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Thread: ABO blood group and disease resistance

  1. #26
    Regular Member firetown's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Björnsson View Post
    My wife and I are both O+. The best map I've seen of ABO global patterns, shows Atlantic Europe as highly O type, so I question the perception of it being indigenous to pre-Mestizo populations of the Americas before Columbus.
    What do you mean by that? Most native tribes of the Americas were likely 100 percent O positive.

  2. #27
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    The molecular basis of the ABO blood group system was elucidated in 1990. The gene encodes a glycosyltransferase, which transfers N-acetyl D-galactosamine (group A) or D-galactose (group B) to the nonreducing ends of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids. The group O phenotype results from inactivation of the A1 glycosyltransferase gene, and the nonreducing ends of the corresponding glycans in group O subjects express the blood group H antigen . The ABH antigens are not confined to red cells but are widely expressed in body fluids and tissues. The biologic significance of the A/B transferase has not been clearly demonstrated, but it would be expected that loss of this functional protein in group O patients would have some deleterious consequences for patients of this blood type.
    ructure of ABO and H antigens on human red cells. H antigen formed by the action of
    FUT1
    on oligosaccharide precursor chains in which the terminal D-galactose residue is linked to carbon 4 of the penultimate
    N
    -acetyl D-glucosamine residue (type II chain). (B) Structure of Le blood group antigens in bodily secretions. Secretor gene (
    FUT2
    ) regulates the production of H antigen, which can be converted to A or B antigen if the corresponding active ABO glycosyltransferase is present. The ABH, Le
    b
    -active structures are formed on oligosaccharide precursor chains in which the terminal D-galactose residue is linked to carbon 3 of the penultimate
    N
    -acetyl D-glucosamine residue (type I chain) If
    FUT 2
    is deficient the Le
    a
    active structure predominates.

  3. #28
    Regular Member ThirdTerm's Avatar
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    Blood type O may offer some protection against COVID-19 infection, according to a Danish study. Among the COVID-19 positive, Barnkob et al. (2020) found that people with blood types A, B, or AB may be more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than people with type O, while they did not find any significant difference in rate of infection between A, B, and AB types.



    Abstract
    Identification of risk factors for contracting and developing serious illness following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of paramount interest. Here, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all Danish individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 27 February 2020 and 30 July 2020, with a known ABO and RhD blood group, to determine the influence of common blood groups on virus susceptibility. Distribution of blood groups was compared with data from nontested individuals. Participants (29% of whom were male) included 473 654 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (7422 positive and 466 232 negative) and 2 204 742 nontested individuals, accounting for ∼38% of the total Danish population. Hospitalization and death from COVID-19, age, cardiovascular comorbidities, and job status were also collected for confirmed infected cases. ABO blood groups varied significantly between patients and the reference group, with only 38.41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.30-39.50) of the patients belonging to blood group O compared with 41.70% (95% CI, 41.60-41.80) in the controls, corresponding to a relative risk of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.91) for acquiring COVID-19. This study identifies ABO blood group as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection but not for hospitalization or death from COVID-19.


    “Reduced prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ABO blood group O” by Mike Bogetofte Barnkob, Anton Pottegård, Henrik Støvring, Thure Mors Haunstrup, Keld Homburg, Rune Larsen, Morten Bagge Hansen, Kjell Titlestad, Bitten Aagaard, Bjarne Kuno Møller and Torben Barington, 14 October 2020, Blood Advances.
    DOI: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002657


    https://ashpublications.org/bloodadv...fection-in-ABO
    Last edited by ThirdTerm; 22-10-20 at 00:40.
    Давайте вместе снова сделаем мир великий!

  4. #29
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    Quote Originally Posted by miamelano View Post
    The molecular basis of the ABO blood group system was elucidated in 1990. The gene encodes a glycosyltransferase, which transfers N-acetyl D-galactosamine (group A) or D-galactose
    Quote Originally Posted by miamelano View Post
    michaeldadson.com(group B) to the nonreducing ends of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids. The group O phenotype results from inactivation of the A1 glycosyltransferase gene, and the nonreducing
    Quote Originally Posted by miamelano View Post
    ends of the corresponding glycans in group O
    Quote Originally Posted by miamelano View Post
    subjects express the blood group H antigen .
    Quote Originally Posted by miamelano View Post
    michaeldadson.info The ABH antigens are not confined to red cells but are widely expressed in body fluids and tissues. The biologic significance of the A/B .gentlecurrentstherapy.com/michael-dadson-clinical-counsellor transferase has not been clearly demonstrated, but it would be expected that loss of this functional protein in group O patients would have some deleterious consequences for patients of this blood type.
    Quote Originally Posted by miamelano View Post
    ructure of ABO and H antigens on human red cells. H antigen formed by the action of
    FUT1
    on oligosaccharide precursor chains in which the terminal D-galactose residue is linked to carbon 4 of the penultimate
    N
    -acetyl D-glucosamine residue (type II chain). (B) Structure of Le blood group antigens in bodily secretions. ecps.educ.ubc.ca/michael-dadson-final-phd-defence-cnps / Secretor gene (
    FUT2
    ) regulates the production of H antigen, which can be converted to A or B antigen if the corresponding active ABO bc-counsellors.org/counsellors/michael-dadson /glycosyltransferase is present. The ABH, Le
    b
    -active structures are formed on oligosaccharide precursor chains in which the terminal D-galactose residue is linked to carbon 3 of the penultimate
    N
    -acetyl D-glucosamine residue (type I chain) If
    FUT 2
    is deficient twitter.com/dadsonmichael the Le
    a
    active structure predominates.
    It is of crucial importance to identify risk factors for contracting and
    developing serious illness after infection with extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
    In order to determine the effect of common blood groups on the susceptibility of viruses, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of

    all Danish individuals screened for SARS-CoV-2 between 27 February 2020 and 30 July 2020 with a documented ABO and RhD blood group.
    Blood group distribution was contrasted

    with data from nontested individuals.
    Participants (29% of whom were male) included 473 654 individuals tested with real-time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 (7422

    positive and 466 232 negative) and 2 204 742 nontested individuals, representing approximately 38% of the total Danish population.
    For confirmed infected cases, hospitalization and death from COVID-19,

    age, cardiovascular comorbidity, and job status were also collected.
    ABO blood groups ranged substantially between patients and the reference group, with just 38.41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.30-39.50) of blood group O

    patients compared to 41.70% (95% CI, 41.60-41.80) of control patients, leading to a relative risk of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.91) for COVID-19 acquisition.
    This research identifies the ABO blood group as a risk factor

    for infection with SARS-CoV-2, but not for COVID-19 hospitalization or death.

  5. #30
    Regular Member firetown's Avatar
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    Another study examines a possibility that likelihood of transmission depends on blood type compatibility:
    Several independent datasets suggest blood type A is over-represented and type O under24 represented among COVID-19 patients. Here, I model a scenario in which ABO transfusion incompatibility reduces the chance of a patient transmitting the virus to an incompatible recipient. Comparison of model outputs to published data on COVID-19 prevalence indicates that if this scenario holds true, ABO incompatibility may reduce virus transmissibility by 60% or more. Paradoxically, however, targeted vaccination of either high-susceptibility type A or “super spreader” type O individuals is less effective than random vaccination at blocking community spread of the virus. Instead, the key is to maintain blood type diversity amongst the remaining susceptible individuals. I stress that these results illustrate a theoretical model of ABO blood group interaction with virus transmission and require confirmation by observation.
    https://www.rhesusnegative.net/stayn...152637v2-full/

    It suggests:

    AB>A>B>O

    This primarily depends on frequencies of blood types compatible to transmit easiest.
    Last edited by firetown; 16-11-20 at 14:48.

  6. #31
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    Quote Originally Posted by ThirdTerm View Post
    Blood type O may offer some protection against COVID-19 infection, according to a Danish study. Among the COVID-19 positive, Barnkob et al. (2020) found that people with blood types A, B, or AB may be more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than people with type O, while they did not find any significant difference in rate of infection between A, B, and AB types.



    Abstract
    Identification of risk factors for contracting and developing serious illness following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of paramount interest. Here, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all Danish individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 27 February 2020 and 30 July 2020, with a known ABO and RhD blood group, to determine the influence of common blood groups on virus susceptibility. Distribution of blood groups was compared with data from nontested individuals. Participants (29% of whom were male) included 473 654 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (7422 positive and 466 232 negative) and 2 204 742 nontested individuals, accounting for ∼38% of the total Danish population. Hospitalization and death from COVID-19, age, cardiovascular comorbidities, and job status were also collected for confirmed infected cases. ABO blood groups varied significantly between patients and the reference group, with only 38.41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.30-39.50) of the patients belonging to blood group O compared with 41.70% (95% CI, 41.60-41.80) in the controls, corresponding to a relative risk of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.91) for acquiring COVID-19. This study identifies ABO blood group as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection but not for hospitalization or death from COVID-19.


    “Reduced prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ABO blood group O” by Mike Bogetofte Barnkob, Anton Pottegård, Henrik Støvring, Thure Mors Haunstrup, Keld Homburg, Rune Larsen, Morten Bagge Hansen, Kjell Titlestad, Bitten Aagaard, Bjarne Kuno Møller and Torben Barington, 14 October 2020, Blood Advances.
    DOI: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002657


    https://ashpublications.org/bloodadv...fection-in-ABO
    There are always exceptions to the 'rule' my wife has had corona and has O+ and I 'escaped' the disease with A- ;)

  7. #32
    Regular Member firetown's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Northener View Post
    There are always exceptions to the 'rule' my wife has had corona and has O+ and I 'escaped' the disease with A- ;)
    Interesting. It is definitely harder for Rh negatives to catch. There are several studies out now all showing this in their results.

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