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Thread: Proto-Semitic and Proto-Indo European

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    Proto-Semitic and Proto-Indo European



    The folowing list shows borrowings or cognates between Proto IE (right) and Proto Semitic (left).
    Semitic is attested since the third millenium BC in northern Mesopotamia (Akkadian) which is not far from the Proto IE homeland (around the Black sea shores).


    http://grzegorj.w.interia.pl/lingwen/iesem3.html

    Akk. appāru ‘wild boar’ Ger. Eber, OE eofor < *ebura-, Lat. aper, Pol. wieprz ‘boar’, Greek kápros
    Arab. ˀaḥadun, ˀwāḥidun ‘one’, ḥidatun ‘be the only one’ (the root ḥid- ~ ḥad-)
    • Pol. jeden ‘one’ < IE *ed-oinos;
    • Pol. dziewięć, Gr. ennéa < IE *ed-newm̥ ‘nine’
    Arab. ˀakara ‘to plough’, Hbr. ˀikkār ‘farmer with no own land’, Akk. ikkaru, inkaru ‘(little) farmer, ploughman’ (? < Sum. engar) Engl. acre (formerly ‘field’), Ger. Acker ‘field’ (formerly ‘meadow’), Lat. ager ‘field, ploughland’, Gr. agrós, Skr. ájra- ‘pasture; field’; usually interpreted as IE *aǵro- from the root *aǵ- ‘to drive (cattle)’
    Arab. ˀalfun ‘thousand’, Akk. alpu ‘cattle’, Phoenician ˀ-l-p ‘ox’ Engl. calf, Ger. Kalb < PG *kalba- (referred, probably incorrectly, to IE *gel-bh- ‘to swell’, cf. Lat. globus ‘globe’)
    Arab. ˀarḍun, Hbr. ˀereṣ ‘earth’, Akk. erṣetu Engl. earth < *erþō, but also Gr. erā and Welsh erw ‘field’
    Arab. ˁanzatun ‘goat’, Akk. enzu, ezzu, azzatu, ḫazzatu the hesitation k- ~ 0- similar like in Akk. ḫ- ~ 0-:

    • Pol. koza < IE *koǵā, Alb. keth, kedhi ‘kid’ (cf. Engl. kid), OE hǣcen (see also Tatar käǯä, Chuv. kačaga);
    • without k-: Skr. ajā́, Lith. ožỹs, ožkà;
    • Gr. aĩks, D aigós, Arm. ayc, Skr. eḍa- ‘kind of sheep’, Av. izaēna- ‘of leather’
    Arab. ˁaqrabun ‘scorpion’, Akk. aqrabu Engl. crab, Ger. Krabbe and Krebs, Gr. kárabos ‘crab’ and skorpiós
    Ugaritic ˁ-ṯ-t-r-t ‘Ashtarte – Ishtar (goddess)’, Phoenician ˁ-š-t-r-t (hence Arab. ˁaštarūtu), Akk. ištaru < *ˁiṯtar- < *ˁičtar-
    • Gr. ástēr ‘star’, Lat. stella < *sterela, Engl. star < steorra, Ger. Stern < sterno < IE *H2ster-;
    • possibly Engl. iron, Ger. Eisen < *īsarna- (from Celtic)
    Arab. baˁlun ‘lord; husband; sir’, Hbr. baˁal ‘sir; god's name’ Celtic Bel ‘god's name’, Slavic bol- ‘more’ (cf. Pol. Bolesław), Skr. balin- ‘strong, powerful’, Gr. bélteros ‘better’, Frisian pall ‘strong, hard’, Lat. dē-bilis ‘weak’
    Hbr. barzel ‘iron’, Akk. parzillu (in other AA languages the same root denotes other metals, e.g. Egyptian b-j-ˀ ‘copper’, Chadic and Cushitic bir- ‘iron’, ‘silver’ or ‘metal’ in common)
    • Lat. ferrum < *fersom ~ *fersilom;
    • with a shift and a meaning change Pol. srebro ‘silver’ < PS *serbro, Lith. sidãbras, prus. sirablan, Engl. silver, Ger. Silber, Goth. silubr; bask. zilhar;
    • perhaps also Gr. sídēros ‘iron’, Dor. sídāros (cf. the Lith. form!)
    Arab. burrun ‘wheat’, Hbr. bār ‘threshed grain’
    • Pol. perz ‘wild wheat, Triticum repens’ < pyrь, OCS pyro ‘spelt, Triticum spelta’, OE fyrs ‘wheat-grass’, Gr. pȳrós ‘wheat’, Old Lith. pūras ‘grain of wheat’;
    • maybe also Pol. ber, gen. bru < PS bъrъ ‘a gender of millet, Setaria sp, Panicum miliaceum or Milium effusum’
    Akk. dunnunu ‘fortified’
    • Engl. down ‘sand-drift’ < OE dūn ‘hill’ < *dūna-, a Germanic borrowing from Celtic dunum ‘stronghold’;
    • the same in PG *tūnaz > Engl. town, Ger. Zaun ‘fence’
    Arab. darkun, darakun ‘way, round’, Hbr. derek̲ ‘way’ Pol. droga ‘way’, Russ. doróga < PS *dórga < IE *dhorHg- without convincing IE etymology
    Arab. dārun ‘house’, dūrun ‘houses’, dāˀiratun ‘circle’ Engl. thorp, Ger. Dorf < PG *þurp-, Lat. turba ‘mob’, Gr. túrbē ‘confusion’; Engl. twirl < PG *þweril-
    Akk. dūru ‘long time’ Lat. dūrāre ‘to endure, to persist’, skąd Ger. Dauer ‘duration’
    Arab. d̲irāˁun ‘arm’, Hbr. zərōăˁ Engl. steer < PG *steur-
    Akk. epūšu ‘sacrifice, offering’ Lat. opus, D operis < *opes-is ‘work’, OE efnan ‘to make’ < *ōbjan < *ōp- ~ *op- ‘offering’, Skr. apas ‘work’
    Akk. gadū ‘kid’, Arab. gadjun Engl. goat, Goth. gaits, Lat. haedus (cf. also ˁanzatun above)
    Arab. gamalun, gamlun ‘camel’, Hbr. gāmāl, pl. gəmallīm, Akk. gammalu
    • Engl. camel < Lat. camelus, Gr. kamēlos ‘camel’, Russ. komolyj ‘hornless’;
    • Lith. kumelỹs ‘horse’, kumẽlė ‘mare’, Latv. kumē ̧ļš ‘foal’, Skr. kumārá- ‘baby, son, child’;
    • Lat. caballus ‘horse’, Pol. kobyła ‘mare’, OTurk. käväl, Pers. kaval ‘swift horse’;
    • Lat. cabō, gen. cabōnis ‘horse’, Fin. hepo ‘steed’, hevonen ‘horse’;
    • Pruss. camnet ‘horse’, Pol. koń < PS *kom(o)nь (cf. komonica ‘birdfoot trefoil, Lotus’) < *kamni-
    Hbr. gal ‘wave; spring’ (in Chadic and Cushitic sim. ‘river, lake’) Engl. well, Ger. Quelle ‘spring’ without IE etymology
    Arab. ġaranun ‘eagle’, Akk. urinnu, erū Hittite ḫara(n), OE earn, Ger. Aar, Swedish örn, Ger. Adler < *edel-ar ‘a noble bird of pray’ < *arnu-, *arōn ‘eagle, bird of pray’, Pol. orzeł ‘eagle’ < PS *orьlъ < *orilo-, Gr. órnīs, órnīth- ‘bird’
    Arab. ġirnīqun, ġurnūqun ‘crane’
    • Engl. crane, Gr. géranos < IE *gerH-no-;
    • Pol. żuraw < *žeravjь, Lith. gérvė, Lat. grūs < *gerH-w-
    Arab. ġurābun ‘raven’, Akk. āribu, ēribu, ḫērebu ‘raven, crow’, Hbr. ˁōrēb̲ ‘raven’
    • Engl. crow (echoic?);
    • raven < PG *xrabnaz, Lat. corvus, Gr. kóraks
    Arab. ḫuffun ‘paw, foot; shoe, slipper’ Engl. hoof < PG *xuf-, Pol. kopyto ‘hoof’ with unclear -yt-, Skr. śapha < IE *ḱopH-
    Arab. ḫarīfun ‘autumn’, Akk. ḫarpu
    • Engl. harvest, Ger. Herbst ‘autumn’ < PG *xarbista < IE *karp- with untypical -a-;
    • also Lat. carpere ‘to pick fruit’, Gr. karpós ‘fruit’;
    • unclear reference to Engl. harp, Ger. Harfe < PG *xarpō
    Akk. ḫussu ‘reed hut’ Engl. house < PG *xūs
    Ugar. ḥrt ‘to plough’, Hbr. ḥrš, Akad. erēšu ‘till land’ Hitt. ḫaršawar ‘tillage, agriculture’, ḫarš- ‘to tillage without the help of an animal’ (< IE *Har-s- ?)
    Arab. kalbun ‘dog’ Hitt. ḫuelpi ‘newborn animal’, Engl. whelp < PG *xwelp-, Welsh colwyn
    Arab. labwat-, labāt- ‘lioness’, Akk. labbu (labˀu, lābu) ‘lion’, Hbr. poet. lāb̲īˀ (together with normal ˀarjē < *ˀarwaj); Hbr. lajiš, Arab. lajṯun, lājiṯun (maybe contamination of the previous and *najṯu- > Akk. nēšu, but also Arab. nahhāsun, nahūsun, minhasun) Pol. lew < PS lьvъ < OHG lëwo < Lat. leō, Gr. léōn, līs
    Arab. lawḥun ‘lath, board’, lawḥatun ‘shield’ Engl. lath < OE *læþþ and lætt (from Nordic), without etymology
    Arab. lisānun ‘tongue, language’, laḥwasa ‘to lick’, Hbr. lāšōn ‘tongue, language’, lāqaq ‘to lick’
    • Engl. tongue, Goth. tungo, Lat. lingua, Old Lat. dingua, Skr. juhū-, jihvā-, Avestan hizū, hizvā, Pol. język, Pruss. insuwis, Lith. liežùvis, Gr. glõtta, glõssa, glátta, maybe also Lat. gingīva ‘gum (of a tooth)’, Gr. gamphēlaí ‘muzzle, mouth’;
    • Pol. lizać ‘to lick’, Lith. liẽžti, Skr. lḗḍhi, líhati, Gr. leíkhō, Lat. lingō, Engl. lick
    Arab. malaga ‘to suck’ Engl. milk < PG *mel(u)ka-, borrowed to Slavic (Pol. mleko), together with Old Pol. młodziwo ‘beestings, colostrum’ instead of *młoziwo from IE *melHǵ- ~ *mlaHǵ-t-, Lat. lāc, lactis, Gr. gala, galaktos, also Georgian rʒe < *mlǵe
    Akk. manū ‘to count, to measure’, Arab. manā ‘to check, to try’, Hbr. mānā(h) ‘to count’ (maybe of the root *man ‘to think’, related to Nostratic *manu ‘think’ in Altaic, Uralic, Dravidian, IE)
    • Engl. moon < PG *mēnō, Engl. month < PG *mēnōþ < IE *mē-n-, Lat. mēnsis < IE *mē-n-s-, Pol. miesiąc ‘month’ < PS *měsęcь < IE *mē-s-;
    • Skr. māti ‘to measure’, Lat. mētior ‘t.s.’, Hittite meḫḫur ‘time’, Pol. mierzyć ‘to measure’, miara ‘a measure’ < měr- < IE *mē-, *mē-t-, *mē-r-, *mē-n- < *meH-;
    • Engl. meal < *mē-l- ‘meal time’;
    • Gr. métron ‘a measure’, Lith. me͂tas ‘year’ < IE *me-t-;
    • Gr. medímnos, médimnos ‘a measure of grain’, OE metan, Ger. messen ‘to measure’, Lat. modus ‘a measure’ < IE *me-d-, *mo-d-
    Arab. muhrun ‘foal’, Akk. mūru Engl. mare, ir. marc ‘horse’ < IE *mark-, also Mongolian moŕ ‘horse’< *mori, Korean mal < Middle Korean mằr
    Arab. nahrun ‘river’, Akk. nāru Pol. Ner ‘name of a river’ < Nyr, nur ‘diver, loon’, zanurzać się ‘to plunge, to dive’ < IE *nuHr-, nouHr-, cf. also nora ‘burrow, den’, Lith. nérti < *nerH- ~ *norH-
    Hbr. pā(j) ‘mouth’, st.constr. pī, Akk. pū, Arab. fumun Pol. pić ‘to drink’, Lat. bibere and pōtāre, Skr. pāti, pipati ‘he is drinking’ (IE irregular *pei-, *pō-, *pipe-, *bibe-)
    Akk. padānu ‘path’; bask. haran < *padan Engl. path, Ger. Pfad < PG *paþ- (? from Iranian path-)
    Akk. perdu ‘horse, mule’, Hbr. pered̲ ‘mule’, and also Arab. farasun ‘horse’, Hbr. pārāš ‘equipage’; Arab. faraˀun ‘onager, wild donkey’, Akk. parû, paraḫu, Hbr. pereˀ (with related words in Cushitic, Chadic and Omotic); cf. also Syrian bardūnā ‘mule’, Arab. bird̲awn- ‘not thoroughbred horse’, Eth. bāzrā ‘mare’; cf. also Arab. barīd- ‘carrier horse’ (from Greek?) Ger. Pferd ‘horse’ < OHG pferīd, pferifrīd < PG *parafrid-, from Lat. verēdus,*paraverēdus ‘carrier horse, huntsman's horse’ (from that also Gr. béraidos, beredos), from Gallic (Welsh gorwydd ‘horse’)
    Hbr. pered̲ ‘odd number’, Arab. fardun ‘one, the only one’ Pol. pierwszy ‘first’, Engl. first, Gr. prõtos, Lat. prīmus; also Georgian p̣irveli, Turkish bir ‘one’, Mongolian bür ‘everyone’, Korean piroso ‘in the beginning’, Japanese hitótsu < *pitə- ‘one’, from Altaic *bi̯uri
    Akk. puluḫtu ‘fright, fear’ Engl. fright < fryhta < *furxtīn, Goth. faúrhts ‘fear’
    Arab. qadda ‘to cut’, qaṭṭa ‘to cut off’, Hbr. qāṭam ‘to cut down’ Engl. cut, OIc. kuta, with no further etymology
    Arab. qāla ‘to speak’
    • Engl. call from Nordic kalla, Briton galw; Pol. głos ‘voice’ < PS *gols-, Ossetian γalas < *golḱ-;
    • Gr. kaléō ‘to call, to name’
    Arab. qāma ‘to stand up, to become’ Engl. come, become, Goth. qiman, Skr. gámati, gácchati ‘goes’, Lat. veniō, Gr. baínō (with irregular change *m > n) < IE *gʷem-
    Akk. qarābu ‘war, battle’, Hbr. qərāb̲, maybe also Arab. qurḥatun ‘wound, injury’ OE here ‘army’, Ger. Heer < PG *xarjaz; cf. also herald < *xariwald-
    Arab. qarjatun, qirjatun ‘housing estate, town, village’, Aram. qurəjātā, Phoenician qart ‘city, town’, Ugaritic q-r-t Pol. gród ‘(old) city, castle’, Engl. yard, Lith. gar̃das, Skr. gr̥has ‘house’, Tocharian A kerciye
    Arab. qarnun ‘horn’ (also ‘vertex’, not related to qarana ‘to bind, to tie’)
    • Engl. horn < PG *xurnaz, Lat. cornū, Skr. śŕ̥ŋga-;
    • Gr. karā ‘head’ (> Lat. cara ‘face’ and Engl. cheer) < IE *ḱr̥-H-;
    • Gr. kéras ‘horn’, Persian sar ‘head’ < IE *ḱer-H-s-;
    • Lat. cerebrum ‘brain’ < IE *ḱr̥-H-s-ro-;
    • Gr. kraníon ‘skull’ (> Lat. cranium and Pol. migrena < French migraine < hemicranium) < IE *ḱr̥-s-no-;
    • Engl. hornet < PG *xurznuta, Lat. crabrō, Pol. szerszeń < PS *šŕ̥š-en-;
    • Gr. krios ‘ram’ < IE *ḱr̥-ī-;
    • Engl. rein-deer < OE hreinn < PG *xrajna ‘horned animal’ < IE *ḱr̥-oi-n-;
    • Engl. rinder-pest < OE hrind ‘ox’, Ger. Rinder ‘cattle’ < PG *xrinda;
    • Pol. krowa ‘cow’, Russ. koróva < IE *ḱr̥-Hw-;
    • Lat. cervus ‘deer’, cervix ‘neck’ < IE *ḱr̥-w-;
    • Engl. hart < PG *xerutaz < IE *ḱer-u-do-;
    • Gr. korynē ‘club, cudgel’, koryphē ‘head’, korymbos ‘the highest part’
    Arab. qatala ‘to kill’, maybe also Arab. qatta ‘to tell lies’ Engl. hate, Ger. hassen < PG *xat-; OE heaþu ‘war’, Ger. Hader ‘quarrel’ < PG *xaþ-; Gr. kḗdō ‘I worry’, Welsh cas ‘hate’, cawdd ‘anger’; maybe also Engl. kill, quell, Old Irish. at-baill ‘he is dying’ < IE *gwel-
    Arab. qaṭara ‘to drip; to cover with birch tar’, qaṭrānun ‘birch tar’, Hbr. qəṭār ‘incense’ Ger. Ruß ‘soot’ < PG *xrōtō, probably unrelated to Engl. rot, rust < PG and IE *ru-
    Hbr. qōp ‘ape, monkey’, Egyptian kefi ON api, Engl. ape, Germ. Affe, ORuth. opica, Skr. kapí-
    Akk. sīsū, Hbr. sūs ‘horse’ Luwian azzuwa < IE *eḱwos ‘horse’
    Akk. šaḫū ‘pig’ (perhaps also Egyptian šˀy) Lat. sūs, Gr. hūs, sūs < IE *sū- ‘pig’
    Hbr. šeb̲aˁ, šib̲ˁā ‘seven’ (m and f resp.), Akk. šiba, šibittu, Arab. sabˁun, sabˁatun < PSem *šibˁum, Egyptian *'safxaw, Shilha sa Engl. seven, Ger. sieben, Lat. septem, Pol. siedem < IE *septm̥
    Hbr. šēš, šiššā ‘six’ (m and f resp.), Arab. sittun, sittatun, Eth. seds, sedestū, Aram. šeṯ, štā, Ugaritic ṯeṯ, Old South Arab. s-d-ṯ < PSem *šidṯum; Egyptian *sar'saw, *saj'saw, Shilha sd̲is
    • Engl. six, Ger. sechs, Lat. sex, Gr. heks, Pol. sześć, Skr. ṣaṣ < IE *ksweks (the presence of *k- is proved with Balto-Slavic, Albanian, Indo-Iranian facts);
    • Finnish kuusi < *kuute, Hungarian hat < *kūt- ~ *kutt-;
    • Dravidian *caru;
    • Georgian ekvsi
    Akk. šalḫu, šulḫu ‘wall’ (cf. also Egyptian swˀḥ.t ‘stronghold’) or Hbr. ṣēlāˁ, Arab. ḍilˁun ‘rib’, Eth. ṣəlle, ṣəlla ‘beam’ Ger. Säule, OE sȳl < PG *sūlj- ‘column’
    Arab. tajsun ‘he-goat’, Hbr. tajiš, Akk. daššu, taššu, but also Hbr. dīšōn ‘aurochs, Bison bonasus’, Akk. ditānu, didānu ‘t.s.’ Ger. Ziege, OHG ziga ‘she-goat’ < PG *tīgō (unknown outside German), Alb. dhi < IE *dīk-, maybe related to Pol. dziki ‘wild’, Old Pol. dziwy, dziwoki, Lith. dỹkas
    Arab. tawˀamun ‘twins’ Engl. twins < IE *du- ‘two’
    Arab. ṯawrun, Akk. šūru ‘bull’
    • Engl. steer, Goth. stiur, Avestan staōra < IE *steuro-;
    • Pol. tur ‘urus, Bos primigenius’, Lat. taurus ‘bull’, Gr. tauros < IE *tauro-
    Arab. wajnun, Hbr. jajin ‘wine’ Engl. wine, Gr. (w)oĩnos, Lat. vīnum; Hitt. wijanaš, cf. also Georgian γvino
    Arab. waqā ‘to preserve, to defend’ Engl. wake, watch, wait < PG *wak-, *waxt-, Lat. vegere ‘to be active’, Skr. vāja ‘strength, speed’
    Arab. warada ‘to come’, wardijānun ‘guardian’ Engl. guard < Old French garder < Frankish warden
    Akk. zību ‘sacrifice, offering’ OE tiber ‘sacrifice, offering’; Ger. Ungeziefer ‘vermin’

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    This is a good post but the important point is that Akkadian words are mostly from proto-Germanic, not other Indo-European languages, for example Akkadian xarpu "harvest, autumn" (Arabic xarif), is from proto-Germanic *xarbaz "autumn, harvest" (with b>p sound change in Akkadian), from proto-Indo-European *kerp- "to pluck", cognate with Greek karps "fruit", in fact we see this semantic development just in Germanic, or xaima "home, tent" is from proto-Germanic *xaima "home" from proto-Indo-European koimos "village", xussu "house, hut" from proto-Germanic *xusa "house" from proto-Indo-European *kews- "cover", ...

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    Quote Originally Posted by Cyrus View Post
    This is a good post but the important point is that Akkadian words are mostly from proto-Germanic, not other Indo-European languages, for example Akkadian xarpu "harvest, autumn" (Arabic xarif), is from proto-Germanic *xarbaz "autumn, harvest" (with b>p sound change in Akkadian), from proto-Indo-European *kerp- "to pluck", cognate with Greek karp�s "fruit", in fact we see this semantic development just in Germanic, or xaima "home, tent" is from proto-Germanic *xaima "home" from proto-Indo-European koimos "village", xussu "house, hut" from proto-Germanic *xusa "house" from proto-Indo-European *kews- "cover", ...
    Interesting! So what you do suggest as an explanation to this? Was Proto-Germanic close to PIE or was there an early Germanic presence in the Near East? Or trade?

    I should add, there are Armenian cognates for many of these words. I'm not sure why Armenian was totally ignored when this list was compiled, considering that Armenian has been spoken in close geographic proximity to Semitic languages for millennia. I'm left scratching my head particularly over the exclusion of Armenian "gini" (wine) while the Georgian word for wine (ghivino) is included (especially considering that Georgian is not an IE language).

    A couple examples of words that could have been included, just off the top of my head--"lezoo" (which means "tongue") seems closer to "lisanun" than the Sanskrit words for tongue, for instance. Also, "dun" ("house" in Armenian) seems very close to "dunnunu".

    Armenia's closeness to the Assyrian and Arab worlds could potentially explain some of these similarities.

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    Quote Originally Posted by spongetaro View Post
    The folowing list shows borrowings or cognates between Proto IE (right) and Proto Semitic (left).
    Semitic is attested since the third millenium BC in northern Mesopotamia (Akkadian) which is not far from the Proto IE homeland (around the Black sea shores).


    http://grzegorj.w.interia.pl/lingwen/iesem3.html

    Akk. appāru ‘wild boar’ Ger. Eber, OE eofor < *ebura-, Lat. aper, Pol. wieprz ‘boar’, Greek kápros
    Arab. ˀaḥadun, ˀwāḥidun ‘one’, ḥidatun ‘be the only one’ (the root ḥid- ~ ḥad-)
    • Pol. jeden ‘one’ < IE *ed-oinos;
    • Pol. dziewięć, Gr. ennéa < IE *ed-newm̥ ‘nine’
    Arab. ˀakara ‘to plough’, Hbr. ˀikkār ‘farmer with no own land’, Akk. ikkaru, inkaru ‘(little) farmer, ploughman’ (? < Sum. engar) Engl. acre (formerly ‘field’), Ger. Acker ‘field’ (formerly ‘meadow’), Lat. ager ‘field, ploughland’, Gr. agrós, Skr. ájra- ‘pasture; field’; usually interpreted as IE *aǵro- from the root *aǵ- ‘to drive (cattle)’
    Arab. ˀalfun ‘thousand’, Akk. alpu ‘cattle’, Phoenician ˀ-l-p ‘ox’ Engl. calf, Ger. Kalb < PG *kalba- (referred, probably incorrectly, to IE *gel-bh- ‘to swell’, cf. Lat. globus ‘globe’)
    Arab. ˀarḍun, Hbr. ˀereṣ ‘earth’, Akk. erṣetu Engl. earth < *erþō, but also Gr. erā and Welsh erw ‘field’
    Arab. ˁanzatun ‘goat’, Akk. enzu, ezzu, azzatu, ḫazzatu the hesitation k- ~ 0- similar like in Akk. ḫ- ~ 0-:

    • Pol. koza < IE *koǵā, Alb. keth, kedhi ‘kid’ (cf. Engl. kid), OE hǣcen (see also Tatar käǯä, Chuv. kačaga);
    • without k-: Skr. ajā́, Lith. ožỹs, ožkà;
    • Gr. aĩks, D aigós, Arm. ayc, Skr. eḍa- ‘kind of sheep’, Av. izaēna- ‘of leather’
    Arab. ˁaqrabun ‘scorpion’, Akk. aqrabu Engl. crab, Ger. Krabbe and Krebs, Gr. kárabos ‘crab’ and skorpiós
    Ugaritic ˁ-ṯ-t-r-t ‘Ashtarte – Ishtar (goddess)’, Phoenician ˁ-š-t-r-t (hence Arab. ˁaštarūtu), Akk. ištaru < *ˁiṯtar- < *ˁičtar-
    • Gr. ástēr ‘star’, Lat. stella < *sterela, Engl. star < steorra, Ger. Stern < sterno < IE *H2ster-;
    • possibly Engl. iron, Ger. Eisen < *īsarna- (from Celtic)
    Arab. baˁlun ‘lord; husband; sir’, Hbr. baˁal ‘sir; god's name’ Celtic Bel ‘god's name’, Slavic bol- ‘more’ (cf. Pol. Bolesław), Skr. balin- ‘strong, powerful’, Gr. bélteros ‘better’, Frisian pall ‘strong, hard’, Lat. dē-bilis ‘weak’
    Hbr. barzel ‘iron’, Akk. parzillu (in other AA languages the same root denotes other metals, e.g. Egyptian b-j-ˀ ‘copper’, Chadic and Cushitic bir- ‘iron’, ‘silver’ or ‘metal’ in common)
    • Lat. ferrum < *fersom ~ *fersilom;
    • with a shift and a meaning change Pol. srebro ‘silver’ < PS *serbro, Lith. sidãbras, prus. sirablan, Engl. silver, Ger. Silber, Goth. silubr; bask. zilhar;
    • perhaps also Gr. sídēros ‘iron’, Dor. sídāros (cf. the Lith. form!)
    Arab. burrun ‘wheat’, Hbr. bār ‘threshed grain’
    • Pol. perz ‘wild wheat, Triticum repens’ < pyrь, OCS pyro ‘spelt, Triticum spelta’, OE fyrs ‘wheat-grass’, Gr. pȳrós ‘wheat’, Old Lith. pūras ‘grain of wheat’;
    • maybe also Pol. ber, gen. bru < PS bъrъ ‘a gender of millet, Setaria sp, Panicum miliaceum or Milium effusum’
    Akk. dunnunu ‘fortified’
    • Engl. down ‘sand-drift’ < OE dūn ‘hill’ < *dūna-, a Germanic borrowing from Celtic dunum ‘stronghold’;
    • the same in PG *tūnaz > Engl. town, Ger. Zaun ‘fence’
    Arab. darkun, darakun ‘way, round’, Hbr. derek̲ ‘way’ Pol. droga ‘way’, Russ. doróga < PS *dórga < IE *dhorHg- without convincing IE etymology
    Arab. dārun ‘house’, dūrun ‘houses’, dāˀiratun ‘circle’ Engl. thorp, Ger. Dorf < PG *þurp-, Lat. turba ‘mob’, Gr. túrbē ‘confusion’; Engl. twirl < PG *þweril-
    Akk. dūru ‘long time’ Lat. dūrāre ‘to endure, to persist’, skąd Ger. Dauer ‘duration’
    Arab. d̲irāˁun ‘arm’, Hbr. zərōăˁ Engl. steer < PG *steur-
    Akk. epūšu ‘sacrifice, offering’ Lat. opus, D operis < *opes-is ‘work’, OE efnan ‘to make’ < *ōbjan < *ōp- ~ *op- ‘offering’, Skr. apas ‘work’
    Akk. gadū ‘kid’, Arab. gadjun Engl. goat, Goth. gaits, Lat. haedus (cf. also ˁanzatun above)
    Arab. gamalun, gamlun ‘camel’, Hbr. gāmāl, pl. gəmallīm, Akk. gammalu
    • Engl. camel < Lat. camelus, Gr. kamēlos ‘camel’, Russ. komolyj ‘hornless’;
    • Lith. kumelỹs ‘horse’, kumẽlė ‘mare’, Latv. kumē ̧ļš ‘foal’, Skr. kumārá- ‘baby, son, child’;
    • Lat. caballus ‘horse’, Pol. kobyła ‘mare’, OTurk. käväl, Pers. kaval ‘swift horse’;
    • Lat. cabō, gen. cabōnis ‘horse’, Fin. hepo ‘steed’, hevonen ‘horse’;
    • Pruss. camnet ‘horse’, Pol. koń < PS *kom(o)nь (cf. komonica ‘birdfoot trefoil, Lotus’) < *kamni-
    Hbr. gal ‘wave; spring’ (in Chadic and Cushitic sim. ‘river, lake’) Engl. well, Ger. Quelle ‘spring’ without IE etymology
    Arab. ġaranun ‘eagle’, Akk. urinnu, erū Hittite ḫara(n), OE earn, Ger. Aar, Swedish örn, Ger. Adler < *edel-ar ‘a noble bird of pray’ < *arnu-, *arōn ‘eagle, bird of pray’, Pol. orzeł ‘eagle’ < PS *orьlъ < *orilo-, Gr. órnīs, órnīth- ‘bird’
    Arab. ġirnīqun, ġurnūqun ‘crane’
    • Engl. crane, Gr. géranos < IE *gerH-no-;
    • Pol. żuraw < *žeravjь, Lith. gérvė, Lat. grūs < *gerH-w-
    Arab. ġurābun ‘raven’, Akk. āribu, ēribu, ḫērebu ‘raven, crow’, Hbr. ˁōrēb̲ ‘raven’
    • Engl. crow (echoic?);
    • raven < PG *xrabnaz, Lat. corvus, Gr. kóraks
    Arab. ḫuffun ‘paw, foot; shoe, slipper’ Engl. hoof < PG *xuf-, Pol. kopyto ‘hoof’ with unclear -yt-, Skr. śapha < IE *ḱopH-
    Arab. ḫarīfun ‘autumn’, Akk. ḫarpu
    • Engl. harvest, Ger. Herbst ‘autumn’ < PG *xarbista < IE *karp- with untypical -a-;
    • also Lat. carpere ‘to pick fruit’, Gr. karpós ‘fruit’;
    • unclear reference to Engl. harp, Ger. Harfe < PG *xarpō
    Akk. ḫussu ‘reed hut’ Engl. house < PG *xūs
    Ugar. ḥrt ‘to plough’, Hbr. ḥrš, Akad. erēšu ‘till land’ Hitt. ḫaršawar ‘tillage, agriculture’, ḫarš- ‘to tillage without the help of an animal’ (< IE *Har-s- ?)
    Arab. kalbun ‘dog’ Hitt. ḫuelpi ‘newborn animal’, Engl. whelp < PG *xwelp-, Welsh colwyn
    Arab. labwat-, labāt- ‘lioness’, Akk. labbu (labˀu, lābu) ‘lion’, Hbr. poet. lāb̲īˀ (together with normal ˀarjē < *ˀarwaj); Hbr. lajiš, Arab. lajṯun, lājiṯun (maybe contamination of the previous and *najṯu- > Akk. nēšu, but also Arab. nahhāsun, nahūsun, minhasun) Pol. lew < PS lьvъ < OHG lëwo < Lat. leō, Gr. léōn, līs
    Arab. lawḥun ‘lath, board’, lawḥatun ‘shield’ Engl. lath < OE *læþþ and lætt (from Nordic), without etymology
    Arab. lisānun ‘tongue, language’, laḥwasa ‘to lick’, Hbr. lāšōn ‘tongue, language’, lāqaq ‘to lick’
    • Engl. tongue, Goth. tungo, Lat. lingua, Old Lat. dingua, Skr. juhū-, jihvā-, Avestan hizū, hizvā, Pol. język, Pruss. insuwis, Lith. liežùvis, Gr. glõtta, glõssa, glátta, maybe also Lat. gingīva ‘gum (of a tooth)’, Gr. gamphēlaí ‘muzzle, mouth’;
    • Pol. lizać ‘to lick’, Lith. liẽžti, Skr. lḗḍhi, líhati, Gr. leíkhō, Lat. lingō, Engl. lick
    Arab. malaga ‘to suck’ Engl. milk < PG *mel(u)ka-, borrowed to Slavic (Pol. mleko), together with Old Pol. młodziwo ‘beestings, colostrum’ instead of *młoziwo from IE *melHǵ- ~ *mlaHǵ-t-, Lat. lāc, lactis, Gr. gala, galaktos, also Georgian rʒe < *mlǵe
    Akk. manū ‘to count, to measure’, Arab. manā ‘to check, to try’, Hbr. mānā(h) ‘to count’ (maybe of the root *man ‘to think’, related to Nostratic *manu ‘think’ in Altaic, Uralic, Dravidian, IE)
    • Engl. moon < PG *mēnō, Engl. month < PG *mēnōþ < IE *mē-n-, Lat. mēnsis < IE *mē-n-s-, Pol. miesiąc ‘month’ < PS *měsęcь < IE *mē-s-;
    • Skr. māti ‘to measure’, Lat. mētior ‘t.s.’, Hittite meḫḫur ‘time’, Pol. mierzyć ‘to measure’, miara ‘a measure’ < měr- < IE *mē-, *mē-t-, *mē-r-, *mē-n- < *meH-;
    • Engl. meal < *mē-l- ‘meal time’;
    • Gr. métron ‘a measure’, Lith. me͂tas ‘year’ < IE *me-t-;
    • Gr. medímnos, médimnos ‘a measure of grain’, OE metan, Ger. messen ‘to measure’, Lat. modus ‘a measure’ < IE *me-d-, *mo-d-
    Arab. muhrun ‘foal’, Akk. mūru Engl. mare, ir. marc ‘horse’ < IE *mark-, also Mongolian moŕ ‘horse’< *mori, Korean mal < Middle Korean mằr
    Arab. nahrun ‘river’, Akk. nāru Pol. Ner ‘name of a river’ < Nyr, nur ‘diver, loon’, zanurzać się ‘to plunge, to dive’ < IE *nuHr-, nouHr-, cf. also nora ‘burrow, den’, Lith. nérti < *nerH- ~ *norH-
    Hbr. pā(j) ‘mouth’, st.constr. pī, Akk. pū, Arab. fumun Pol. pić ‘to drink’, Lat. bibere and pōtāre, Skr. pāti, pipati ‘he is drinking’ (IE irregular *pei-, *pō-, *pipe-, *bibe-)
    Akk. padānu ‘path’; bask. haran < *padan Engl. path, Ger. Pfad < PG *paþ- (? from Iranian path-)
    Akk. perdu ‘horse, mule’, Hbr. pered̲ ‘mule’, and also Arab. farasun ‘horse’, Hbr. pārāš ‘equipage’; Arab. faraˀun ‘onager, wild donkey’, Akk. parû, paraḫu, Hbr. pereˀ (with related words in Cushitic, Chadic and Omotic); cf. also Syrian bardūnā ‘mule’, Arab. bird̲awn- ‘not thoroughbred horse’, Eth. bāzrā ‘mare’; cf. also Arab. barīd- ‘carrier horse’ (from Greek?) Ger. Pferd ‘horse’ < OHG pferīd, pferifrīd < PG *parafrid-, from Lat. verēdus,*paraverēdus ‘carrier horse, huntsman's horse’ (from that also Gr. béraidos, beredos), from Gallic (Welsh gorwydd ‘horse’)
    Hbr. pered̲ ‘odd number’, Arab. fardun ‘one, the only one’ Pol. pierwszy ‘first’, Engl. first, Gr. prõtos, Lat. prīmus; also Georgian p̣irveli, Turkish bir ‘one’, Mongolian bür ‘everyone’, Korean piroso ‘in the beginning’, Japanese hitótsu < *pitə- ‘one’, from Altaic *bi̯uri
    Akk. puluḫtu ‘fright, fear’ Engl. fright < fryhta < *furxtīn, Goth. faúrhts ‘fear’
    Arab. qadda ‘to cut’, qaṭṭa ‘to cut off’, Hbr. qāṭam ‘to cut down’ Engl. cut, OIc. kuta, with no further etymology
    Arab. qāla ‘to speak’
    • Engl. call from Nordic kalla, Briton galw; Pol. głos ‘voice’ < PS *gols-, Ossetian γalas < *golḱ-;
    • Gr. kaléō ‘to call, to name’
    Arab. qāma ‘to stand up, to become’ Engl. come, become, Goth. qiman, Skr. gámati, gácchati ‘goes’, Lat. veniō, Gr. baínō (with irregular change *m > n) < IE *gʷem-
    Akk. qarābu ‘war, battle’, Hbr. qərāb̲, maybe also Arab. qurḥatun ‘wound, injury’ OE here ‘army’, Ger. Heer < PG *xarjaz; cf. also herald < *xariwald-
    Arab. qarjatun, qirjatun ‘housing estate, town, village’, Aram. qurəjātā, Phoenician qart ‘city, town’, Ugaritic q-r-t Pol. gród ‘(old) city, castle’, Engl. yard, Lith. gar̃das, Skr. gr̥has ‘house’, Tocharian A kerciye
    Arab. qarnun ‘horn’ (also ‘vertex’, not related to qarana ‘to bind, to tie’)
    • Engl. horn < PG *xurnaz, Lat. cornū, Skr. śŕ̥ŋga-;
    • Gr. karā ‘head’ (> Lat. cara ‘face’ and Engl. cheer) < IE *ḱr̥-H-;
    • Gr. kéras ‘horn’, Persian sar ‘head’ < IE *ḱer-H-s-;
    • Lat. cerebrum ‘brain’ < IE *ḱr̥-H-s-ro-;
    • Gr. kraníon ‘skull’ (> Lat. cranium and Pol. migrena < French migraine < hemicranium) < IE *ḱr̥-s-no-;
    • Engl. hornet < PG *xurznuta, Lat. crabrō, Pol. szerszeń < PS *šŕ̥š-en-;
    • Gr. krios ‘ram’ < IE *ḱr̥-ī-;
    • Engl. rein-deer < OE hreinn < PG *xrajna ‘horned animal’ < IE *ḱr̥-oi-n-;
    • Engl. rinder-pest < OE hrind ‘ox’, Ger. Rinder ‘cattle’ < PG *xrinda;
    • Pol. krowa ‘cow’, Russ. koróva < IE *ḱr̥-Hw-;
    • Lat. cervus ‘deer’, cervix ‘neck’ < IE *ḱr̥-w-;
    • Engl. hart < PG *xerutaz < IE *ḱer-u-do-;
    • Gr. korynē ‘club, cudgel’, koryphē ‘head’, korymbos ‘the highest part’
    Arab. qatala ‘to kill’, maybe also Arab. qatta ‘to tell lies’ Engl. hate, Ger. hassen < PG *xat-; OE heaþu ‘war’, Ger. Hader ‘quarrel’ < PG *xaþ-; Gr. kḗdō ‘I worry’, Welsh cas ‘hate’, cawdd ‘anger’; maybe also Engl. kill, quell, Old Irish. at-baill ‘he is dying’ < IE *gwel-
    Arab. qaṭara ‘to drip; to cover with birch tar’, qaṭrānun ‘birch tar’, Hbr. qəṭār ‘incense’ Ger. Ruß ‘soot’ < PG *xrōtō, probably unrelated to Engl. rot, rust < PG and IE *ru-
    Hbr. qōp ‘ape, monkey’, Egyptian kefi ON api, Engl. ape, Germ. Affe, ORuth. opica, Skr. kapí-
    Akk. sīsū, Hbr. sūs ‘horse’ Luwian azzuwa < IE *eḱwos ‘horse’
    Akk. šaḫū ‘pig’ (perhaps also Egyptian šˀy) Lat. sūs, Gr. hūs, sūs < IE *sū- ‘pig’
    Hbr. šeb̲aˁ, šib̲ˁā ‘seven’ (m and f resp.), Akk. šiba, šibittu, Arab. sabˁun, sabˁatun < PSem *šibˁum, Egyptian *'safxaw, Shilha sa Engl. seven, Ger. sieben, Lat. septem, Pol. siedem < IE *septm̥
    Hbr. šēš, šiššā ‘six’ (m and f resp.), Arab. sittun, sittatun, Eth. seds, sedestū, Aram. šeṯ, štā, Ugaritic ṯeṯ, Old South Arab. s-d-ṯ < PSem *šidṯum; Egyptian *sar'saw, *saj'saw, Shilha sd̲is
    • Engl. six, Ger. sechs, Lat. sex, Gr. heks, Pol. sześć, Skr. ṣaṣ < IE *ksweks (the presence of *k- is proved with Balto-Slavic, Albanian, Indo-Iranian facts);
    • Finnish kuusi < *kuute, Hungarian hat < *kūt- ~ *kutt-;
    • Dravidian *caru;
    • Georgian ekvsi
    Akk. šalḫu, šulḫu ‘wall’ (cf. also Egyptian swˀḥ.t ‘stronghold’) or Hbr. ṣēlāˁ, Arab. ḍilˁun ‘rib’, Eth. ṣəlle, ṣəlla ‘beam’ Ger. Säule, OE sȳl < PG *sūlj- ‘column’
    Arab. tajsun ‘he-goat’, Hbr. tajiš, Akk. daššu, taššu, but also Hbr. dīšōn ‘aurochs, Bison bonasus’, Akk. ditānu, didānu ‘t.s.’ Ger. Ziege, OHG ziga ‘she-goat’ < PG *tīgō (unknown outside German), Alb. dhi < IE *dīk-, maybe related to Pol. dziki ‘wild’, Old Pol. dziwy, dziwoki, Lith. dỹkas
    Arab. tawˀamun ‘twins’ Engl. twins < IE *du- ‘two’
    Arab. ṯawrun, Akk. šūru ‘bull’
    • Engl. steer, Goth. stiur, Avestan staōra < IE *steuro-;
    • Pol. tur ‘urus, Bos primigenius’, Lat. taurus ‘bull’, Gr. tauros < IE *tauro-
    Arab. wajnun, Hbr. jajin ‘wine’ Engl. wine, Gr. (w)oĩnos, Lat. vīnum; Hitt. wijanaš, cf. also Georgian γvino
    Arab. waqā ‘to preserve, to defend’ Engl. wake, watch, wait < PG *wak-, *waxt-, Lat. vegere ‘to be active’, Skr. vāja ‘strength, speed’
    Arab. warada ‘to come’, wardijānun ‘guardian’ Engl. guard < Old French garder < Frankish warden
    Akk. zību ‘sacrifice, offering’ OE tiber ‘sacrifice, offering’; Ger. Ungeziefer ‘vermin’
    Makes sense if pre-Proto-Indo European/Indo-Hittite originated in the Armenia/northern Iran area. The first Indo-European names were recorded in what is now southern Turkey and are from around 2300 BCE (the city-state of Armina/Arme/Arman and some personal names like Arra-ti).

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    Quote Originally Posted by tyuiopman View Post
    Interesting! So what you do suggest as an explanation to this? Was Proto-Germanic close to PIE or was there an early Germanic presence in the Near East? Or trade?
    I should add, there are Armenian cognates for many of these words. I'm not sure why Armenian was totally ignored when this list was compiled, considering that Armenian has been spoken in close geographic proximity to Semitic languages for millennia. I'm left scratching my head particularly over the exclusion of Armenian "gini" (wine) while the Georgian word for wine (ghivino) is included (especially considering that Georgian is not an IE language).
    A couple examples of words that could have been included, just off the top of my head--"lezoo" (which means "tongue") seems closer to "lisanun" than the Sanskrit words for tongue, for instance. Also, "dun" ("house" in Armenian) seems very close to "dunnunu".
    Armenia's closeness to the Assyrian and Arab worlds could potentially explain some of these similarities.
    I certainly believe ancient Gutians who lived in the west of Iran were Germanic people, in fact Indo-European culture has a long history, at least from 3rd millennium BC, in Iran, so it is wrong to say people of Iran adopted IE culture after arrival of Iranian tribes in 700 BC.
    Armenian, like Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic, is a Satem language, we don't see almost any satem word in Old Akkadian, so they certainly didn't live in Iran or Armenia before 2nd millennium BC, of course there are many Akkadian words in Armenian, Persian, ... but it shows they migrated to this region latter.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Cyrus View Post
    I certainly believe ancient Gutians who lived in the west of Iran were Germanic people, in fact Indo-European culture has a long history, at least from 3rd millennium BC, in Iran, so it is wrong to say people of Iran adopted IE culture after arrival of Iranian tribes in 700 BC.
    Armenian, like Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic, is a Satem language, we don't see almost any satem word in Old Akkadian, so they certainly didn't live in Iran or Armenia before 2nd millennium BC, of course there are many Akkadian words in Armenian, Persian, ... but it shows they migrated to this region latter.
    Quote Originally Posted by Cyrus View Post
    I certainly believe ancient Gutians who lived in the west of Iran were Germanic people, in fact Indo-European culture has a long history, at least from 3rd millennium BC, in Iran, so it is wrong to say people of Iran adopted IE culture after arrival of Iranian tribes in 700 BC.
    Armenian, like Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic, is a Satem language, we don't see almost any satem word in Old Akkadian, so they certainly didn't live in Iran or Armenia before 2nd millennium BC, of course there are many Akkadian words in Armenian, Persian, ... but it shows they migrated to this region latter.
    I think it's possible that the Gutians were Indo-European, that could explain the Indo-European substratum present in Sumerian. It could be reconciled with the Euphratic Language Theory, I suppose. But I was also under the impression that the Gutians have been postulated to have been connected to the Tocharians based on some names/name endings.

    I like something like Hamp's model of Armenian expansion, although it seems that there is more academic consensus for an Greco-Armeno-Aryan group than a Greco-Armenian group presently. According to Hamp, the Proto-Armenians were in northern Armenia and Georgia area...which is supported by the archaeological and genetic evidence. Armenian isn't really a satem language...it's somewhere between satem and centum, but veers toward satem. Regardless, we know Greek was being spoken in the greater Greek world by around 1600 BCE. It would have theoretically taken the (proto) Greeks a few centuries to migrate to Crete, where we have the earliest definitive evidence of Greek. If Greek split off from Armenian in Armenia/Georgia/NE Turkey (Hamp specifics Batumi, Georgia as the location of the separation) it's not too far fetched to speculate that this split occurred by the 2nd millennium. In other words, even if the Armenian language might not have been spoken in what is now the Republic of Armenia-proper before the 2nd millennium BCE, it could have been spoken on the vicinity of Armenia (like Georgia). I do think that the Armenian language had reached at least Kars, Turkey and the Lake Sevan area by around 1600 BCE. And that's being conservative.

    You might be interested in this article:

    http://www.jolr.ru/files/(128)jlr2013-10(85-138).pdf

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    Quote Originally Posted by tyuiopman View Post
    Makes sense if pre-Proto-Indo European/Indo-Hittite originated in the Armenia/northern Iran area. The first Indo-European names were recorded in what is now southern Turkey and are from around 2300 BCE (the city-state of Armina/Arme/Arman and some personal names like Arra-ti).
    I asked about it in this thread: https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...145#post581145

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