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    The way I learnt it for Germany (but it also...

    The way I learnt it for Germany (but it also seems to apply to many other European countries) is that you may, even should, tip off staff, but never the restaurant owner - that would be an insult!...
  2. I also would have expected the Vandals to carry...

    I also would have expected the Vandals to carry some I (especially I2b) and, as East Germanic tribe, more R1a than R1b. Take, e.g. the Burgundians as another East Germanic tribe, who have brought...
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    Seems to be the find that I have already...

    Seems to be the find that I have already presented here a few months ago:...
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    In fact you might be right. "Ax" could in general...

    In fact you might be right. "Ax" could in general relate to a protrusion, such as an axe shaft, a bullhorn, the axle as the part of the shoulder that protrudes from the chest, etc. The bullhorn...
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    And the root has of course also survived in the...

    And the root has of course also survived in the Germanic sickle and the Latin secula. Since we seem to have a shared semitic-IE root here, it might be older than the term "axe". So, EEF initially...
  6. There is already a Celtic word for fortress -...

    There is already a Celtic word for fortress - briga. Why have two words for the same construction? This only makes sense if functions are different, e.g. one is a hidden refuge (briga), the other one...
  7. Alright - Donon and Dünsberg disfavour a "dina"...

    Alright - Donon and Dünsberg disfavour a "dina" (water) root, Uxellodunum and Lukodunom speak against a "dune" (hill) root. The "enclosure" meaning is etymologically weak, especially in the proposed...
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    You are welcome, commoner, but there is no need...

    You are welcome, commoner, but there is no need for titles, just call me FrankN :)

    That's an interesting one! German has "Gelenk" = English joint, link - the movable variant, not the fixed one as...
  9. @ Diviacus: This is really getting interesting! ...

    @ Diviacus: This is really getting interesting!

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Rhein-Neckar_in_r%C3%B6mischer_Zeit.png...
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    English bolt / German Bolzen appear in fact to be...

    English bolt / German Bolzen appear in fact to be an old Germanic root. The generic meaning is a short, straight, rounded and planed stick, which was also transferred to the crossbow (but not the...
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    You are welcome. And thanks for the link, there...

    You are welcome. And thanks for the link, there seem indeed to be quite some parallels. The interesting thing about the site on the Saale is that next to the boiling pits they found there evidence of...
  12. Thanks for your extensive reply. We are turning...

    Thanks for your extensive reply. We are turning this thread into a comprehensive collection of information on pre-Roman urbanism, which I think is very worthwhile undertaking.

    On Tarodunum: As...
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    My understanding was that it is geographic...

    My understanding was that it is geographic terminology. "Po-" means "at", so you have Po-morje (Pomerania)= "at the sea", Po-labia = "at the Labe/Elbe", Po-dolia = "in the valleys (of the...
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    Its in German, you will have to translate it:...

    Its in German, you will have to translate it:
    http://www.archaeologie-online.de/magazin/nachrichten/produktion-von-salz-und-poekelfleisch-in-der-bronzezeit-31234/
    Bronze-age walled enclosure near...
  15. @Diviacus: To make my point a bit clearer, first...

    @Diviacus: To make my point a bit clearer, first a look at some Celtic oppida:
    http://michael.schuchardt.blogs.velo-event.com/files/2010/09/dunsberg.jpg
    Dünsberg, 7 km N of Wetzlar (the large one...
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    For any direct relation to copper, henges in the...

    For any direct relation to copper, henges in the Danub/Ebe area, and in Bulgaria have emerged almost a millennium to early.
    Cattle herding isn't necessarily a migratory activity. The traditional...
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    I came across this map, which might be a nice...

    I came across this map, which might be a nice complement to the obsidian map and the "Bell Beakers & Copper" discussion. It displays the distribution of jadeite (green) and copper axes in late 5th/...
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    Unfortunately, most would have been called...

    Unfortunately, most would have been called something like Peter Jensen or Matt Johanson, with their sons being called Petersen or Mattson. Matt Johannson, if he arrived on the middle Vistula and...
  19. Actually, it isn't (at least not in German). The...

    Actually, it isn't (at least not in German). The original German meaning is basket-work or wattle. The corresponding verb "zäunen" has historically been applied to making fences, but also baskets...
  20. Are you sure we are talking of mounts here, not...

    Are you sure we are talking of mounts here, not river embankments?
    - Noviodunum Biturigum = Neuvy-sur-Barangeon
    - Noviodunum Haedurum = Nevers
    - Noviodunum Suessionum = Soissons
    - Vellaunodunum...
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    In general, North Sea and Baltic Sea Normans/...

    In general, North Sea and Baltic Sea Normans/ Vikings/ Varangians should have different geographic origins. The former are rather Danish / Norwegian, the latter rather from Central Sweden, and...
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    The Elbe-Saale henges are ascribed to the...

    The Elbe-Saale henges are ascribed to the stroke-ornamented pottery culture (4,900-4,600 BC). So, they are roughly contemporary with the Maltese structures (which I personally feel are much more...
  23. Well, first of all that they needed the Greeks to...

    Well, first of all that they needed the Greeks to learn how to build causeways :innocent:. But, more seriously, it is known that the Phoenicians / Carthagians were involved in trading Cornish tin....
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    Axe: German Axt. That's simple. More interesting...

    Axe: German Axt. That's simple. More interesting is the relation to axis and axle here. It seems the word originally didn't relate to the instrument as a whole, but only to the joint between a stick...
  25. In Book 4 Strabo also records a Lugdunum in the...

    In Book 4 Strabo also records a Lugdunum in the Pyrenees (4.I.2), Lugdunum / Lyom (4.3.2) and Campodunum / Kempten (4.6.8).

    If you consider Sidon a "dun" name, and I think there is good reason to...
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