexicon of...
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    The inhabitants of "Iberia" in the Caucasus, like...

    The inhabitants of "Iberia" in the Caucasus, like adjacent Colchis, were speakers of (archaic) Georgian. You have a few other languages in the same family (Laz for example). They were unrelated with...
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    Two issues: First, in a very New York Times...

    Two issues:

    First, in a very New York Times matter, the name "Höcke" does not actually rhyme with "Hook-ay": the ö is about the same sound as with English "learn", "bird" and "Germany". The e is...
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    I would like to thank you for the link to this...

    I would like to thank you for the link to this paper, arvistro, I enjoyed reading that. Having said that, I would like to note that there's nothing diagnostically Germanic about the supposed...
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    Contact with the Celtic languages was extensive...

    Contact with the Celtic languages was extensive (especially common terminology for metallurgy, horsebackriding and warfare), and relatively old (mostly predating Grimm's Law). Wolfram Euler's point...
  16. The amusing issue is that the earlier authors...

    The amusing issue is that the earlier authors (Strabo, Ptolemy, Tacitus, Pliny) think of them as two distinct people. For Strabo (book 7, chapter 3), Getai (Γεται) and Dakoi (Δακοι) are synonyms. The...
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    Indo-Iranic languages have a much longer...

    Indo-Iranic languages have a much longer attestation, yes (if we include the loanwords in Mitanni, 1400 BC), but you should not equate that automatically with "older". We're talking about Late IE...
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    I'm aware of this. I was under the impression...

    I'm aware of this. I was under the impression that the wheel was invented essentially independently around the same time frame, i.e. the Late(st) Neolithic in Central Europe, the Pontic-Caspian...
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    There's more than two words (two words for wheel,...

    There's more than two words (two words for wheel, at that). You also have words for 'axle' and 'wagon'. Also, bear in mind that words cannot be subjected retroactively to past sound laws (because...
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    Mesopotamia, to my knowledge, didn't have wheels...

    Mesopotamia, to my knowledge, didn't have wheels before the Uruk period. I might add that the Sumerian word for 'wheel', ḫu-bu-um, bears no relationship with the Indo-European words for wheel...
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    I for one think it is a very strong argument,...

    I for one think it is a very strong argument, because the words for 'horse' and 'wheel' are shifted according to the respective sound laws. If they were spread later, after (Late) PIE had already...
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    I have to say this: first, the idea that the...

    I have to say this: first, the idea that the Anatolian languages were the first branch of PIE to separate (or, conversely, that you have an ancestral split between Proto-Anatolian and a form of...
  23. I disagree. As I said, the letter Beta (Ββ) was...

    I disagree. As I said, the letter Beta (Ββ) was indeed pronounced as /v/ in the Middle Ages, but in spelling convention, people would just substitute /b/ as "v" (β). The convention to spell /b/ as...
  24. Even if you have the pre-composed opinion that...

    Even if you have the pre-composed opinion that the name Ulfilas/Wulfilas somehow cannot be Germanic and that the etymology is bogus for you, it doesn't change the fact that Biblical Gothic is an...
  25. Here, you are assuming that the orthographic...

    Here, you are assuming that the orthographic conventions of modern Greek would have automatically applied in medieval Greek. Instead, medieval Greek just substituted /b/ with /v/ (spelled with β).
    ...
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