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    More structure in haplogroup R1b

    Maciamo Thanks for the very interesting analysis of the Myres study. I have tried to make sense of the study data. If we do a hotspot analysis of Table S4 we get If we do the same for Table S2 we get Summarising both...
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    Oldest European cities

    Çatalhöyük Çatal Höyük (Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtal.højyk]; also Çatalhöyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for "fork", höyük for "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic...
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    What Europeans think of each other
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    Greatest Ancient Roman contribution(s) to the world

    But apart from the sanitation, the medicine, education, wine, public order, irrigation, roads, the fresh-water system, and public health, what have the Romans ever done for us? Monthy Python, Life of Brian.
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    Greatest German contributions to the world ?

    Karnival in Dusseldorf, Koln and Mainz.
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    Origins of European rivers' names

    Shannon, the longest river in the British Isles. The origin of the name is presumably that of the name of the Goddess associated with the river, "Sionna". Celtic in origin.
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    New map : expansion of agriculture in Europe

    Maciamo, Nice map. What about the Ceide Fields (5,500 bce), Ireland, if not agriculture.
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    Oldest European cities

    As previously mentioned by Roni. Plovdiv (Bulgaria) 4,000 BC Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 380,638. Known in ancient times as Philippoupolis, it is the administrative center of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and...
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    Oldest European cities

    As previously mentioned by Roni. Varna (Bulgaria) 5,000 BC Varna, is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and in Northern Bulgaria, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, and 77th-largest in the European Union, with a population of 355,450 (405,329 in...
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    The Celts of Iberia

    Maciamo, Thanks for your excellent history of R1b. If the western fringe of Europe was the last to receive the agricultural package, how do we explain the early presence of Megalitic structures in these regions including: Carrowmore (Ireland) 5,400 BC Evora (Portugal 5,000 BC Carnac (Brittany)...
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    Oldest European cities

    Wurzburg established over 3,000 years ago. Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located on the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian. Its population is 131,320 as of...
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    Oldest European cities

    Agreed. Residential status not yet confirmed. Streets, yes. Public buildings, yes. But what an assembly point! "All statements about the site must be considered preliminary, as only about 5% of the site's total area has been excavated as yet; floor levels have been reached in only the second...
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    Oldest European cities

    New "Oldest" cities are being unearthed as we speak. 3 December 2009 A lost European Culture, pulled from obscurity Before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art...
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    Oldest European cities

    Gobeki Tepe (Turkey, Close to Troy) 11,500 years ago Göbekli Tepe (Turkish for "Hill with a potbelly"; Kurdish: Girê Navokê) is a hilltop sanctuary built on the highest point of an elongated mountain ridge about 15 km northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (formerly Urfa) in southeastern Turkey...
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    The Celts of Iberia

    Early Celts migrated into the Iberian peninsula and penetrated as far as Cadiz, bringing aspects of Hallstatt culture in the sixth to fifth centuries BC, adopting much of the culture they found.[4] This basal Indo-European culture was of seasonally transhumant cattle-raising pastoralists...
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    The Celts of Iberia

    Further discussion on R1b and Celtiberians and Bel Beaker culture can be found on the Wiki entries for Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA), Celtiberians, Celts, Beaker_culture, and on Professor Steve Jones discussion on Celtic Migrations. We probably need a lot more data on L21 to draw conclusions on the...
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    R1b migration map

    Based on Professor Steve Jones analysis and my own results below is my best guess at the ancient Celtic migrations. I would be interested in any comments. (apologies for formatting). R1b1b2a1a2f defining mutations Subclade Time of Origin (BC) Place of highest frequency Archealogy Ancient...