Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
I have read further studies mentioning that at first (until about 40,000 years ago), Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons had the same tools, technology and lifestyle. Both buried their deaths, with similar ornaments. The Cro-Magnons then developed new tools, which were either copied or developed independently later by Neanderthals. As a matter of intelligence, both seem to be equivalent. Skeletons of hybrids of the two species dating from 25,000 years ago, around the time of the disapperance of Neanderthals, may indicate that their disappearance was indeed due to a genetic absorbtion by the increasingly numerous Cro-Magnons. This latter would have outnumbered Neanderthals due to to the cooling of the climate and the fact that Neanderthals always lived more North, in colder regions with less food, while Cro-Magnon could migrate south more easily via the Middle East to Africa, then come back more numerous when climate warmed up again. There have been signs of trade between the two species, which show that they had amicable contacts, and could very well of interbred with each others.

Furthermore, we see around 15-20,000 years ago, just after the hypothetical merger of the 2 species, the appearance of mural paintings in caves. This phenomemon is strictly limited to Western Europe. Why would such paintings have been done by European Cro-Magnon only, and not other Cro-Magnon (=Homo Sapiens) around the world ? I believe that this could be due to the racial convergence with Neanderthal, because Neanderthal had a more developed occipital lobe, and thus a better vision and visual memory, resulting in an earlier development of visual arts. This also explains the difference in skull shape, especially the more elongated occipital lobe, between Caucasoids and other humans, esp. compared to Mongoloids.

Some French and American researchers also found convincing evidence of an direct evolution from the Asian Homo Erectus toward the modern Asian Homo Sapiens, probably after interbreeding with a new arrival of Homo Sapiens from the Middle East.
I read those homos Neanderthalensis, better known as Neanderthals, are believed to be extinct hominid cousins of our species, Homo sapiens. However, scientists have recently discovered that some humans have genes in common with Neanderthals, an unexpected twist which dispels the former extinction truth. Some anthropologists have argued for years that there must be presence of Neanderthals genes in modern Homo sapiens, but their theory is based solely on the similarities of skull and skeletal structures.

Despite the similarities in skull/skeletal structure, some anthropologist argued that Neanderthals and Homo sapiens were separate species, interbreeding was deemed impossible, and therefore it never occurred.

The controversy can now be laid to rest as Dr Richard E. Green and fifty other members of an international research team have recently published a study for the American association for Advancement of Science in their journal science, that demonstrates a flow "of genetic material" between early Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals.

The newest research into Neanderthals DNA is all the more compelling. It has unveiled that bits of genome, which modern Homo sapiens share with Neanderthals, are not present in Sub-Saharan African genes, but present in human populations in all other parts of the globe.

In order for Neanderthal genes to be so widespread across the globe, and be present in parts of the world which Neanderthals never migrated, such as Papua New Guinea, interbreeding must have occurred very early in chronology of human migration, outside of Africa. It is inferred that the first human migrants out of Africa encountered Neanderthals, or perhaps another hominid species that had a component of Neanderthal genes, in Arabia or the Middle East, around 80 000 years ago.

It is not speculated as to why interbreeding took place between Neanderthals and non-African homo sapiens, or if it was even consensual, but that the gene flow travelled only in one direction, from Neanderthals male to homo sapiens female. The resulting children were more likely to be raised by Homo sapiens, according to study results of mitochondrial DNA.

In light of the recent developments of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens relations, academics specializing in hominid evolution agree that this discovery may suggest and more complex crowded human family tree, than the current model expresses. The current model may need to be altered in the future if more hybrid, intermediate subspecies, or variants on human species are discovered.

Existing models of the human family tree depict Homo sapiens and homo Nederthanlensis as a separate species. However, with new DNA evidence suggesting non-African modern humans are more closely related to Neanderthals, the tree may need altering for non-Africans who are descendants of “humerthals” ...human/Neanderthals hybrids.

A team led by Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany recently examined patterns of nuclear genome variation in modern humans. The study identified twelve genome regions where non-African possessed variants which weren't found in indigenous Africans, with ten variants matching genomes derived from Neanderthals.

Those genome variants have led to non-African modern humans further evolving their genome from even that of Neanderthals, allowing greater survival through natural selection. The affected genes identified in the study are responsible for coding cognitive, metabolic and skeletal development.

Also addressed by scientist, are concerns that their findings, which highlight genetic differences in modern non-African human relatedness to Neanderthals, may spark racial questions of inferiority. Scientific evidence confirms Neanderthals do not cause non-Africans to be inferior to indigenous Africans.

Rather, inbreeding with Neanderthals would have evolved migrating Homo sapiens (non-Africans) quicker by transferring genes crucial to survival in any harsh condition. Neanderthals had already acquired these genes as they had migrated out of Africa thousands of years prior to Homo sapiens.

Furthermore, anybody who claims to be indigenous Africans but possesses genes indicating a genetic heritage to Neanderthals be included in the category of non-African, even if they continue to reside in the continent of Africa. There are two potential scenarios to explain these occurrences:

Scenario 1: An African's ancestor(s) migrated out of Africa at some point in time, bred with a non-African(s), and then back migrated into Africa where they reside today.

Scenario 2: An African's ancestor(s) bred with somebody of non-African descent in Africa.

Either scenario would have allowed Neanderthal genes to be administered to an African genome and cause the individual to no longer belong to a group of purely indigenous Africans.

Often, is the case in North Africans, where heavy amounts of non-Africans back-migrated and settled, causing the modern populations to possess Neanderthals genes even if their ancestors resided in Africa as long as 20 000 years ago.

Also in the case of African Americans. Their ancestors’ relocation outside of Africa allowed breeding with non-Africans, causing some modern African Americans to possess Neanderthals genes like non-Africans.

So, according to these studies, non-Africans are all Neanderthals not just Europeans. We are the reason Neanderthals never became extinct. They live on each and every one of our genomes.