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    Who destroyed the Uruk culture circa 3100 BCE ?

    The Sumerian civilization in southern Mesopotamia arose circa 4500 BCE with the foundation of Eridu, the world's first city. Enigmatic speakers of a language isolate, the Sumerians played a leading role in the development of Near Eastern civilizations. They developed the first city-states...
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    Origins of the Indo-Europeans: the Uruk expansion and Cucuteni-Trypillian culture

    The history of the Indo-Europeans is relatively clear from the Maykop and Yamna periods onwards, as I have described in the R1b and R1a pages on this site. The biggest question marks in my head at the moment are: - When did the R1a and R1b lineages arrive in the Pontic Steppe and North Caucasus...