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    Was Nietzsche German or Polish?

    Other than his father, at least four generations of his paternal (Nietzsche) line were born in Burkau, Saxony, in what had been the Mark of Lausitz (March of Lusatia): "The March or Margraviate of Lusatia (German: Mark(grafschaft) Lausitz) was an eastern border march of the Holy Roman Empire in...
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    I2a2b/L38 in Italy?

    You share a common ancestor with testers who trace their ancestors back to the British Isles. Where he lived, other than somewhere north of the Alps, is anyone's guess. You could, for instance, be related to the Latins > Urnfield > Unitice (which also spawned the Celts) or back through the...
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    Was Nietzsche German or Polish?

    "There was a legend in the Nietzsche family, to which Friedrich was happy to subscribe, to the effect that they were descended from members of the Polish nobility by the name of “Nietzky,” who had left their homeland to avoid persecution because of their Protestant faith. This gave the family a...
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    Possible Habsburg Y-DNA haplogroup

    "Let's also note that the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is not the same Y-DNA line as the Habsburg. They descend from the Dukes of Lorraine, who themselves descend from the Counts of Metz in the 11th century." - Maciamo.
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    Why do so many Atheists like Star Trek and Science Fiction?

    Because there is no God, only the Force. Lucas described himself as being a "Buddhist Methodist". The Buddha, of course, was not a divine being, but a human exemplar.
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    When did cooking begin?

    "Critics note that the bones could have also been thrown in the fire to dispose of them, however."
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    The Picts

    Qruithin (Q-Celtic) = Pritane (P-Celtic) = Britania (Latin)
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    Ancient Balkans Y-DNA lineages

    Note the Kurdistan "warm" spot.
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    Religion Why is cannibalism glorified by Christianity?

    Buñuel on Transubstantiation (The Milky Way): https://dokumen.pub/religion-and-spanish-film-luis-buuel-the-franco-era-and-contemporary-directors.html In other words, an absurd theatre for the masses (the Mass) intended to stimulate irrational belief (faith, or swallowing whole) itself becomes...
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    U2e1d?

    Maciamo calls U2 "rare" and "ancient", with low numbers spread thinly across Europe, with ancient samples dating back to the Cro-Magnons, etc. U2e is "found in most of Europe and Central Asia / found in Mesolithic Germany and Russia, in Chalcolithic Russia, in the Andronovo culture, among the...
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    Maciamo's I2a2/I2a1b (P214) YDNA Map - How Up-to-Date Is It?

    I got strong pushback on the I-M223 Project's Activity Feed at FTDNA when I referred to Maciamo's I2a2a/i2a1b (P214) YDNA Map: Note that Maciamo states that M223 is 90% of P214. In FTDNA's own Haplotree, M223 makes up 88% of P214's branches, so it looks to scale fairly well, at least in that...
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    The Picts

    If they became geographically isolated from the more southern Brythonic groups, the speech of both would have diverged. If *w- was a retention, could it have been from an earlier stage of Brythonic (Proto-Brythonic?). Brythonic (P-Celtic) and Old Irish (Q-Celtic) would have diverged from each...
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    Curious about Result implications

    The Balkans, which was where many I2's hung out during the Last Glacial Maximum. https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_I2_Y-DNA.shtml#I2a1b
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    The Picts

    County Down, where I-M223 was most concentrated, was not part of the official plantation. Blood of the Celts theorizes that the Cruithne came into Ireland before the use of surnames, based on their later adoption of "Irish" surnames. It has the Cruithne (or Ui Echach Cobha) dating back to the...
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    The Picts

    I-M223 (I2a1b1/I2a2a/I2b1) would seem to be a British, but not an Irish, signal, in that it is generally present in Britain, but not Ireland, which would argue against it having come in with the Bell Beakers, who replaced the earlier "neolithic" y-dna lineages. An intriguing possibility is that...
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    The Picts

    One theory I've read is that the Cruithne were the pre-Celtic, but still Indo-European, substrate (from the Bell Beakers?) that had previously populated both Britain and Ireland. My thinking, however, is that the Cruithne were a specific people (Novantae?) who initially migrated from Galloway...
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    I-M223 in SE Ulster/SW Scotland?

    I recently had my Y-DNA tested at FamilyTreeDNA (Y37) and was surprised to find that I'm predicted to be I-M223, an ancient WHG haplogroup. I've got two matches (33 out of 37) with my surname (Callihan/Callahan). Maciamo in his write-up on I2a2/P214 (the vast majority of which are I2a2a/M223)...
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    Latest Reich talk on ancient Dna

    What steppic proportions? Not on the chart. Individuals with steppe admixture start showing up only after the 2,500s BCE. At the same time, the proportion of non-steppe admixed individuals decreased. That tells me that the populations intermixed - dilution, but not replacement. The second wave...
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    Sex, love and marriage in ancient Mesopotamia

    Evidence for "sacred prostitution" as a general religious/cultural obligation for all women in Mesopotamia is shaky at best. The meaning of the relevant term, harimutu, is disputed, from "prostitute" to simply a single (or unattached) woman. See...
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