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Thread: Haplogroup J2 M172 Quotes & Links

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    Haplogroup J2 M172 Quotes & Links

    "In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup IJ is a descendant branch of Haplogroup F-L15 which in turn derives from the greater Haplogroup F. Descendants are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J."
    Haplogroup IJ.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_IJ

    "Various episodes of population movement have affected southeast Europe, and the role of the Balkans as a longstanding gateway to Europe from the Near East is illustrated by the phylogenetic unification of Hgs I and J by the basal M429 mutation. This evidence of common ancestry suggests that ancestral IJ-M429* Y chromosomes probably entered Europe through the Balkan route sometime before the Last Glacial Maximum."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

    "J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "A 2004 study by Semino et al. contradicted this study, and showed that Italians in North-central regions (like Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna) had a higher concentration of J2 than their Southern counterparts. North-central had 26.9% J2, whereas Calabria (a far Southern region) had 20.0%, Sardinia had 9.7% and Sicily had 16.7%. This could be because of the ancient Etruscans, who some think originated in the Near East."
    Wikipedia.org - Genetic History of Italy.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_Italy

    "From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined."
    Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
    http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

    "The Neolithic control section shows nonsignificant results across all haplogroups, except for a significant J2 result in one test. The Phoenician-colony test results highlight only one haplogroup, J2, which consistently scores significantly in all three tests across the range of colonization sites. However, this haplogroup also scores significantly in Greek tests (as do some additional haplogroups), suggesting that the same haplogroup could have been spread by several expansions, which is unsurprising considering its frequency in the Eastern Mediterranean but implies that higher phylogenetic resolution is required for identification of Phoenician-specific signals."
    Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
    http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

    "The majority of the Balkan Hg J Y chromosomes belong to the J-M172 sub-Hg and range from 2% to 20%. Both its main branches, J-M410 and J-M12/M102*, were observed; although the first is scattered in different sub-clades (J-M67, J-M92 and J-DYS445-6) with distinct local patterns, the second is most represented by J-M241."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

    "Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
    Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794

    "There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship. The oldest evidence of a cult of the bull can be traced back to Neolithic central Anatolia, notably at the sites of Çatalhöyük and Alaca Höyük. Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia)."
    The Sacred Bull.
    http://aratta.wordpress.com/2012/12/02/the-sacred-bull/

    "The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
    The Minoans, DNA and all.
    http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/the-minoans-dna-and-all/

    "We reconstructed the genetic structure of the Levantines and found that a pre-Islamic expansion Levant was more genetically similar to Europeans than to Middle Easterners."
    Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture.
    http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003316

    "23andMe has a Y chromosome marker on its custom chip, rs34126399, which captures the spread of agriculture from the Near East to Europe. The G state at rs34126399 is found in most individuals carrying paternal haplogroup J2a, whose origin can ultimately be traced to Turkey 15,000 to 20,000 years ago."
    The Origin of Farming in Europe: A View from the Y Chromosome.
    http://blog.23andme.com/23andme-and-you/genetics-101/the-origin-of-farming-in-europe-a-view-from-the-y-chromosome/

    "The authors found a weak – but significant – genetic signature among their samples that could not be explained by chance. Many of the samples belonged to a very specific branch of haplogroup J2, which the authors believe points back to distinct migrations by Phoenician traders from the Middle East into Europe and North Africa more than 3,000 years ago."
    Ripples in the Mediterranean: Tracing the Genetic Origins of the Phoenicians.
    http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/ripples-in-the-mediterranean-tracing-the-genetic-origins-of-the-phoenicians/

    "R1b3 frequency was found to be higher in the northern part of the country, while the Y-chromosome haplogroups G and E3b1, J2 and I(xI1b2) frequencies were higher in the south and in the central part of the country, respectively."
    Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794

    "Bulgarian DNA profile is congruent with those described for most European populations. Almost the entire Bulgarian mtDNA pool is made up of West Eurasian lineages, with just 0.9% of Eastern Asian lineages. It is a similar picture from Y-chromosome haplogroups. About 80% of the total genetic variation in Bulgarians falls within haplogroups E-M35, I-M170, J-M172, R-M17 and R-M269, all found elsewhere in Europe."
    Bulgarians.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarians

    "Haplogroup J2 is most common in Southern Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus, were it may have originated 18.000 years ago. It appears to have spread into Europe in a number of waves over the course of millennia."
    23andme.com, 2013.
    https://www.23andme.com/

    "It has been plausibly suggested that M172 may be associated with the arrival of neolithic farmers from the Fertile Crescent who were the probable predecessors of the Indo-European society which later emerged in western Asia, a "hypothetical" society whose culture and language greatly influenced prehistoric peoples from India to Ireland."
    Genetics & Anthropology in Sicily.
    http://www.bestofsicily.com/genetics.htm

    "Haplogroups E1b1b and J in Europe are regarded as markers of movements from southeastern Europe to northwestern and therefore as a potential markers of introduced technology such as farming."
    Genetic history of the British Isles.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_the_British_Isles

    "A new genetic marker, M172, began to appear in southeastern Europe about 10,000 years ago and is found heavily in Greece and the Balkans region."
    Exploring the Origins of Mankind through the Evidence of DNA.
    http://www.fwquestclub.com/welcome_files/papers/dna.pdf

    "J-M172, which occurs as frequently as J-M267 in some Middle Eastern populations, is the more prevalent in Europe."
    Origin Diffusion and Differentation Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/

    "The J-M67*, JM92, and J-M102 representatives reflect more distinctive origins and dispersal patterns. Whereas J-M67* and J-M92 show higher frequencies and variances in Europe (0.40 and 0.32, respectively) and in Turkey (0.32 and 0.30, respectively [Cinniog˘ lu et al. 2004]) than in the Middle East (0.17 and 0.09, respectively), J-M12(M102) shows its maximum frequency in the Balkans."
    Origin Diffusion and Differentation Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/

    "The diversity within J2 is lower in the Middle East (0.43 ±0.11) compared with both Turkey (0.60±0.07) and the European locations (0.67±0.02)."
    Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

    "The UEP diversity within J2 is lower in the Middle East compared to both Turkey and the European locations. In conclusion, the UEP diversity of J in Turkey and southern Europe does not seem to be a simple subset of that present in the area where this hapologroup first originated. This finding, also confirmed in the data by Semino et al. (2004), points to Turkey and the Aegean as a relevant source for the J diversity observed throughout Europe."
    Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf

    "Thus the most likely explanation is the emergence of J2f1 in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion phase also detected by Malaspina et al. (2001), and coincident with the expansion of the Greek world up to the European coast of the Black sea."
    Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf

    "Based on previously published data (Scozzari et al. 2001; Di Giacomo et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004; Marjanovic et al. 2005), we observed that another haplogroup, J-M12, shows a frequency distribution within Europe similar to that observed for E-V13."
    Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2007/03/10/molbev.msm049.full.pdf+html

    "In addition to Hg J-M410, Hg G-P15 chromosomes, which are also common in Anatolia, have been implicated in the colonization and subsequent expansion of early farmers in Crete, the Aegean and Italy. Earlier studies have concluded that the J-M410 sub-clades, J-DYS445-6 and J-M67, are linked to the spread of farming in the Mediterranean Basin, with a likely origin in Anatolia. Interestingly, J-DYS445-6 and J-M92 (a sub-lineage of M67), both have expansion times between 7000 and 8000 years ago, consistent with the dating of the arrival of the first farmers to the Balkans."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

    "Regarding Hg J-M12/M102, which is discernable from India to Europe, the M12/M102* chromosomes display a very high YSTR diversity, whereas on the other hand, the J-M241 sub-lineage has low diversity in the Balkans, indicating different demographic histories. Although Hg J-M241 shows high variance in India, its place of origin is still uncertain. As J-M241 has older expansion times in Sicily, Apulia and Turkey, it may have arrived in the Balkans from elsewhere."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

    "The PC analysis, from the perspective of population Hg frequencies, reveals a tight cluster of populations not comprising southern Balkan and Caucasian groups. Common to this cluster are lower frequencies of Hgs, G-M201 and J-M410, and higher frequencies of Hgs, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241. Whereas the first two are primarily Middle Eastern Hgs and have been shown to be associated with the early Neolithic colonization of Crete, Italy and southern Caucasus, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, in spite of parallel Balkan patterns of distribution, have clearly different origins."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

    "The M172 marker defines a major subset of M304, which arose from the M89 lineage. It is found today in North Africa, the Middle East, and southern Europe. In southern Italy it occurs at frequencies of 20 percent, and in southern Spain, 10 percent of the population carries this marker. Both M304 and its subgroup M172 are found at a combined frequency of around 30 percent amongst Jewish individuals. The early farming successes of these lineages spawned population booms and encouraged migration throughout much of the Mediterranean world."
    National Geographic - Genographic Project, 2011.
    https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

    "We favor the emergence of J2f1 in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion phase also
    detected by Malaspina et al. (2001) and coincident with the expansion of the Greek world to the European coast of the Black sea."
    Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 24-08-13 at 01:43.

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    "J2-M172 is more prevalent in Europe where at least five different lineages can be traced—J2e*-M102, J2e1-M241, J2*-M172, J2f*-M67, and J2f1-M92 (fig. 2, Semino et al. 2004)."
    High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/10/1964.full

    "The finding that five major haplogroups (E3b1, I1–P37 (xM26), J2, R1a, and R1b) comprise more than 70% of SEE total genetic variation is consistent with the typical European Y chromosome gene pool."
    Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf36/36_6.pdf

    "According to Wiik, almost all European men belong to 11 Y-haplogroups (in alphabetical order: E3b, G, I1a, I1b1-P37, I1b2-M223, J2, N3, R1a, R1b, E3a, N2)."
    Croatian genetic heritage: Y-chromosome story.
    http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Croatian-genetic-heritage-Y-chromosome/21674820.html

    "Y chromosome J2a lineages show an origin in the Levant and/or Central/Mediterranean Anatolia. These lineages may track the spread of the Neolithic to the Aegean and Central Mediterranean."
    From Generation to Generation: The Genetics of Jewish Populations.
    http://www.stanford.edu/dept/jewishstudies/teaching/jewishgenetics/RoyKingSlides.pdf

    "Anthropologist Carleton S. Coon is quoted as saying The Iraqi population is without doubt much the same today as it was in Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian times. The Iraqi people are a Caucasian people. It has been found that Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 originated in northern Iraq (Ancient Assyria)."
    Wikipedia.com - Archeogenetics of the Near East.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeogenetics_of_the_Near_East

    "Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
    Eupedia.com , 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "Several authors have proposed that the Indo-European language presently spoken by Armenians arose during the Bronze Age, when Indo-European speaking tribes from the Balkans and Greece invaded Anatolia and Transcaucasia, leading to the subsequent spread of their culture and language. In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine empires."
    Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n3/full/ejhg2011192a.html

    "It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "The world`s maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The subclade J2a4d (M319) appears to be native to Crete."
    Eupedia.com 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "The J2 lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations. Research note: Many people new to Genetic Genealogy think the J2 haplogroup is synonymous with having male Jewish ancestry. One should note that having a J2 haplogroup assignment does not necessarily indicate Jewish ancestry. The J2 haplogroup is far more ancient than the Jewish religion and is found in many lines with Mediterranean region ancient ancestry. Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."
    Kerchner.com - YDNA Haplogroup Descriptions & Information Links.
    http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm

    "In Southern Europe the haplogroup J2, as defined by the M172 marker, can reach frequencies up to 35%, making the dissection of such lineage critical for population studies."
    Y chromosome J2 subtyping in an Italian sample: Population and forensic implications.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187517680800200X

    "Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008)."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "When looking at the diffusion of Haplogroup J2a, M410, westward into Europe, one aspect of this westward spread becomes quite clear. M410+ ancestors used a maritime and coastal route to move west."
    M172 Blog - Pronounced Westward Maritime Diffusion of J2a (M410), 2008.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/pronounced-westward-maritime-diffusion.html

    "Dr. King also notes an interesting correlation with a subclade of Haplogroup J2, M67, and place names in the Aegean, Balkans and Italy while citing a deeper origin for subclade M67 in Northern Syria or southern Anatolia. The age and spread of M67 seems associated with proto-greek substratum in the Aegean."
    M172 Blog - Neolithic Migrations in the Near East and Aegean, 2009.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neolithic-migrations-in-near-east-and.html

    "Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthagian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extend extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
    Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "HGs R1*xR1a1 and E3b, together with hg J2, were the three most common type along the peninsula (38%, 16% and 21%, respectively). Differently from the former two, J2 did not clearly show any pattern of differential distribution, with a range of frequency between 13% and 25%. In the PC plot, the northern samples (A and B) did tend to cluster with French and Basques, along axis 1, while C, D and E instead were together with other Mediterranean populations (Greeks and Calabrians)."
    Y chromosome genetic structure in the Italian peninsula.
    http://www.isfg.org/files/d11ee269e2a628310ac7d560ae567e5249b8b73b.03017898_ 231992470811.pdf

    "While noting that multiple haplogroups are likely involved in the spread of languages through the middle east, Dr. King noted a correlation between very old Middle Eastern languages of uncertain origin and Haplogroup J2 while at the same time theorizing that Haplogroup J1 may have been involved in spreading Semitic languages through the region. These old languages possibly linked to J2 are known to have existed in Mesopotamia and the Northern Levant and this substratum is sometimes referred to as "Banana" languages due to their syllabic duplication."
    M172 Blog - Neolithic Migrations in the Near East and Aegean, 2009.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neolithic-migrations-in-near-east-and.html

    "The Saluja’s have been a dynamic and mobile group of business people and professionals from North India. They hail from the region north of the river Jhelum, that divides the Jhelum & Gujrat districts, an area along the Salt mines (now in Pakistan). Historical records indicate that Alexander the Great of Macedonia came to India (326 B.C) crossing the Khyber Pass to Taxila near Rawalpindi. Alexander advanced to the northwest bank of the river Jhelum to the village of Haranpur, where allegedly the Macedonians set up their base camp prior to the battle with King Porus. It is quite conceivable that people from that area of North India particularly Haranpur, Jalalpur & surroundings to have Genes of people from Greece. In fact, DNA Analysis suggests that Saluja’s belong to the DNA Haplogroup J2b, which has its origin in Greece. J2b (M12, M314, M221, M102), and is mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, Italy, and India (possibly from Neolithic Greeks)*****J2b1 (M205) - formerly J2b1b. The Saluja family history can be traced directly to this historical melting pot."
    Migration of Indians Across Continents spanning generations: A Case History of the Saluja Family.
    http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indians-Continents-spanning-generations/dp/0615469035

    "Both E-V13 and J-M12 have also been used in studies seeking to find evidence of a remaining Greek presence in Afghanistan and Pakistan, going back to the time of Alexander the Great."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup E V-68.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E-V68_(Y-DNA)

    "Compared with western Asian populations, Indians show lower STR diversities at the haplogroup J background (Quintana-Murci et al. 2001; Nebel et al. 2002) and virtually lack J*, which seems to have higher frequencies in the Middle East and East Africa (Eu10 [Nebel et al. 2001]; Ht25 [Semino et al. 2002]) and is common also in Europe (Underhill et al. 2001b). Therefore, J2 could have been introduced to northwestern India from a western Asian source relatively recently and, subsequently, after comingling in Punjab with R1a, spread to other parts of India, perhaps associated with the spread of the Neolithic and the development of the Indus Valley civilization."
    The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707605412

    "Although, on a general scale, we can argue for largely the same prehistoric genetic inheritance in Indian tribal and caste populations, this does not refute the existence of genetic footprints laid down by known historical events. This would include invasions by the Huns, Greeks, Kushans, Moghuls, Muslims, English, and others. The political influence of Seleucid and Bactrian dynastic Greeks over northwest India, for example, persisted for several centuries after the invasion of the army of Alexander the Great."
    The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707605412

    "A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found high and diverse frequencies of :Haplogroup L3a (22.7%), H1* (20.5%), R1a (18.2%), G (18.2%), J2 (9.1%), R* (6.8%), R1* (2.3%), and L* (2.3%). Haplogroup L, Haplogroup H, and Haplogroup R1a are thought to have originated from prehistoric South Asia."
    Wikipedia.org - Kalash People.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalash_people

    "The sister clade to J2a-M410 is J2b-M12. In India and Pakistan, all J2b members comprise the J2b2-M241 derivative HG."
    Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/

    "Lastly, HG J2b2-M241–related microsatellite variance is higher in Uttar Pradesh near the border of Nepal. It should be noted that numerous Mesolithic sites have been observed in this region (Kennedy 2000)."
    Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/

    "Although the overall age of J2a Y-microsatellite variation exceeds the appearance of agriculture in the Indus Valley (~6 KYA), the current lack of informative subdivision within HG J2a in southwestern Asia prevents analysis of such potential layers, which are currently more evident in Anatolia, southeastern Europe, and the Mediterranean. In these regions, HGs J2a1b-M67(xM92) and J2a1b1-M92 have spatial and temporal characteristics consistent with the spread of early farmers and Bronze Age cultures (Di Giacomo et al. 2004)."
    Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
    http://repository.ias.ac.in/21283/1/308.pdf

    "J2b has a quite different distribution from J2a. J2b seems to have a stronger association with the Chalcolithic cultures of Southeast Europe, and is particulary common in the Balkans, Central Europe and Italy, which is roughly the extent of the European Copper Age culture."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "J2a is also present in Egypt which was conquered by Macedonian Greeks, as well as Iran, but drops to a small frequency in India, and is there limited to the upper castes. This may reflect its presence in the ancient Indo-Aryans and its survival in the Brahmin caste, or alternatively may be the result of intermarriage between the Bactrian Greek aristocracy and high-class Hindus."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/did-haplogroup-j2a1-originate-in.html

    "Haplogroup J2a-M410 is confined to upper caste Dravidian and Indo-European speakers, with little occurrence in the middle and lower castes."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/11/new-paper-on-indian-y-chromosome.html

    "The J2 clade is nearly absent among Indian tribals, except among Austro-Asiatic speaking tribals (11%). Among the Austro-Asiatic tribals, the predominant J2b2 hg occurs only in the Lodha."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/11/new-paper-on-indian-y-chromosome.html

    "One fourth of the Vlach people (isolated communities of Romance language speaking peoples in the Balkans) belong to J2, which, combined to the fact that they speak a language descended from latin, suggests that they could have had a greater part of Roman (italian) ancestry than other ethnic groups in the Balkans."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "Two clusters could be distinguished in the J2-M172 network, probably reflecting the STR differentiation between any of its subclades and/or its unresolved paragroup J2-M172. While the non-Aromun populations did not appear to display differences in distribution among these two clusters, the Y STR differentiation of J2-M172 chromosomes between Albanian Aromuns and the Aromun population from the Stip region in Macedonia was significant."
    Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x/pdf

    "Men in Spain relate to the three dominant haplogroups E1b1b1-M35, J2-M172, R1b1c-M269 as 83% in general."
    Review of the article: Turuspekov Y., Sabitov Zh., Daulet B., Sadykov M., Khalidullin O. «The Kazakhstan DNA project hits first hundred Y-profiles for ethnic Kazakhs».
    http://rjgg.molgen.org/index.php/RJGG/article/viewArticle/116

    "The remaining two haplogroups, J2 and E3b, exhibit spotty frequencies in Russians, expected for low-frequency haplogroups. The haplogroups might have arrived to Russia alongside I1b from the Balkans, in which the two are frequent."
    Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707000250

    "The 1228 Russian Y chromosomes analyzed, all except 20 (1.6%) fall into seven major haplogroups (E, G, I, J, K2, N, and R1) characteristic to West Eurasian populations. Eleven samples could be classified up to the root level of haplogroups F and K, and nine samples (0.7%) fell into haplogroups C, Q, and R2 that are specific to East and South Asian populations. At a higher level of molecular resolution, only eight subclades of these major West Eurasian Y chromosome haplogroups are presented with their average frequency greater than 1%, including R1a, N3, I1b, R1b, I1a, J2, N2, and E3b. Taken together, they account for 95% of the total Russian Y chromosomal pool."
    Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707000250

    "The first broad studies of the variation of the patrilineal genetic system in Europe immediately revealed its marked phylogeographic differentiation. These two pioneering papers and subsequent studies have shown that western Europeans carry predominantly haplogroup R1b, whereas eastern Europeans have high frequency of R1a lineages, that southern Slavs are characterized by high frequency of I1b, whereas Scandinavia is enriched with I1a, and that haplogroups J2 and E3b are confined mainly to southern Europe."
    Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707000250

    "The J2 branch is now split into two subclades. J2a, defined by J-M410, contains 17 haplogroups, while J2b, defined by M12, M102, M221, and M314, contains seven haplogroups."
    New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2336805/

    "A total of 81 samples from unrelated males of the Brazilian population of São Paulo State (Ribeirão Preto) have been analyzed for 14 Y-SNPs (SRY1532, M213, M9, M70, M22, TAT, 92R7, M173, P25—multiplex 1; M170, M62, M172, M26 and M201—multiplex 2) using the SNaPshot™ methodology, and haplogroups frequencies were determined. European influence (mainly due to the male Portuguese settlers, but also the later arrival of Spanish and Italian) is therefore confirmed, given the fact that the most predominant European haplogroup R1b1 is also the most representative haplogroup (53.09%), followed by haplogroup J2 (with not more than 12.35%). The remaining haplogroups have made a minor contribution, between 9.88% and 1.23%, yet very significant."
    Y-chromosome SNP analysis in the Brazilian population of São Paulo state (Ribeirão Preto).
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875176809001309

    "These similarities suggest that South India may have been one of the contributors to the proto-Romanis. European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans."
    Ancestral modal Y-STR haplotype shared among Romani and South Indian populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037811191200563X

    "Sicily has one of the highest frequencies of Haplogroup J2 (M172) in the mediterranean. J2-M172 made up 33% of the Y chromosome signatures on the island and was non-randomly distributed occurring at higher frequencies in the eastern areas of the island. This distinction was evident in the subclades, M67 and M92, which have previously been linked to Greek and proto-greek colonization. Both M67 and M92 were twice as frequent on the eastern portion of Sicily which displays more archaelogical traces from the Greek classic era. Even the paragroup of undistinguished J2 haplotypes (M172) was more than twice as frequent in Eastern Sicily."
    M172 Blog - Y Chromosomes of Sicily, 2008.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/11/y-chromosomes-of-sicily.html

    "Using these analyses, supporters of the demic diffusion model have proposed that families of lineages defined by certain combinations of SNPs, also known as haplogroups (namely E-M35, J-M172, F-M89 and G-M201 for the NRY and J, and T for mtDNA), represent tracers of the diffusion of farmers from the Middle East during the Neolithic. However, most of the subsequent analyses of the NRY highlighted a much more complex scenario than that originally envisaged by the same authors, who then restricted the set of putative tracers of the demic diffusion from the Middle East during the Neolithic period to only specific subclades (E-78; E-M123; J-M172 and its branches defined by the M67 and M102 mutations)."
    A Comparison of Y-Chromosome Variation in Sardinia and Anatolia Is More Consistent with Cultural Rather than Demic Diffusion of Agriculture.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0010419

    "In turn, two distinct haplogroups, J2a1h–M319 and J2a1b1–M92, had demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions to Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete was indicated by the presence of of V13."
    Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf36/36_6.pdf

    "Within India, J2a is more common among the upper castes and decreases in frequency with the cast level."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "Haplogroups R-M17, J-M172, R-M124, and L-M20 are among the most frequent Y lineages in caste groups. They are all significantly more frequent in caste than in tribal groups."
    Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982204000405
    Last edited by RHAS; 25-08-13 at 11:03.

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    "The Neolithic component in the SEE paternal gene pool is most clearly marked by the presence of the J–M241 (more frequent in the Southern Balkans) lineage, and its expansion signals associated with Balkan microsatellite variation correlate with the Neolithic period."
    Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf36/36_6.pdf

    "Rare names are strikingly more likely to share haplogroups than are common names. In the highest-frequency decile, only 7/15 surname pairs share a haplogroup, as opposed to 14/15 for the lowest-frequency decile (p = 0.001). In the high-frequency half of all surname pairs, 47% share a haplogroup, while in the low-frequency half the figure is 69% (p < 0.01). Furthermore, a greater proportion of the sharing observed within the high-frequency half probably occurs by chance, since it is overwhelmingly (91%) in hg R1b, the most prevalent haplogroup in the population. By contrast, in the low-frequency half, only 65% of sharing is within hg R1b, and there are examples of sharing within the rare haplogroups (R1a, G, DE, J2, and K*), which strongly suggests that the sharing is due to common ancestry."
    Genetic Signatures of Coancestry within Surnames.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982206000650

    "Some haplogroups that are rare (,10%) or absent in the controls exist at high frequencies within particular surnames: Examples are hgA1a in R, E1a in Bray, G in ‘‘Wadsworth,’’ J2 in Ketley, T in ‘‘Feakes,’’ Q* in ‘‘Mallinson,’’ R1* in ‘‘Northam,’’ and R1a in ‘‘Swindlehurst’’ (fig. 2a)."
    Founders, Drift, and Infidelity: The Relationship between Y Chromosome Diversity and Patrilineal Surnames.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/5/1093.full.pdf

    "The first axis accounted for 43.71% of the haplogroup frequency variation and clearly separated east European populations from north Mediterranean groups. The second PC encompassed 34.60% of the observed variance and separated most of the north Balkan samples from the rest of European samples. Vector analysis demonstrates that the north Mediterranean cluster is most associated with haplogroups J-M172, E-v13 and R-M269. The east/central European cluster was most influenced by R-M17 while the north Balkan cluster associated mostly with I-P37."
    Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053731

    "In all likelihood, J2a1 originated before the ethnogenesis of the Greeks, and may be associated with multiple population movements from the Greek-Balkan region. However, I believe that it makes better sense to view it as a Balkan-Greek clade than a West-Asian one."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/did-haplogroup-j2a1-originate-in.html

    "The higher frequency of J2 in southern Italy and Sicily compared to northern Italy, is also explained by this theory, as these regions were colonized by Greeks, whereas northern Italy was not."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/did-haplogroup-j2a1-originate-in.html

    "The propagation of J2b and E V-13 correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml

    "Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
    M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html

    "The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml

    "Die Forscher bewegten sich auf ihrer Suche nach Genmaterial von der libanesischen bis zur spanischen Küste und vom Küstengebiet Tunesiens bis zu dem von Italien. Ihre computergestützte Genanalyse ergab, dass viele Männer, die heute in Gebieten leben, wo sich einst Phönizier niedergelassen hatten, die typischen Gensignaturvarianten der Haplogruppe J2 besitzen. Anhand der männlichen DNA-Strukturen wiesen sie nach, dass sich weit verstreute Bevölkerungsschichten rund um das Mittelmeer die Gensignatur der Phönizier teilen."
    Focus.de - Die Gene der Phönizier. (German)
    http://www.focus.de/wissen/mensch/voelkerwanderung-die-gene-der-phoenizier_aid_344997.html

    "Haplogroups common both to the European and Eurasian populations are present in Sicily. The most represented are R1b1c-M269 (24.58%), J2-M172 (15.25%) and E3b1a-M78 (11.44%). The co-occurrence of the Berber E3b1b-M81 (2.12%) and of the Mid-Eastern J1-M267 (3.81%) Hgs together with the presence of E3b1a1-V12, E3b1a3-V22, E3b1a4-V65 (5.5%) support the hypothesis of intrusion of North African genes."
    Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2985948/

    "The northern Y chromosomes on the Comoros, E-V22, E-M123, F*(xF2, GHIJK), G2a, I, J1, J2, L1, Q1a3, R1*, R1a*, R1a1 and R2 (29.7%), make up a diverse group. G2a, J1 and J2 (16.5%) are thought to have originated in the Middle East. J1-M267 has mainly spread south and west into the Arabic Peninsula, and into North and Northeast Africa, whereas J2-M172 lineages have expanded north into Europe and east into Asia."
    Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039498/

    "In addition to the paragroup (J*), there are two major subclades (J1 and J2), which are defined by mutations M267 and M172, respectively. Haplogroup J lineages are found at high frequencies in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India (Hammer et al. 2000, 2001; Underhill et al. 2001; Semino et al. 2002; Behar et al. 2004; Cinnioglu et al. 2004; Sengupta et al. 2006), with haplogroup J-M172 being the most common J haplogroup in Europe, while haplogroup J-M267 predominates in the Middle East, North Africa, and Ethiopia (Semino et al. 2004)."
    New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2336805/

    "The strong western (-0.82) but weak southern (-0.37) orientation of J2 is unexpected if J2 came to Germany from the Balkans, but is consistent with a maritime mode of propagation of this haplogroup. Interestingly, the J2 frequencies in French (5-17.3%), Dutch (6.2%) and Belgian (5.0%) samples all exceed the German average (4.0%), so they are probably consistent with this interpretation. We really need to differentiate between J2a and J2b clades in this area, since J2a may hold the promise of reflecting maritime colonization (as its high frequency in coastal and island southern Europe suggests) or Roman descendants, while J2b may hold the signal of an expansion out of the Balkan area."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2008.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/04/haplogroup-correlations-in-germans.html

    "The majority of the Balkan Hg J Y chromosomes belong to the J-M172 sub-Hg and range from 2% to 20%. Both its main branches, J-M410 and J-M12/M102*, were observed; although the first is scattered in different sub-clades (J-M67, J-M92 and J-DYS445-6) with distinct local patterns, the second is most represented by J-M241."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947100/

    "The phylogeography of the Y-haplogroups found in northeast Indian tribal groups suggests that haplogroups D-M174 and O-M175 and its derivatives are of East/Southeast Asian origin (Underhill et al. 2001), haplogroups H-M52 and F-M89 are of indigenous Indian origin (Cordaux et al. 2004), and haplogroups J-M172, L-M20, R-M17, and R-M124 are associated with Indo-European speakers (Cordaux et al. 2004)."
    The Northeast Indian Passageway: A Barrier or Corridor for Human Migrations?
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/8/1525.full

    "Haplogroups G, E and J have been associated with the contribution of Neolithic farmers to the European gene pool."
    Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n7/full/5200992a.html

    "Haplogroups that likely originate in Eastern and Southern European populations are also present in our U.S. database, including RM17 (3.4%), E-M78 (2.4%), G-P15 (2.4%), and J-M172 (1.5%)."
    Population structure of Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in the United States and forensic implications for constructing Y chromosome STR databases.
    http://hammerlab.biosci.arizona.edu/publications/Hammer_2005.pdf

    "In terms of haplogroup frequencies, the most striking differences among the three populations studied are observed in the J2 and R1 haplogroups. Although 46.2 and 47.8% of the individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, are derived at M172, a frequency of only 9.8% is found in the Lasithi Plateau group. Furthermore, not only does the highland plain record a much lower percentage of J2 individuals, but it is also characterized by a lower level of diversity. While a total of seven and five J2 haplogroup types are detected in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, only two are observed in the Lasithi Plateau group. In the case of the R1 haplogroup, while frequencies of 19.2% and 21.7% are found in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, more than half (56.1%) of the Lasithi Plateau individuals are R1-M306-derived."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

    "In contrast with the results of the above comparisons, both the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations present J2 and R1 frequencies comparable with those previously observed in northeastern Mediterranean locations and even in Libya. Nevertheless, the frequency of J2 in these two Cretan groups is much higher than in mainland Greece, Macedonia and Albania."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

    "Out of the total number of J2 chromosomes in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, 92 and 82% of the samples, respectively, are derived at J2-DYS413. As the CA illustrates, these proportions suggest genetic affinity with groups from the Turkish-Greek area, where this marker is believed to have originated."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

    "The relative expansion times for haplogroup J2-M172 generally correspond with those yielded for R1b-M343, with the exception of Greece and Crete, which, unlike haplogroup R1b-M343, are slightly older than the dates yielded for several of the Near Eastern groups as well as the four Armenian populations."
    Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n3/full/ejhg2011192a.html

    "The results of this study suggest that the majority of Armenian Y-chromosomes belong to lineages believed to have originated and expanded during or following the Neolithic, including E1b1b1c-M123, G-M201, J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1b1-L23."
    Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n3/full/ejhg2011192a.html

    "The clade J2, defined by M172, has it higher frequencies in Anatolia and Mesopotamia, and decreases westwards (Semino et al., 2004). This haplogroup, particularly with its subclade J2a1b1-M92, presents a similar pattern of diffusion of E31b1a-M78 and it is apparently correlated to the Neolithic demic expansion. Some downstream branches, such as J2b-M12 and J2a1b-M67, relatively frequent in Greece, southern Italy and western Turkey are compatible with the influence of the Greek colonization (Di Giacomo et al., 2004)."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

    "The presence of J2 haplotypes in central Italy may be related to the debated hypothesis of an Anatolian origin of the Etruscan people, as suggested by mtDNA analysis on modern and ancient samples (Francalacci et al., 1996; Vernesi et al., 2004; Achilli et al., 2007), although it could be arrived in the region much earlier following the Neolithic expansion."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

    "Northern Italy shows similar frequencies with those of Central Europe, but with the prevalence of the western R1-M173 haplogroup in respect to the eastern I-M170, while E3b1-M35 and J2-M172, have a reduced weight. On the contrary, these two haplogroups are quite common in southern Italy, whereas J2-M172 reaches its higher occurrence in Europe, indicating a significant impact of the gene flow carried out by the Neolithic farmers."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

    "A certain occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region (Achilli et al., 2007)."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

    "A single clade within E-M78 (E-V13) highlights a range expansion in the Bronze Age of southeastern Europe, which is also detected by haplogroup J-M12."
    Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/1300

    "Clade J accounts for 13% of Indian Y chromosomes, almost exclusively because of its subcluster J2, defined by M172. Further, one quarter of the J2 chromosomes share an M12 mutation that shows relatively low background STR diversity over all of India. Interestingly, this marker has a wide geographic distribution and has also been found in polymorphic frequencies in Europe, even as far north as Kola-Saamis (Underhill et al. 1997, 2000; Raitio et al. 2001; Scozzari et al. 2001). Only two samples from Gujarat harbored the M67 mutation that is a relatively common marker at the M172 background, from the Middle East through Pakistan (Underhill et al. 2000)."
    The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707605412

    "Indeed, the age estimates of J*(xJ1d,2)-12f2, G*-M201 and E3b1c*-M123 (Table 5) are consistent with an introduction to Portugal no earlier than the Neolithic. J2*-M172 presents higher age estimates (Table 5) but, judging from its wide variance, this must be a consequence of the coexistence of more than one subclade within this haplogroup (mainly J2-M172 and J2f*-M67, both of Neolithic origin according to Semino et al. 2004) that was not discriminated with the set of Y-SNP markers typed. This set of post-Paleolithic Y chromosomes comprises 17% of the male Portuguese background, a frequency that is smaller than that observed in Italy or Greece for the same component (Semino et al. 2000; Di Giacomo et al. 2003) but higher than in northeastern Europe (Semino et al. 2000; Wells et al. 2001). Within the Portuguese territory, this component is present at 17.5% in the north, 15% in the centre and 20.4% in the south."
    Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00221.x/pdf

    "Nearly all European men can be classified into one of the nine most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroups or clans. Haplogroups are defined by mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The nine most common haplogroups, in alphabetical order, are E3b, G, I1a, I1b1-P37, I1b2-M223, J2, N3, R1a, and R1b."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik1.pdf

    "Central Europe has two separate centres for the Early Farmers’ Haplogroups E+J+G (more precisely those of E3b, J2, and G2): The Hungarian centre with frequencies of about 20% is a reflection of the E+J+G centre in Greece where early farming first arrived from Anatolia and the Middle East. The Hungarian centre and its neighbouring areas in Slovakia and the Czech Republic represent the farmers of the Körös (6000-5500 BCE) and Linearbandkeramik (LBK) (4500-3900 BCE) cultures. The other Central European centre is in Holland. This area represents the other main branch of Early Farmers who expanded from Greece along the Mediterranean coast to the west and came to Central Europe along the Atlantic coast through France."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik1.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 25-08-13 at 11:04.

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    "The Haplogroups E3b, J2 and G of the Early Farmers, occur in Scandinavia, while among the Finns, Karelians, and Saami, these haplogroups are practically non-existent. The sum total of the frequencies of these Haplogroups (E3b+J2+G) is highest (4.3+3.2+0.2 = 7.7%) among the Danes and lower among the Norwegians (2.2+1.3+0= 3.5%) and Swedes (1.6+1.4+0.4 = 3.4%)."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik2.pdf

    "Agriculture started to arrive in Europe about 10 kya. It arrived there in two possible ways, either as demic diffusion or as cultural diffusion or both. If agriculture was brought to Europe by Clans E3b, J2, and G, the men of these clans lived still outside Europe during the Ice Age; they did not live in any of the European refuges, but in the Near East or its vicinity. According to the other possibility, the representatives of these clans lived in the Balkan and/or Ukrainian refuge as early as the Ice Age, and represent the first Europeans to learn how to cultivate soil and raise cattle."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik3.pdf

    "Mertens et al. (2010) found unusually high frequencies of E1b1b (but also J2 and G) in specific areas of the Netherlands: the Noord-Holland province, the Utrecht province and the Groningen province. E1b1b haplogroup accounted for 23.5% (J2 and G both 11.8%) of the population of Noord-Holland, 20% of the population of Utrecht province (J2 too 20%, G absent) and 14.3% of the population of Groningen province (J2 and G both absent), while in other provinces these haplogroups were not found or were found at much lower frequencies."
    Anthropology Blog - The Frisii of Roman times: remnants of a pre-IE population?
    http://tsanthropologyblog.blogspot.nl/2013/06/the-frisii-of-roman-times-remnants-of.html

    "The haplogroups E3b1, G, J1, J2, I1b, R1a1, and R1b3, most common in the Dniester-Carpathian region, are also common in European and Near Eastern populations."
    Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms.
    http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5868/1/Varzari_Alexander.pdf

    "Haplogroup J2-M172 was proved the most common variant both in the European populations and in the majority of the Dniester-Carpathian samples (Di Giacomo et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004), with the majority of lineages belonging to J2*-M172."
    Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms.
    http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5868/1/Varzari_Alexander.pdf

    "Among these J2-M172 subclades, J2e1-M102 is more frequent in Szeklers (7.2%) than in Hungarians (4.0%), while the undifferentiated J2-M172* Y chromosomes are slightly more common in Hungarian population (8% vs. 3.1%). The overall frequency of J2-M172 in the two populations (Hungarian: 13%; Szekler: 11.3%) is in the same order of magnitude as reported for Czechs and Slovaks (Semino et al., 2000), Romanians, Bulgarians (Di Giacomo et al. 2004) and Ukrainians (Semino et al. 2004)."
    Y-Chromosome Analysis of Ancient Hungarian and Two Modern Hungarian-Speaking Populations from the Carpathian Basin.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00440.x/full

    "Haplogroup J2-M172 is more prevalent in Europe than the J1 clade. Among its subclades J2e-M12 and J2f-M67 and their derivatives are found in Europe and in Asia (Semino et al., 2004). J2e-M12 is almost totally represented by its sublineage, J2e1-M102, which shows its maximum frequency in the southern Balkans and north-central Italy; it may have diffused from the former (Semino et al., 2004). J2f*-M67 is also a widespread clade which is most frequent in the Caucasus, whereas its derivative J2f1-M92 indicates affinity between Anatolia and southern Italy and is predominantly found in the northern Mediterranean from Turkey westward (Di Giacomo et al., 2004; Semino et al., 2004)."
    Y-Chromosome Analysis of Ancient Hungarian and Two Modern Hungarian-Speaking Populations from the Carpathian Basin.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00440.x/full

    "There are several frequency variations across Eurasia. The first is that of the M89 lineages (including M89, M170, and M172), which distinguishes between the western and eastern extremes of the continent. It is noteworthy that M172 is a major subset of the 12f2 8kb allele, which has been attributed to the spread of farming from the Near East."
    The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC56946/

    "The geographical origins of many of these HGs are still debated. However, the associated high frequencies and haplotype variances of HGs H-M69, F*-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124 and C5-M356 within India, have been interpreted as evidence of an autochthonous origins of these lineages during late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), while the lower frequency within the subcontinent of J2-M172, E-M96, G-M201 and L3-M357 are viewed as reflecting probable gene flow introduced from West Eurasian Holocene migrations in the last 10 Kya."
    Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050269

    "Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic, 2008.
    http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF

    "An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full


    "In turn, two distinctive haplogroups, J2a1h-M319 and J2a1b1-M92, have demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions in Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete is indicated by relative frequencies of V13."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

    "Inspection of Figure 2 results shows that Crete has a high frequency of haplogroup J2a-M410 (25.9%) with Lerna/Franchthi Cave (14.1%) and Sesklo/Dimini (8.8%) having intermediate frequencies of J2a."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

    "Haplogroup J2b-M12, the offsetting companion clade of J2a-M410, shows a trend of decreasing frequency from north to south, from 7% and 8.8% at Nea Nikomedeia and Sesklo, respectively, to 1.8% at Lerna/Franchthi Cave and 3.1% in Crete."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

    "Vector analysis (not shown) demonstrates that the Balkan cluster is most associated with haplogroups J2b-M12, E3b1a-M78, I-M170 and R1a1-M17."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

    "On the other hand, in Greece, the most frequent J2 haplogroup is J2b-M12 that is however rare (1.7%) in Anatolia (Cinnioğlu et al., 2004)."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

    "The Thessalian and Greek Macedonian samples exhibit a high frequency (7–9%) of J2b-M12 with an approximate expansion time dating to the Neolithic era of c. 5000BC (Table 2). Previous work on the Balkans (Peričić et al., 2005; Marjanovic et al., 2005) regarding the frequency of J2b-M12 is consistent with our observations in Greece."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

    "Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of haplogroup J-M172."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "According to Di Giacomo’s (2004) study, the high diversity of haplogroup J2 in Turkish and southern European populations suggests that this branch of haplogroup J originated around the Aegean, not the Middle East. Additionally, it appears that much of J2 was confined to the coastal Mediterranean areas, indicating that maritime trade, rather than earlier Neolithic agricultural expansions, may have helped spread J2 throughout the Mediterranean world."
    A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

    "Overall, the most frequent haplogroups in the Caucasus were G2a3b1-P303 (12%), G2a1a-P18 (8%), J1*-M267(xP58) (34%), and J2a4b*-M67(xM92) (21%), which together encompassed 73% of the Y chromosomes, while the other 24 haplogroups identified in our study comprise the remaining 27%."
    Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355373/


    "The two haplogroups most strongly associated with Albanian people (E-V13 and J2b) are often considered to have arrived in Europe from the Near East with the Neolithic revolution or late Mesolithic, early in the Holocene epoch. From here in the Balkans, it is thought, they spread to the rest of Europe."
    Wikipedia.org - Origins of the Albanians.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_the_Albanians


    "Again, haplogroup J2a4b*-M67(xM92) comprised 51-79% of the Y chromosomes in the Ingush and three Chechen populations (North-East Caucasus, Nakh linguistic group), while, in the rest of the Caucasus, its frequency was not higher than 9% (average 3%)."
    Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355373/

    "Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Malta : R1 (35.55% including 32.2% R1b), J (28.90% including 21.10% J2), I (12.20%), E (11.10% including 8.9% E1b1b), F (6.70%), K (4.40%), P (1.10%). Haplogroup R1 , E1b1b, J2 and I are typical in European populations. J1, K, F haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe. The low percentages of J1 are similar to the Sicilian population, suggesting common ancestry with Sicilians and negligible genetic input from both North Africa and the Middle East."
    Wikipedia.org - Maltese People.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltese_people

    "Timur Serdar and Demircin Sema authored a recent study on the Y chromosomes of Antalya, which is located on the southern coast of Anatolia. Haplogroup J2 was most frequent in this study of 75 unrelated males found at a frequency of 26.6%. The J2 data was consistent with an earlier study by Cinnioglu et al which found 24% J2 in southern Anatolia. Haplogroup T (K* in the study) was next most frequent at 13.3% and this data differed from Cinnioglu's data which found only 3.3% Haplogroup K in southern Anatolia. The first record of Antalya was as Attalia, a greek city founded approximately 150BC by Attalos II, King of Pergamon."
    M172 Blog - Haplogroup J2, M172 in Antalya, Turkish Republic, 2009.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/haplogroup-j2-m172-in-antalya-turkish.html

    "The Y-chromosome haplogroups of Antalya population were defined by these 18 Y-SNP polymorphic loci and the frequencies and the distribution of haplogroups were determined. J2*(xJ2F2) (26.6%), K*(xN3,O,P) (13.3%), E3b (9.3%), F*(xH,I,J,K) (8%), R1a1*(xR1a1b) (8%), R1b*(xR1b1, R1b6, R1b8) (8%), P*(xQ3a,R1) (8%) haplogroups were identified as the most abundant in Antalya population. These haplogroups are reported as widespread also in European and neighboring Near Eastern populations."
    Y-SNP haplogroups in the Antalya population in Turkish Republic.
    http://www.rjlm.ro/doc/08-y-snphaplogroupsintheantalyapopulation.pdf

    "In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."
    Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
    http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia

    "As we know Phoenicia eventually became Lebanon, and it is interesting to note that recent genetic studies have verified a DNA link between those ancient Phoenicians and the modern day inhabitants of Lebanon. The geneticists tell us that the Y-Chromosome genetic marker passed down only from male progenitor. What is also known is that haplogroup J2 (M172) is point of reference for Phoenician ancestry."
    Kisses from a Distance: An Immigrant family experience.
    http://books.google.nl/books?id=XfvuZeRUEckC

    "The historical diffusion of Phoenicians, who were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea in the first millennium BC, was studied by the same research group (Zalloua et al., 2008a). Comparing Y chromosomes from samples drawn in their Lebanese homeland and in former Phoenician colonies all over the Mediterranean, the authors identified hg J2, in general, and six Y STR haplotypes, in particular, that accounted for about 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined."
    The History and Geography of the Y Chromosome SNPs in Europe: an update.
    http://www.isita-org.com/jass/Contents/2010vol88/PDFonline/20834059.pdf

    "Di Giacomo’s (2004) study emphasized that J2 is "Mediterranean" or "Aegean" rather than "Semitic" in character. It is found predominately in northern Mediterranean and Turkish populations, differentiating the Aegean area from the Middle East in its haplogroup J results. Going further, the researchers maintained that certain sub-clades of J2 appear to have originated well after the beginning of the Neolithic revolution and around the Aegean, spreading out to the rest of Europe during the expansion of the Greek world. It is this final idea – that much of J2 is European in origin rather than Middle Eastern – that complicates the interpretation of Jewish J2 results. Sub-clade J-M102* originated in the southern part of the Balkans and is generally absent in Middle Eastern populations (Semino et al. 2004). Ashkenazim have a 1.2% frequency of J-M102 and Sephardim have 2.4%. These results argue in favor of European gene flow into the Jewish community."
    A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

    "EEJ are Europeans probably of Roman descent who converted to Judaism at times, when Judaism was the first monotheistic religion that spread in the ancient world. Any other theory about their origin is not supported by the genetic data. Future studies will have to address their genetic affinities to various Italian populations and examine the possibility of other components both European and Non-European in their gene pool."
    The origin of Eastern European Jews revealed by autosomal, sex chromosomal and mtDNA polymorphisms.
    http://www.biologydirect.com/content/5/1/57#B10

    "A recent analysis of nine Y-chromosome markers defining haplogroups A, DE, G2, I, J, P*, and R1a revealed a high degree of heterogeneity within the island of Crete. Their study uncovered that, although more than 96% of males in the Cretan prefectures of Chania, Rethymno and Heraklion can be assigned to the tested haplogroups, only 82% of the Y chromosomes in Lasithi were derived at those markers. An analysis of J2 chromosomes from Crete, similarly revealed additional examples of diversity within the island."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

    "The contribution of the Central Asian genetics to the modern Turkish people has been debated and become the subject of several studies. As a result, several studies have concluded that the historical (pre-Islamic) and indigenous Anatolian groups are the primary source of the present-day Turkish population, in addition to neighboring peoples, such as Balkan peoples, and central Asian Turkic people."
    Genetic history of the Turkish people.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_the_Turkish_people

    "Haplogroup J (J2-M172): The frequency peak is found in Dardanians (15.02%) and Taulanti (14.30%), decreasing in Liburni (10.90%), Veneti (9.60%) and Japodes (6.67%), reaching rather low values in Delmatae (2.09%) and Autariates (1.40%). It is absent in Noricum and the area of Histri."
    Language Bounderies and Microevolutionary processes in South-Eastern Europe.
    http://www.anthroinsula.org/resources/Iliri-english%20text%20version.pdf

    "IE-speaking Iranians have largely the same haplogroups as Arabs, but a much higher representation of haplogroup J2 compared to J1. The converse is true for all Arabs except the Lebanese. But, we do know, that even in Lebanon itself, Muslims have a higher J1/J2 ratio than Christians, and Islam was the main vehicle of Arabization in the region. The Christians are descended from the pre-Arab Byzantine Greco-Aramaic populations."
    Coastal-inland differences in Y chromosomes of the Levant.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2009/08/coastal-inland-differences-in-y.html

    "Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks."
    Citizendia.org - Haplogroup J.

    http://www.citizendia.org/Haplogroup_J_(Y-DNA)

    "Results derived from analysis of the non-recombining portion of the Y- chromosomes (NRY) produced, at least initially, similar gradients to the classic demic diffusion hypothesis. Two significant studies were Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000, which identified Haplogroup J2 and E1b1b (formerly E3b) as the putative genetic signatures of migrating Neolithic farmers from Anatolia, and therefore represent the Y-chromosomal components of a Neolithic demic diffusion. This association was strengthened when King and Underhill (2002) found that there was a significant correlation between the distribution of Hg J2 and Neolithic painted pottery in European and Mediterranean sites."
    Wikipedia.com - Neolithic Europe.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic_Europe

    "The Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans all contributed to the presence of J2a in Iberia. The particulary strong frequency of J2a and other Near Eastern haplogroups (J1, E1b1b, T) in the south of the Iberian peninsula, suggest that the Phoenicians and the Carthagians played a more decisive role than other peoples."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations."
    FamilytreeDNA - SNP Certificate (Haplogroup J2).
    http://www.familytreedna.com/

    "Because of your J2a1b association, it’s possible your ancestors may have been members of populations which specifically expanded from Anatolia to the Greek island of Crete between 8500 and 4300 BC."
    Ancestry.com - Paternal Ancestry Certificate.
    http://www.ancestry.com/

    "The J2 haplogroup can be found in today’s populations with notable frequency in Italy, Iberia, Turkey, Albania, Greece and even India, and most likely interacted with numerous cultures, including the Greeks and Romans."
    Ancestry.com - Paternal Ancestry Certificate.
    http://www.ancestry.com/

    "Previously, the presence of Haplogroups J, E3b, and G among Jews was interpreted as additional evidence of Middle Eastern or Israelite ancestry in much the same fashion as the Cohanim Modal Haplotype. However, recent studies demonstrate that their origin is uncertain. Unfortunately, misinformation about these haplogroups continues to pervade the public and media. Haplogroup E3b is often incorrectly described as African, leaving a misimpression regarding the origin and complex history of this haplogroup. Haplogroup J2, as previously discussed, is often incorrectly equated with J1 and described as Jewish or Semitic, despite the fact that it is present in a variety of non-Jewish Mediterranean and Northern European populations."
    A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

    "J2 has a higher representation than its sister clade in Madeira, the Acores and South Portugal. Turkey and the Aegean areas are supposed to have acted as a secondary source for this originally Middle- Eastern haplogroup (DiGiacomo et al. 2004), from where it spread to Europe. An association with Greek and/or Phoenician eras should also be considered in Portugal."

    Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Acores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry.
    http://www3.uma.pt/abrehm/v1.1/docs/downloads/pdfs/Goncalves_Y_Portugal_AnnHumGenet2005.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 24-08-13 at 02:35.

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    "The unique colonization pattern of the Phoenicians and the isolation of some of their colonies (Ibiza, Sardinia, Malta) have made it easy to identify their genetic signature. The Phoenician population was already very mixed 3000 years ago : E-V22, J1, J2, J2a4b, J2a4b1, G2a, R1a and R1b1a. E-V22 and R1b1a are quite specific to Levantines (Syrians, Lebanese, Druzes, Jews, Palestinians)."
    Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations

    "I-P37 and J-M12 are dated to 1,100BC and 1,200BC, at around the time that e.g. the Phrygians from the Balkans are believed to have migrated to Asia Minor. I-P37 and J-M12 reach their maxima in areas north of Greece where the Phrygians are said to have originated."
    How Y-STR variance accumulates: a comment on Zhivotovsky, Underhill and Feldman (2006).
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/07/how-y-str-variance-accumulates-comment.html

    "From about 700 BCE, the Etruscans settled around Tuscany and the Greeks in southern Italy. Etruscans probably came from Palestine and brought haplogroups J1, J2 and E with them. The Greeks in Italy were Doric and brought J2, E, G2a and probably more R1b (see above). The Romans progressively absorbed the Etruscans and Italian Greeks and mixed with them. By the time of Julius Caesar Roman citizens were probably composed of 45% of R1b, 20% of J, 15% of E, 15% of G2a and 5% of I2a."
    Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations

    "Haplogroups in Wallonia show the expected admixture of Gallo-Roman (R1b-S28, J2, G2a, E1b1b) and Germanic (R1b-S21,I1,I2b) haplogroups."
    Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project, Benelux & France.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelux_france_dna_project.shtml

    "Gascony, at the opposite end of France, has unsurprisingly the lowest percentage of haplogroups associated with Greco-Danubian Neolithic farmers. Only J2 is present in relatively high number there, and the near absence of E, G and T suggest an early colonization from southern Greece (Crete?), or possibly by Romans from Central Italy."
    Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project, Benelux & France.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelux_france_dna_project.shtml

    "Haplogroup J2 frequency has been correlated with aspects of the symbolic material culture of the Neolithic in Europe and the Near East (painted pottery and ceramic figurines) and sub-Haplogroups of J2 have also been associated with the Neolithic colonization of mainland Greece, Crete and southern Italy."
    The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean.
    http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69

    "The analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups revealed a strong genetic affinity of Euboea with Anatolian and Middle-eastern populations, while the Korinthia District population shows a closer affinity with Balkan populations. The inferences of the time at which population expansion started suggests an earlier evidence of usage of agriculture in Euboea. Moreover, the haplogroup J2a-M410, supposed to be associated with the spread of the Neolithic lifestyle from the Middle-east, was observed at higher frequency and variance in Euboea showing, for both these parameters, a decreasing gradient moving from this area. The time since expansion estimates for J2a-M410 was found to be compatible with the Neolithic transition in Greece and slightly older in Euboea."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf


    "The first studies performed for Y-chromosome (Rosser et al., 2000; Semino et al., 2004) produced, for certain haplogroups (J2-M172 and E1b-M78), gradients similar to the classical demic diffusion hypothesis, supporting the "Wave-of-advance" model. Subsequent studies have restricted the list of haplogroups that could be taken as markers of the Neolithic transition in Europe, pointing to the J2-M172 and G2a-P15 lineages (Cinnioglu et al., 2004). In the last few years several studies approached the issue of the Neolithic impact in Europe. Sengupta and colleagues in 2006 and subsequently, King et al. (2008) suggested the haplogroups J2a-M410 as the main haplogroup linked to the Neolithic spread from the Middle-east."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "Both the sub-branches of haplogroup J2-M172 (J2a-M410 and J2b-M102) are found in the two Greek regions. The main branch is J2a-M410, a higher frequency of this haplogroup is observed for Euboea (15.6%) rather than Korinthia (10.9%). The inner structure of J2a-M410 reveals that the main branch for Euboea is J2a-M67, which accounts for the 40% of the total J2a-M410 haplotypes while the majority of the Korinthia haplotypes (75%) falls within the J2a-M67 and J2a-DYS445≤7 branches. The sister clade of J2a-M410, J2b-M102 shows a higher frequency in Euboea (9.4%), with the majority of haplotypes belonging to the J2b-M241 sub-branch (77.8%). On the other hand Korinthia shows a frequency of haplogroup J2b-M241 of 5.5%, with all haplotypes belonging to the J2b-M241 lineage."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "The majority of the haplogroups (R1a-M17, G2a-P15, I2-M438, J1-M267 and J2b-M102) shows times since expansion which ranges from approximately 4,5Kya to 2,7Kya, compatible with Bronze Age and the development of the Helladic civilizations, more specifically with the spread of Mycenaean culture (Montjoy 1998)."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "Vector analysis (data not shown) demonstrates that the Greek/Balkan cluster is more associated with haplogroups I2-M438, J2b-M102 and R1a-M17; on the other hand, the Anatolia/Middle-east cluster is more associated with haplogroups J2a-M410, J1-M267, G-M201 and R1b-M269."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "For all who are members of, or interested in Y-DNA haplogroup J2, made up of paternal-line descendants who share the M172 mutation. J2 is commonly found among peoples of the Mediterranean and northern Middle East. Major branches are J2a and J2b."
    GenealogyWise - Haplogroup J2.
    http://www.genealogywise.com/group/ydnahaplogroupj2

    "Haplogroup J2 among Jews has been erroneously interpreted in the past as exclusively Israelite or Middle Eastern in origin. Among Ashkenazim, J2 occurs among 23.2% of the population, while Sephardim have 28.6% (Semino et al. 2004). While these percentages are nearly identical to Iraqi (22.4%) and Lebanese (25%) groups, they are also comparable to Greek (20.6%), Georgian (26.7%), Albanian (19.6%), Italian (20-29%), and to a lesser extent, French Basque (13.6%) populations (Semino et al. 2004)."
    A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

    "In Bosnia-Herzegovina Y chromosomes belonging to J are found mainly in the Bosniacs who, interestingly, harbour almost all the known J sub-clades (Semino et al. 2004). These are: J-M267, which has been associated with the Arab expansions; J-M92, which suggests genetic links between Anatolia and southern Italy; J-M67, which is frequent in the Caucasus; and finally J-M102, which shows frequency peaks in the southern Balkans and central-southern Italy. The last, however, appears to be more represented in the Serbs (6.2%). Thus, overall a higher extent of gene flow could have occurred in the Bosniacs, while the Croats, in whom a single undifferentiated J-M172 Y chromosome was encountered, were probably the group in which genetic drift and founder events played the most important role, as already suggested by the extremely high frequency of I-P37."
    The Peopling of Modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome Haplogroups in the Three Main Ethnic Groups.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00190.x/full

    "Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."
    Genetic makeup of the Balkans.
    http://www.bosniafacts.info/science-and-geography/genetic-makeup-of-the-balkans


    "In this study, we examine, for the first time, the Y-chromosome constitution of the general Serbian population. A total of 103 individuals were sampled and their DNA analyzed for 104 Y-chromosome bi-allelic markers and 17 associated STR loci. Our results indicate that approximately 58% of Serbian Y-chromosomes (I1-M253, I2a-P37.2 and R1a1a-M198) belong to lineages believed to be pre-Neolithic. On the other hand, the signature of putative Near Eastern Neolithic lineages, including E1b1b1a1-M78, G2a-P15, J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1a2-M269 accounts for 39% of the Y-chromosome."
    High levels of Paleolithic Y-chromosome lineages characterize Serbia.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310393

    "The genetic mutation founding the J2b subclade is thought to have originated in Greece (or possibly in Anatolia) and to correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence (sources: Eupedia and Romans at Stonehenge from standing stones to cosmic pillars)."
    Is there a deep history Sumerian connection or Near Eastern layer to Japanese prehistory?
    http://japanesemythology.wordpress.com/2011/10/26/is-there-a-deep-history-sumerian-connection-or-layer-to-japanese-history/

    "The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians."
    Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.
    http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v55/n5/abs/jhg201030a.html

    "We show that the majority of the CAS- and WE-related genetic contribution to NEAS occurred much earlier than the time of ancient Silk Road. However, in the NEAS populations, the impact of the ancient Silk Road can also be reflected by the sporadic appearance of the minor CSA- and WE-related haplogroups, such as E-SRY4064, C5-M356, I-M170, J2a2*-M67, Jab2-M241, and T-M70, which had not have enough time to accumulate within-haplogroup genetic diversity."
    Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/717.full

    "It should be noted that J2 reaches its highest rate of frequency in Han China at 2.86%. It is speculated that this frequency is due to "trade relations along the Silk Road" ["Haplogroups J/J2"]. It appears that the incidences in both Okinawa and China are unrelated, since the Chinese/Honshu affinity does not demonstrate a significant incidence on the Japanese mainland, the population of which is demonstrably higher than that of Okinawa."
    The Genetic Affinity Between Cretans and Okinawans.
    http://kanashi.net/2011/12/21/the-genetic-affinity-between-cretans-and-okinawans/

    "In western China, in the Xinjiang region, the population, while east Asian, has sometimes European characteristics. Genetic testings have corroborated the presence of west Eurasian genes in the population (for instance, subclades of the Y-DNA haplogroups R1a, R1b and J2, genetic signatures frequently found in Europe (and west Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups as well)."
    Through the mist of the past - Xinjiang.
    http://pastmists.wordpress.com/2010/05/12/xinjiang/

    "As genetic study of man (R1a, J2, O2a), cow, mouse, pig, goat, rice and barley all gravitate towards India, there should be no doubt now that farming and Aryan languages originated and spread from India."
    The First Civilization of the World.
    http://priyadarshi101.wordpress.com/2010/11/15/the-first-civilization-of-the-world

    "Another major lineage within the J clade is J2-M172,which ranges from 0 to 30% in Europe. In our Andalusian samples, this lineage occurs at frequencies of 5–6%, whereas in other Iberian populations, J2 varies from 3% (in the Basque area) to 15% (in southern Portugal). In Sicily, J2 is one of the most represented Y-chromosome J sub-haplogroups, being found at frequencies of 15% on the eastern side and 7% on the western side of the island."
    Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
    http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

    "Given the particular phylogeographical pattern of J2a across the Mediterranean as well as in Middle Eastern and western-central Asian populations, some authors have interpreted this scenario as being associated, at least in part, with the spread of agriculture. However, others have proposed that the J2a1b lineage might have emerged in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion of the Greek world, including the European coast of the Black Sea."
    Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
    http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

    "The distribution pattern of J2b within Europe is parallel to that observed for E-V13. Both of these account for more than one-fourth of the chromosomes currently found in the southern Balkans, highlighting the strong demographic impact of the expansion in the area, particularly during the Bronze Age."
    Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
    http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

    "Parys Mountain is one of only three sites in Wales which have evidence of copper mining during the Bronze and Roman Ages."
    BBC News - DNA test to prove Bronze Age link.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/north_west/8007969.stm

    "This type of genetic make-up is usually found in the eastern Mediterranean which made us think that there might have been strong connections between north-east Wales and this part of Europe somewhere in the past."
    BBC News - 'Extraordinary' genetic make-up of north-east Wales men.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-north-east-wales-14173910

    "With respect to the Romans and the Visigoths, Romans appear not differ much genetically from the Iberians, particularly in relation to the Y chromosome, such that the gene frequencies of the population would not have changed much due to these invaders."
    Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
    http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

    "The present study proposes that the majority of the genetic haplogroups present at this date (2300 BC) in Jutland would have been I1 (mostly I1-M253, but an unknown percentage of the I-M223 variety) and R-P312* with R-U106 plus a sprinkling of R1a1-M17; and a modicum (e.g., 6% each) of E3b-M78 and J2-M172 representing migrants who may have arrived with the early agriculturalists from the Balkans."
    The Cimbri of Denmark, the Norse and Danish Vikings, and Y-DNA Haplogroup R-S28/U152 - (Hypothesis A).
    http://www.davidkfaux.org/Cimbri-Chronology.pdf

    "The project contains people from 4 distinct haplogroups. The first group (oldest SNP) is haplogroup I2b1 with ancient origins in the NorthWestern region of Europe known as Fennoscandia consisting of Norway, Sweden and Finland. The second oldest haplogroup represented is J2, whose origins are believed to be about 18,000 years old in an area around the current Asia-Europe border."
    Cloud DNA Project.
    http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Cloud_DNA_Project

    "De verdeling der hoofdhaplogroepen met ruwweg hun plaats van ontstaan en de afgelegde weg: R1b: 145 57,31 % directe afstammelingen van de Cro-Magnons. I1: 030 11,86 % Balkan, Centraal Europa, Scandinavië. I2: 027 10,67 % Caucasus, Balkan, gebied van ex-Joegoslavië. E1: 016 06,32 % Noord-Afrika, Middellandse Zeegebied. J2: 011 04,35 % Mesopotamië, Feniciërs, Grieken, Zuid-Italië, (Romeinen)."
    Familiekunde Vlaanderen - Jaarverslag 2009. (Dutch)
    http://www.familiekunde-vlaanderen.be/system/files/Famvlaan%20Jaarverslag%202009.pdf

    "Previous Y-chromosome genetic studies of Phoenician colonization have demonstrated that haplogroup J2 frequency was amplified in regions containing the Phoenician colonies of Iberia and North Africa in comparison to areas not containing Phoenician colonies."
    The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean.
    http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69

    "This blog is dedicated to those who carry the J2 "Y" DNA Haplogroup, with a focus on J2a4h2, also known as J-L25. Our "Y" Chromosome is inherited from father to son. Our paternal ancestors will also have the same signature. "J2 originated in northern Mesopotamia, and spread westward to Anatolia and southern Europe, and eastward to Persia and India. J2 is related to the Ancient Etruscans, (Minoan) Greeks, southern Anatolians, Phoenicians, Assyrians and Babylonians."
    J2a4h Blog - J2a4h2 YHaplogroup J-L25 DNA.
    http://j2a4h2.blogspot.nl/2012/04/haplogroup-j2-y-dna.html

    "Sicily is an island which had well-documented and not insignificant settlements by both Greeks and Phoenicians. Moreover, these settlements were geographically divided: Greeks in the East, Phoenicians in the West. It is in the East that J2 has its highest frequency, and not in the Phoenician West."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2008.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/10/phoenician-y-chromosomes.html


    "From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined. Our methodology can be applied to any historically documented expansion in which contact and noncontact sites can be identified."
    Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/10/phoenician-y-chromosomes.html

    "Many people new to Genetic Genealogy think the J2 haplogroup is synonymous with having male Jewish ancestry. One should note that having a J2 haplogroup assignment does not necessarily indicate Jewish ancestry. The J2 haplogroup is far more ancient than the Jewish religion and is found in many lines with Mediterranean region ancient ancestry. Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."
    Worldfamilies.net - Y-DNA Haplogroups.
    http://www.worldfamilies.net/yhaplogroups

    "In deze studie wordt een tot nu toe niet bekende concentratie van de haplogroepen J in oostelijk Brabant aangetroffen. Het betreft hier voornamelijk J2 en oude, gevestigde families. Het is niet onmogelijk dat hier sprake is van families van nazaten van ´Romeinse´soldaten. Ook in het grensgebied van Engeland en Schotland is een concentratie van J2 families gevonden. In dat gebied zijn ook resten van tempels van de Iraanse god Mitras bekend en blijkt er een boogschuttereenheid uit het Midden/Oosten gelegerd geweest te zijn. Romeinse aanwezigheid in het land van Cuijck en aan de randen van de Peel (de naam is afkomstig van de naam die de Romeinen aan het gied gaven: Locus Paludosus ofwel moerassige streek) is bekend, zoals ook landmetingen van militairen die zich er gevestigd hadden en landbouw bedreven."
    Project Genetische Genealogie in Nederland. (Dutch)
    http://www.barjesteh.nl/DNAproject.htm

    "Het eerste jaar heeft tal van verrassingen opgeleverd. Via de gevonden DNA-profielen konden een aantal families aan elkaar gekoppeld worden, die voor het project nog niet van een onderlinge band wisten. Verrassend was voor tal van deelnemers ook de diepere oorsprong van de familie. Een oorsprong die bijvoorbeeld mogelijk te vinden is bij de zich in onze gebieden gevestigd hebbende soldaten uit het Romeinse leger."
    Heemkundekring Weerderheem - Project Genetische Genealogie in Nederland. (Dutch)
    http://www.weerderheemvalkenswaard.nl/pdf/webpublicaties-dna.pdf

    "Nog een aardigheidje voor Oost-Brabant: daar is een relatieve concentratie van haplogroep J gevonden. Volgens genetisch genealogen zijn die mensen waarschijnlijk nazaten van de oude Romeinen, gelegerd in Noviomagus (Nijmegen) of rond Locus Paludosus (De Peel)."
    Eindhovens Dagblad - Veel DNA komt uit Spanje en Scandinavië. (Dutch)
    http://www.ed.nl/regio/4449996/Veel-DNA-komt-uit-Spanje-en-Scandinavie.ece

    "Uit haplogroep J onstond zo'n 10.000 geleden de haplogroep J2 (M172) die een uitloper naar Italië heeft. Nu blijkt dat er in N.O.-Brabant een cluster J2 zit, zo tegen de Maas aan. Verder is er een cluster J2 te vinden bij de muur van Hadrianus in Engeland. Een snelle conclusie is dan dat deze J2-voorouders van Nevenzel en Volkerink afstammen van (huur)soldaten uit het Romeinse leger, die aan de limes waren gelegerd."
    De haplogroep van de probandi Nevenzel en Volkerink. (Dutch)
    http://www.nevenzel.com/DNA.htm

    "Een van de vermoedens daarbij is dat de Romeinen groepen uit het Midden Oosten naar het grensgebied van het Romeinse Rijk brachten. Deze hogere percentages van deze groepen zouden hierdoor veroorzaakt kunnen worden. In het boek "zonen van Adam in Nederland" wordt dit als volgt geformuleerd: In deze studie wordt een tot nu toe niet bekende concentratie van de haplogroepen J in oostelijk Brabant aangetroffen. Het betreft hier voornamelijk J2 en oude, gevestigde families. Het is niet onmogelijk dat hier sprake is van families van nazaten van Romeinse soldaten. Ook in het grensgebied van Engeland en Schotland is een concentratie van J2 families gevonden. In dat gebied zijn ook resten van tempels van de Iraanse god Mitras bekend en blijkt er een boogschuttereenheid uit het Midden Oosten gelegerd geweest te zijn. Romeinse aanwezigheid in het land van Cuijck en aan de randen van de Peel (de naam is afkomstig van de naam die de Romeinen aan het gebied gaven: Locus Paludosus ofwel moerassige streek) is bekend, zoals ook landmetingen van militairen die zich er gevestigd hadden en landbouw bedreven."
    Penninx.nl - Pennings Genografie. (Dutch)
    http://www.penninx.nl/genografie/pennings-genografie.html
    Last edited by RHAS; 25-08-13 at 11:04.

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    "Cruciani et al.’s E-V13 and J2-M12 coalescence times bear a striking similarity to carbon-14-based date calculations for certain archaeological sites in the Maritsa river valley and its tributaries, near the city of Nova Zagora, Bulgaria (Nilolova, 2002). These sites are associated directly with the proto-Thracian culture of the southern Balkans that came to dominate the region during the first millennium BCE. Sites surveyed included Ezero, Yunatsite, Dubene-Sarovka and Plovdiv-Nebet Tepe, all of which had deep associations with the developing EBA proto-Thracian culture of the region."
    Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin.
    http://www.jogg.info/32/bird.htm

    "The congruence between frequency distributions, shape of the networks, pair-wise haplotypic differences and coalescent estimates point to a single evolutionary event at the basis of the distribution of haplogroups E-V13 and J-M12 within Europe, a finding never appreciated before."
    Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf

    "It is important to note that at least four additional YDNA markers may have arrived with the Romans. What have been described as the Balkan group (E-V13), the Ancient Caucasians (G-S314), the Herdsman-Farmers (J-M172 – and a sub-group of this, M67, looks particularly Italian) and the Anatolian marker (R1b-M269*), when taken together, potentially add another 2.3 million Englishmen and Welshmen who could trace their fatherlines to the veterans of the II Augusta, the IX Hispana, the XIV Gemina, the XX Valeria Victrix and the other Italians who crossed to Britain in their wake."
    BritainsDNA Press Releases - BritainsDNA finds the Lost Legions.
    http://www.britainsdna.com/about/press-releases

    "Moffat said his colleagues had also discovered DNA originating from Roman-period Illyria, the area occupied by modern Croatia, which may relate to Roman occupation of lowland Scotland."
    The Guardian - Scotland DNA Study Project.
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/aug/15/scotland-dna-study-project

    "Of course, there are more ways for J2b2 members to have spread to the areas highlighted on the J2b2 heatmap as being suggested in this paper, it is interesting however to see how easily all these regions are connected through Greek, Macedonian and/or Thracian mythology, history and migrations."
    Analysis of the J2b2 M241 Geno 2.0 Heatmap. Comparing historical data with heatmap hotspots.
    https://www.facebook.com/download/467207646662545/Analysis%20of%20the%20J2b2%20M241%20Geno%202.0%20H eatmap.docx

    "Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks."
    Romanian History and Culture.
    http://romanianhistoryandculture.webs.com/modernromaniansydna.htm

    "This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. J2 is found in Britain, but rarely. It is most common in Eastern European countries, leading to speculation that it is either from gypsy background or, possibly, from Eastern European soldiers stationed in Britain during the Roman occupation in the first three centuries AD."
    Scotland DNA Project.
    http://www.ourfamilyorigins.com/scotland/j2.htm

    "J2 has been traced back to the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that comprises territory in northwestern Iraq and Iran, eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. One theory offered for the presence of J2 in northern England is the presence of Roman auxiliary soldiers stationed on Hadrian's Wall. It has been suggested that the original J2 ancestor of our Robson member may have been a Sarmatian horseman in the Roman legions."
    Robson/Robeson/Robison Family DNA Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Robson/

    "The very name "Van Santen" means "from" or "of" Santen. The only Santen found (now known as "Xanten") is an ancient walled German town with a strong Roman history, at one time strategically located on the Rhine river (the river has since altered course somewhat). My genealogy is well-documented to the early 1500's from where my earliest known ancestor had settled by the 16th Century, near the mouth of the same Rhine river, and the furthest west one could have gone short of crossing the channel to England."
    Van Santen DNA Project (Haplogroup J2).
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/van-santen/

    "J2 - This haplogroup originated during the Neolithic in Central Asia, and spread across the Mediterranean and the Middle East. It may have been brought to Britain by prehistoric farmers, Greek or Phoenician traders and Sephardic Jews among the Normans and the Flemish - as well as by Roman troops and settlers."
    Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project.
    http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/

    "Research conducted by the administrators of the Border Reivers DNA Project has identified numerous haplotypes in persons of British descent that show Haplotype 35 markers. Moreover, most of these haplotypes appear to originate from areas of Britain near the Antonine Wall, Hadrian's Wall and other places of Roman fortification or settlement. These areas include Galloway, Dumfries, Ayrshire and The Borders in Scotland, and Cumbria, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Shropshire and Staffordshire in England. Many of the Roman troops stationed in these areas came from Southeastern Europe or Western Asia. They included Sarmatians, Dacians, Goths, Syrians, Mesopotamians, Thracians and Anatolians. The Capelli study has shown that these areas also exhibit higher than average frequencies of haplogroups E3b and J2, neither of which is native to Britain. E3b is found most commonly in North Africa, Iberia, the Mediterranean and the Near East, and J2 occurs most frequently in the Near East, the Mediterranean and Western Asia. The fact that all three groups - E3b, J2 and Haplotype 35 - have a similar origin in territories of the Roman Empire, and occur at comparable frequencies in parts of Britain with a known history of Roman settlement, suggests that they arrived in Britain through the same means."
    Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project (Haplogroup J2) - Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35).
    http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/haplo_r1b_ht35_analysis.htm

    "In human genetics, Haplotype 35, also called ht35 or the Armenian Modal Haplotype, is a Y chromosome haplotype of Y-STR microsatellite variations, associated with the Haplogroup R1b. It is characterized by DYS393=12 (as opposed to the Atlantic Modal Haplotype, another R1b haplotype, which is characterized by DYS393=13). The members of this haplotype are found in high numbers in Anatolia and Armenia, with smaller numbers throughout Central Asia, the Middle East, the Balkans, the Caucus Mountains, and in Jewish populations. They are also present in Britain in areas that were found to have a high concentration of Haplogroup J, suggesting they arrived together, perhaps through Roman soldiers."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplotype 35.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplotype_35

    "Haplogroup J2, the paternal line, lands her son's ancestors smack dab in Italy. Aligning with family history, once the Y chromosome arrived they stayed in the neighborhood. See the blue route coming out of Africa? The northern branch ends close to what would become 15,000 years later — Rome, Italy (the boot is highlighted). Notes from the Genographic Project say that "J2" pioneered the shift from gathering to farming, kick starting the Neolithic Revolution."
    DNA Portrait for a Science Cheerleader.
    http://fellmanstudio.com/sci-art-blog/dna-portraits--2/science-cheerleader-portrait

    "In our present times modern technology has contributed to our search for origins and relationships. The Clan has undertaken a DNA project to determine relationships among members. As of this writing, September 2011, a total of 77 males with the Curtin surname have been tested to varying degrees. Those tested are divided according to test results into "haplogroups," which may be likened to branches of the vast tree of mankind. The preponderance (75) of those tested fell into one of two haplogroups. Of these, 28 are in Haplogroup R1b1a2, which originated in the in the middle east, is the most common group in Western Europe, and includes 80% of the people in the British Isles. However, this group of our members includes descendents of both Clare and Cork Curtins. The majority of those tested (47), who are descended from Curtins in the Feale valley, in Cork, Kerry and Limerick, fall into haplogroup J2."
    Curtin Clan - Curtin, Origin and History of the Name.
    https://sites.google.com/site/curtinclan/origin-crest

    "Thus we find that our two famous political Curtin/MacCurtain men are from two different haplogroups. Thomas MacCurtain, Lord Mayor of Cork, was in the R1b1 group, while John Curtin, Prime Minister of Australia, was from a Feale Valley J2 group."
    Curtin Clan - Curtin, Origin and History of the Name.
    https://sites.google.com/site/curtinclan/origin-crest

    "Like many Americans, Nick Donofrio, IBM Executive Vice President, Innovation and Technology, knew his ancestors came from somewhere else. In his case, his grandparents came from Southern Italy to New York City. What he didn't know was that their forebears had settled in remote mountains in the Middle East 10,000 to 20,000 years ago."I never would have imagined the results," Nick says. "They're really kind of amazing." Analysis of Nick's DNA found he belonged in the Haplogroup J2."
    Nick Donofrio - IBM Executive Vice President, Innovation and Technology.
    http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genographic/us/en/landing/X266275H01345R01.html

    "John Lorimer Worden of the U.S. Navy, commanding officer of U.S.S. Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads, first historical confrontation between iron made ships, as member of main lineage of Worden family, is supposed to belong to Y-DNA haplogroup J2b2."
    List of haplogroups of historical and famous figures.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_historical_and_famous_figur es

    "The bulk of J2 may have been brought to Britain by mercenaries recruited by the Romans."
    Family Banks DNA Project.
    https://sites.google.com/site/banksprojectsite/the-j-p215-groups

    "We now have two members of Haplogroup J1 and 6 members of Haplogroup J2 in the Fox Poject. This is a Mediterranean Haplogroup but exists all over Europe to some extent. The Romans are thought to have brought this Haplogroup to Britain."
    Fox FamilytreeDNA Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/FoxDNA/

    "In Europe, the largest J2b populations are in Greece, Albania and Italy. This haplogroup is rare in Britain where it could represent remnants of eastern Mediterranean troops stationed on the island during the Roman occupation."
    Cotton/Cotten DNA Project.
    http://home.comcast.net/~cottondna/haplogroups.htm

    "The Greek and Phoenician presence also brought J2 into France and of course the Roman period also would have been a major contributor of Haplogroup J2 into what is today, France. So although, rare, Haplogroup J2 can be found in local populations throughout France and Spain."
    Dugas Family.
    http://dugas.weebly.com/dna.html
    Last edited by RHAS; 25-08-13 at 11:05.

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    "One coat of arms firm claims that the Judkins actually originated in Suffolk, England in far ancient times. This is where the celtic Coritani tribe of Rutland, Leiceister & Lincolnshire originated so this would preclude a Scottish origin prior to 1500 if the Judkins/Blackard J2 DNA type is linked to the Coritani rather than Romans."
    Blackard Family History Blog.
    http://blackardfamilyhistory.blogspot.nl/

    "The Mediterranean and Middle Eastern group consists of the the two Es, the G and the two J2s. Whit Athey and others have theorized that this group is associated with the Neolithic spread of agriculture from the Middle East into Europe. On the other hand, a more recent paper by Steven C. Bird argues for a Roman origin for J2 and E3b at least."
    Francis Surname Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Francissurnameproject/

    "Sometime prior to that a Bretz ancestor must have come into Germany from the south, from Italy or Greece. Some researchers have suggested a family connection to Fabius Bretius, a Roman General, who came from the districts of Capua and Taranto in southern Italy to the town Trier, Germany around 224. Whether this connection is genuine or not, and it is impossible to know for sure, perhaps Roman conquests did bring Bretz DNA north 1,800 years ago as they did with so many other things. For some additional thoughts on the possible Latin origins of the family, also read the Genealogia Bretius."
    Bretz Family, Haplogroup J2.
    http://www.bretz.ca/GenWeb/html/dna/Y-bretz/

    "Hoewel we tussen de periode van het ontstaan van onze haplogroep/subclade en het begin van de stamreeks de Sanders familiegeschiedenis niet met absolute zekerheid kunnen vaststellen ben ik van mening dat mede door het grote aantal indirecte aanwijzingen een redelijk nauwkeurig beeld van onze voorouders in die periode vastgesteld kan worden. Zo is het hoogstwaarschijnlijk dat onze voorouders in de tijd van het Romeinse rijk naar onze huidige geografische regio zijn gemigreerd. Zij waren waarschijnlijk Romeinse landbouwers en/of legionairs/veteranen van Italiaanse, Illyrische, Thracische of Griekse (Macedonische) afkomst. De indirecte relatie die we hebben met de van Santens geeft sterke aanwijzingen naar de plaats of regio Xanten, een oorspronkelijk Romeinse nederzetting die het middelpunt lijkt van de nederrijnse trojanenmythe. Deze Romeinse theorie sluit vervolgens perfect aan bij de eerstvolgende aanwijzing betreffende de afkomst van onze familie namelijk het Rooms Katholieke geloof."
    Sanders Family, Haplogroup J2b2. (Dutch)
    http://members.chello.nl/r.sanders20/sanders/

    "Het onderzoek wees uit, dat het DNA profiel van de familie Lemmens uit de Sambeecksen Hoeck overeenkomt met Haplogroep J2. Deze Haplogroep J2 werd waargenomen bij enkele families (o.a. ook de familie van Kuppeveld) in en rond het Land van Cuijk. De oorsprong van Haplogroep J2 is het Midden Oosten. De onderzoekers stelden vast, dat de familie Lemmens vermoedelijk afstamt van de Romeinen die zich in het begin van de jaartelling ophielden in de Lage Landen, in het bijzonder in het Land van Cuijk en omstreken van Nijmegen."
    Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum - De herkomst van de familie Lemmens. (Dutch)
    http://www.bhic.nl/site/popup.php?id=12872

    "My conclusion is that we are likely descendants of a Roman soldier serving in either Legio II or Legio XX. This Roman soldier was probably of Balkan (Macedonian, Illyrian, or Thracian) origin. It has been stated that ―The Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 within their borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency more than 5 percent), which bear an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire. More research is needed to obtain a definitive answer but, in my opinion, we are most likely descendants of Roman soldiers recruited from the Balkans (Thrace, Macedonia, or Greece). The Hollywood movie "King Arthur" (2004 by Touchstone Pictures) is a striking example of how our haplogroup could have arrived in Northwestern Europe in Roman times."
    mr. R.H.A. Sanders, Haplogroup J2b2, Worden Family Newsletter August 2011.
    http://wordenfamilyassoc.org/

    "In which country did Mr. J2b2 live? Did Mr. J2b2 live in the Balkans and then his descendants move to India. Or was was it that Mr. J2b2 lived in India and then his descendants moved to the Balkans. One of the theories is that Mr. J2b2's descendant were part of Alexander the Greats army which made itself all the way to India."
    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe’s and other families.
    http://barrkumar.com/dna/whats_j2b2.html

    "J2 has been well studied and can be split into several clades but whose mode of individual distribution is not well understood. Many influences such as Greek and Roman would have played a part."
    Wells Family DNA Project.
    http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wellsfam/dnaproje/haplogroupJ.html

    "How our more recent ancestors ended up in England is still a mystery. It could have been a random migration of a single man. During the Roman occupation of Europe many people immigrated there from many areas of the world. Soldiers were sent there to serve military obligations. One of these might have been a man from the Mediterranean area. His descendants eventually took the surname Field and he might have been our earliest J2b2 ancestor."
    Genetic Journey of our branch of the Field family.
    http://www.luciefield.net/geneticjourney.html

    "Haplogroup J2b is most common in the Middle East and reaches its highest percentages in Turkey. In Europe, the largest J2b populations are in Greece, Albania and Italy. This haplogroup is rare in Britain where it could represent remnants of eastern Mediterranean troops stationed on the island during the Roman occupation."
    Munley/Manley Surname Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Munley/default.aspx

    "Een manlijke deelnemer van deze genealogie behoort tot de haplogroep J2a. Een Haplogroep die veel voorkomt in het Noord-Oostelijk deel van Noord-Brabant, vermoedelijk aldaar gekomen via de Romeinse nederzetting te Nijmegen."
    Piet Verdonk Homepage - Genetische Genealogisch Onderzoek (DNA). (Dutch)
    http://verdonk.home.xs4all.nl/DNA_Verbinding_stb_3.htm

    "I've just had my DNA tested and it's coming up as a J2 Haplogroup, which probably means my ancient relation was most likely a Roman Legionaire garrisoned to the UK."
    Genealogy: Jim Manley's Family Tree.
    http://jimstree.blogspot.nl/

    "Someone of J2a3d descent must have been living in Blacker Hill Yorkshire and acquired the Blacker name. They may well have descended from a Roman soldier or sailor from Lincoln or York who in turn must have been descended from the Phoenicians perhaps via Cantabria."
    Lost Langtons.
    http://www.lostlangtons.co.uk/HaplogroupJ2a4d.shtml

    "We could even go so far as to suggest he probably was a member of the J Haplogroup carrying the J2 (M172 subgroup) y-chromosome."
    Roman Times - Roman Archaeology.
    http://ancientimes.blogspot.nl/p/roman-archaeology_29.html

    "My paternal ancestors were mostly farmworkers or self-employed craftsmen of no great social standing. I can trace my line back to the 18th century (confirmed) and as far back as the late 1500s (conjectural). Our Y-DNA Haplogroup of J-M205 (J2b1, old J2b1b) would be considered, quite unambiguously, a potential "Roman Ancestry" DNA signature, being connected in earlier times to the Greek and Thracian Settlements in the Mediterranean basin. As a matter of fact, when confronted with the J2 haplotype by one of his British customers, even Dr. Bryan Sykes of Oxford Ancestors eventually suggested a Roman origin."
    K. Pople, Pople Family Association.
    http://poplefa.carbonmade.com/projects/4638348

    "The J2 haplogroup came to England either through middle Eastern Roman soldiers who were stationed on the island (most common explanation), through Sephardic traders (not many of those), or through the migration to the island of gypsies in the 16th century (only being thought of as a possible source very recently)."
    Harvey Genealogy.
    http://history.earthsci.carleton.ca/harvey/genealogy/dnatestingindex.htm

    "McGregor (5356) and the two brothers (7422 and 9338) belong to a DNA haplotype J2 that is found in Britain, but rarely. It is most common in Eastern European countries, leading to speculation that it is either from gypsy background or, possibly, from Eastern European soldiers stationed in Britain during the Roman occupation in the first three centuries AD."
    The MacGregor DNA Project.
    http://themacgregordnaproject.blogspot.nl/2005/08/where-are-we-now-update.html

    "The majority of Clan Donnachaidh participants tested so far belong to the largest population group in Europe (Haplogroup R1b), which expanded throughout Western Europe after the last Ice Age and which was the first to recolonize Britain about 11 500 years ago. About 6% of Clan Donnachaidh participants belong to Haplogroup I, which is associated with Denmark and the adjoining area of Germany. Recent books published by Bryan Sykes and Stephen Oppenheimer claim that some Haplogroup I populations entered Britain from the east in prehistoric times, before the arrival of Anglians and Vikings; it would appear that this includes Haplogroup I communities in the Highlands. A very small number of participants belong to Haplogroups E, G, J and R1a."
    Clan Donnachaidh (J2a4h2).
    http://www.donnachaidh.com/DNA.html

    "Haplogroup J2, is associated with the Romans, who also invaded Britain much earlier in about 90 AD."
    Clan Strachan Society.
    http://clanstrachan.org/activities/Genealogy/articles/reading_y-dna.htm

    "Haplogroup J2 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J2a, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J2b, defined by the M12 genetic marker. A subclade of haplogroup J2a, defined by the M92 marker has been implicated in the ancient Greek colonization."
    Leslie H. Kyle II.
    http://kylehistory.x10.mx/dna.htm

    "A recent DNA test was a bit of a surprise and has proven some of my family never made it home. J2 M172 is a very strange and rare YDNA for a English family to have. The best answer I have found was Syrian archers or others brought in from the middle east passed their genetic line onto my ancestors during the roman occupation of England."
    A whole bunch of Ing's.
    http://www.awholebunchofings.com/2012_04_01_archive.html

    "The J2 haplogroup can be found in today's populations with notable frequency in Italy, Iberia, Turkey, Albania, Greece and even India, and most likely interacted with numerous cultures, including the Greeks and Romans."
    Whittingham Family Ancestry.
    http://www.whittinghams.me.uk/DNA.htm

    "De haplogroep J is typerend voor de bevolking uit Zuid-Oost Europa, meer bepaald voor centraal en Zuid-Italië, Griekenland en Roemenië. Het wordt ook vaak teruggevonden in Frankrijk, Turkije en het Midden-Oosten. Deze haplogroep kan in verband worden gebracht met de oude Grieken, de Romeinen alsook de Pheniciërs."
    The Sas Family - DNA en Genealogie. (Dutch)
    http://thesasfamily.zsite.be/dna-en-genealogie

    "In Europa komen vooral de Y-DNA haplogroepen R1b, R1a, I1, I2b, J2 en N3 voor."
    The Sas Family - DNA en Genealogie. (Dutch)
    http://thesasfamily.zsite.be/dna-en-genealogie

    "There have been 18 Leonards that I am aware of who have had their y-dna tested for at least 12 markers. Those 18 sharing the Leonard surname have been distributed through testing into the E3a, E3b, I, J, and R1b Haplogroups. It would appear that Leonards of Irish and German descent generally fall in the R1b modal haplotype. This is a common haplotype in northern Europe. There aren’t enough Leonards tested in the E3a, E3b, I, and unassigned haplogroups and not enough is known about their ancestry to say very much about them yet. Six English Leonards fall into the J, more specifically, J2 haplogroup. Five of these whose genealogy has been traced back to the 1600’s are descendants of James Leonard, 1620-91, of Taunton, Massachusetts."
    Leonard Y-DNA.
    http://www.bradsport.com/LeonardYDNA.htm

    "However, unexpected are the Y-DNA-tested Lavins with ancestors from Ireland, which so far has resulted in the predominant haplogroup of J2."
    Lavin DNA Project.
    http://www.worldfamilies.net/surnames/lavin

    "So far Y-DNA shows that there seems to have been the assumption of the mother’s O’Neill surname among some of the O’Neill’s in Puerto Rico , and others are from various Island’s in the Caribbean including Tortola ,a Island that is close to the island of St. Croix, but not Barbados that is closer to the Island of Martinique. Only two people have tested one is of the Hg R1b sub clade and another from the J2 Haplogroup."
    O'Neill's of Puerto Rico.
    http://www.freewebs.com/mileshispaniae/

    "I thought that you might find this interesting. Not only did I find that my paternal line is J2B2, but my paternal name is "Hammon" ("Ammon")! Alexander called himself the son of Ammon after visiting the oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis! It isn't very likely that my sir name followed my yDNA. But it is intriguing! "
    Hammon Family, Haplogroup J2b2, 2013.


    "As to my family, My Worden branch came from Lancashire England and I can only go back to the late 1400s or early 1500s. The most likely probability is that we are descended from a Roman soldier who married a Saxon woman. There was a Roman retirement villiage right at the area we came from."
    mr. R. Worden, Haplogroup J2b2, 2010.

    "As far as our haplogroup goes, J2b2 is still something of a mystery - it's scattered all over Europe, including England, and I have assumed that it had to do with the spread of the Roman Empire. While J (and J1/J2) originated in the middle east and spread in several directions (even to India) it appears that J2b (and J2b2 particularly) seem to be mostly concentrated in Europe, and have probably been there for a long time."
    mr. B. Goodman, Haplogroup J2b2, 2010.
    Last edited by RHAS; 24-08-13 at 03:37.

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    J-M172 Project.
    http://j-m172.info/

    J2-M172 Project.
    http://j2-ydnaproject.org/

    FamilytreeDNA J2-M172 Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2%20Y%20DNA%20group/

    FamilytreeDNA J2b M102+ Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/m102/

    FamilytreeDNA J-L24 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J-L24-Y-DNA/

    FamilytreeDNA J2 Plus Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2Plus/

    FamilytreeDNA J2a-PF5197 Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2a-PF5197/

    FamilytreeDNA J Haplogroup Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-DNA_J/

    FamilytreeDNA Netherlands Dual DNA Project.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Netherlands

    Haplogroup J2-M172 Project Facebook.
    https://www.facebook.com/pages/M172-Y-Dna-project/90964125661

    Haplogroup J2-M172 Facebook Group.
    https://www.facebook.com/groups/2406627768/

    Haplogroup J2b and subclades Facebook Group.
    https://www.facebook.com/groups/577326878950978/

    Cultural Anthropology of Haplogroup J2 Facebook.
    http://www.facebook.com/cultural.anthropology.of.haplogroup.j2

    J2-M172 YouTube Channel.
    http://www.youtube.com/user/YDNAHaplogroupJ2

    Eupedia Haplogroup J2 Origins, Distribution & History.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    Eupedia Haplogroup Frequencies Europe.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/european_y-dna_haplogroups.shtml

    J2a4h Y Haplogroup J-L25 DNA Blog.
    http://j2a4h2.blogspot.com/

    Y-DNA Haplogroup J2-M172 Flickr.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ydna-haplogroup-j2-m172/

    Y-DNA Haplogroup J2-M172 Imageshack.
    http://imageshack.us/user/ydnahaplogroupj2

    Haplogroup J2 Blog.
    http://m172.blogspot.com/

    GenealogyWise Y-DNA J2 Group.
    http://www.genealogywise.com/group/ydnahaplogroupj2

    Genomic Research.
    http://kahikatearesearch.wordpress.com/

    Dienekes Anthropology Blog.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.com/

    National Geographic Genographic Project.
    https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

    International Society of Genetic Genealogy.
    http://www.isogg.org/
    Last edited by RHAS; 25-08-13 at 11:06.

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    Original Haplogroup J2 Quotes & Links file can be downloaded here: https://www.facebook.com/download/14...6%20links.docx

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    New:

    "Haplogroup J2 is found frequently in Greece and Italy, in Turkey, and in the Caucasus region. J2 is also found in India, where the subclade [Haplogroup J2b2 (Y-DNA) J2b2] is widespread and another subclade [Haplogroup J2a (Y-DNA) J2a] is mainly restricted to North-West of the subcontinent population or later migrants to South and East India like Brahmins. This, together with its believed Anatolian origin, may be suggestive that it was originally a part of the Proto-Indo-European gene pool. According to the theory of Colin Renfrew, Indo-European languages spread from an Anatolian homeland."
    Eat right for your type - Haplogroup J2.
    http://www.drpeterjdadamo.com/wiki/w...oup_J2_(Y-DNA)

    "Die Angehörigen der im Nahen Osten beheimateten Haplogruppen E3b, F, J2, G2 gelangen an der Schwelle vom 8. zum 7. Jahrtausend v.Chr. als sesshafte Ackerbauern und Viehzüchter in den südbalkanischen Raum, wo sie die das Neolithikum auf dem Alten Kontinent auslösende Sesklo-Kultur (1. Hälfte des 7. Jahrtausends v.Chr.) initiieren. 17% des Erbgutes der heutigen männlichen Europäer weisen auf die neolithischen Einwanderer aus Anatolien hin (siehe Seite 17). Für Freiburg im Breisgau/D gilt: E3b = 5% , J2 = 9% ***"
    Martin Ballauf - Ballauf haplogruppe R1b1c1o. (German)
    http://www.martin-ballauf.ch/Ballauf...pe_R1b1c10.pdf

    "Nach einer Menge komplexer statistischer Auswertungen präsentieren Tayler-Smiths computerassistierte Genanalysatoren nun ein recht eindeutiges Ergebnis: Tatsächlich trägt die heutige männliche Bevölkerung speziell in alten Phöniziersiedlungsgebieten häufiger als anderswo typische Gensignaturvarianten der Haplogruppe J2. Charakteristisch für die Söhne altphönizischer Väter ist dabei offenbar besonders ein Austausch der Base Thymin durch Guanin an Position M172 des Y-Chromosoms. Mehr als sechs Prozent des Genpools in ehemaligen Phönizierniederlassungen stammen demnach noch heute aus den alten Linien der antiken Händler – und statistisch gesehen hat vielleicht jeder 18. lebende Mann im Mittelmeerraum direkte phönizische Vorfahren. Ganz offenbar brachten die Phönizier also einst nicht nur Handelswaren mit in neu besiedelte Gebiete."
    Das Erbe der Verdrängten. (German)
    http://www.spektrum.de/alias/humange...aengten/972180

    "The J1-M267 and J2-M172 distributions in the Near East and Europe can be inferred from previously reported DYS388 data associated with Eu10 and Eu9, respectively (Semino et al. 2000a; Nebel et al. 2001b; Malaspina et al. 2001; Al-Zahery et al. 2003). While both J1 and J2 are found in the Near East, haplogroup J1-M267 typifies East Africans and Arabian populations, with a decreasing frequency northwards. Alternatively the majority of J lineages in Europe are J2-M172 that radiated from the Levant, coherent with the distributions of mitochondrial J, K, T1 and pre-HV clades (Richards et al. 2002)."
    Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
    http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

    "The presence of J2-M172 related lineages successfully predicted the distribution of both Neolithic figurines and painted pottery attributed to agriculturalists (King and Underhill 2002)."
    Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
    http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

    "The J2f-M67 clade is localized to Northwest Turkey. It is well known that during this period, Northwest Anatolia developed a complex society that engaged in widespread Aegean trade referred to as “Maritime Troia culture,” involving both the western Anatolian mainland and several of the large islands in the eastern Aegean, Chios, Lemnos and Lesbos (Korfmann 1996)."
    Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
    http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

    "Another J2 component is intriguing. Although J2e-M12 lineages occur at low frequencies, they are widely distributed in the Middle East (Scozzari et al. 2001) and India (Kivisild et al. 2003), as well as in Saami from Kola, Russia (Raitio et al. 2001). By comparing data sets (Malaspina et al. 2001; Scozzari et al. 2001) we deduced that J2e-M12 lineages are distinctive from all other J2-M172 lineages on the basis of complex DYS413 and YCAII dinucleotide STRs."
    Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
    http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

    "During the Bronze Age the population of Anatolia expanded, reaching an estimated level of 12 million during the late Roman Period (Russell 1958)."
    Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
    http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

    "Spezielle Haplotypen von J2 findet man in Skandinavien und den britischen Inseln."
    Deine DNA - Ahnenforschung. (German)
    https://www.deinedna.com/index.php?ahnenforschung

    "Interesting results from the lineage analysis can be summarized as follows: (i) R-L23*, the eastern branch of haplogroup R-M269, is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13, which probably originated in Western Asia, has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the spread of farming marked by haplogroup G-P15, J-M410 representatives; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea."
    Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0056779

    "Was im ersten Moment exotisch erscheint, ist auf den zweiten Blick gar nicht so aussergewöhnlich. Rund jeder achte Europäer stammt aus der Linie J2."
    Tages Anzeiger - Für 300 Franken auf den Spuren der eigenen Vorfahren. (German)
    http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/leben/ge...story/28960496

    "J2a`s strong presence in Italy is owed in great part to the migration of the Etruscans from western Anatolia to central and northern Italy, and to the Greek colonisation of southern Italy. Immigration from the eastern Mediterranean to Rome during the Roman Empire, then from Anatolia, Thrace and Greece during the Byzantine period period (particularly in north-eastern Italy) further increased the incidence of j2 in the peninsula."
    Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2. (2013)
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "The likely deep ancestry source of Haplogroup J2 as found along the Anglo-Scottish border is probably to be found with members of the Roman Legions which were stationed along Hadrian's wall."
    Border receivers - DNA Report Nov 2005.
    http://www.borderreivers.co.uk/DNA%2...20Nov%2005.htm

    "The YDNA Haplogroup of the ancient Phoenicians is J2, also identified as the signature of human migration via the Mediterranean in the Neolithic or New Stone Age around 6,000 BC, from the Levant into Europe."
    Ancientmed.org - The Mediterraneans.
    http://www.ancientmed.org/TheMediterraneans.htm

    "Hg J: Hg J2 is present in the western Mediterranean basin, in contrast to Hg J1 which is characteristic of the Middle East and “Arabic” peoples. In Europe, Hg J2 is confined to Mediterranean Europeans, i.e. Greeks and southern Italians. Its frequency in Southern Slavs does not exceed 10%. Its presence might have been associated with certain seaborne Neolithic movements along the Mediterranean, as well as later historic events such as Greek colonization."
    South Slavs.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Slavs



    Original Haplogroup J2 Quotes & Links file (version 6) can be downloaded here:

    https://www.facebook.com/download/15...6%20links.docx

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    "The Plantagenets are a bit more difficult to predict as some speculate that they are related to the Carpetian kings of France and descended from Roman citizens in the haplogroup J2 or G2."
    Y-DNA of the British Monarchy.
    http://www.surnamedna.com/?articles=...itish-monarchy

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    "Paternal genetic heritage was studied on DNA from 1,141 individuals analyzed for Y chromosome markers (data from the Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia and from the published sources) (Barač et al., 2003; Rootsi et al., 2004; Peričić et al., 2005a, 2005b). The individuals were from the continental parts of the Balkan peninsula, the north-west Adriatic and the south-east Alpine areas as well as from the Eastern Adriatic islands, i.e. the areas where the different Illyrian trybes settled during the Iron Age period (Fig.1). The sample was analyzed for Y chromosomal haplogroup frequencies in 9 populations and classified as I1a, I1b*-P37, R1a-SRY1532, R1b-M173, E3b1-M78 and J2e1 haplogroups."
    Language Bounderies and Microevolutionary processes in South-Eastern Europe.
    http://www.anthroinsula.org/resources/Iliri-english%20text%20version.pdf

    "Attempts to ascertain Sicilian "ethnic" origins should be undertaken with caution because haplogroups do not correspond precisely to medieval or modern conceptions of nationality. At best, they are approximate. For example, J2 is identified with Greeks but also with some Germans. Speaking very broadly, the most frequent Y haplogroups of the world's most conquered island may be correlated most probably (albeit imprecisely) to the following peoples: • J2 - Greeks, Romans, Jews, Spaniards,"
    Best of Sicily - Genetics.
    http://www.bestofsicily.com/genetics.htm

    "If J2b-Delta is a separate discrete lineage within J2b, this could have implications regarding when the lineage arrived in the British Isles. At present the two main hypotheses regarding the arrival of J2 in the British Isles that are commonly touted are 1) Neolithic farmers 2) Roman soldiers."
    J2 Y-DNA Poject - J2 Cluster Analysis.
    http://j2-ydnaproject.org/analysisphase3.html

    "Results are also contradicted by tests on a family that believes they descend from Emperor Franz Josef. They belong to haplogroup J2. These results are also confidential."
    Habsburg Family DNA Project.
    http://www.geni.com/projects/Habsbur...A-Project/3775

    "In summary, our data are in agreement with a major discontinuity for the peopling of southern Europe. Here, haplogroup J constitutes not only the signature of a single wave-of-advance from the Levant but, to a greater extent, also of the expansion of the Greek world, with an accompanying novel quota of genetic variation produced during its demographic growth."
    Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

    "The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012). Later the Roman armies and auxiliaries played a role. Possibly even the Carthaginians under Hannibal (Battle of Cannae) played a role. Later still the Byzantine Empire, over a period of about 1000 years, very likely played a role in the movement of L24(M530) Y-chromosomes."
    J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
    http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/

    "Sardinians show a low overall frequency of haplotypes E and J relative to Italian populations. For example J-M172 in Sardinia has a value between 5% and 9.7% (Francalacci et al., 2003), against the frequencies of 16.7-29.1% of continental Italy (Semino et al., 2004)."
    Genetic analysis of Sardinian population.
    http://www.ata.org.tn/fichier_PDF/Article2.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 23-10-13 at 06:50.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    0 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    J2-M172 is split into two main clades: J2a (M410) which is the predominant variety of J2 and is found across the Middle East, turkey, Crete and parts of Italy. The other is J2b (M12) which is heaviest in the Balkans among Greeks, Albanians and I guess a rare few Bulgarians and Macedonians....after that it's European distribution takes place at very low % although it CAN rarely be found among a few European or even Armenian/middle eastern J2 samples. J2b is present in north-central Italy at a surprising frequency of 9.6% of male lineages....high frequencies are reported in Thessaly, Greece (9%) and Macedonia (7%).....it can also be found on Crete (3% of male lineages.....).it seems to be associated with the Balkan Greeks although they may have spread some J2a as well. j2a on the other hand, is frequent on Crete, in southern Italy and on Anatolia, indicating a movement of people's from turkey towards Italy. Overall, J2, a Mesopotamian genetic marker is found in Africa in a maximum of 8-12% of Egyptian males....8% of Tunisians belong to J2 as well. In Europe, the high's in order are recorded as being; (Marche region of central Italy (35.6%), western Calabria, southern Italy (35.1%), the island of Crete (35%), Tras Os Montes Portuguese Jews (24.5%), Sicilians (23%), Maltese people (21%), mainland Italy (20%), mainland Greece (18%), Cyprus (13%), Canary Islands (10%) etc. in the north Caucasus it is extremely heavy in Ingush people (88%) and among Chechens (57%). It can also be found in 20% of Circassian men. It varies between 20-72% of Georgian male lineages depending on the region with a high in the extreme north near Mount Kazbek. The countrie's average is about 30% though. It can be found in 20-30% of Armenians, between 24-48% of Azerbaijani lineages, and about 25% of Iranian lines. Both Sephardic and Askhkenazi Jews have 15-25%. In turkey 25-30% of men are J2, same for Lebanon and Syria has more towards 20%. Iraq can have as much as 43% J2. J2 was thought to have originated as a Turko-Syrid haplogroup but more evidence is emerging that it originated farther to the north towards Georgia or Armenia, with the first metallurgist civilizations of the Middle East.

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    "J2b2a-L283 was discovered by Family Tree DNA through its "Walk Through The Y" program, and is predominantly Middle-Eastern, Mediterranean and European. The M12/M241 frequency peak in the Balkan Peninsula and Italy observed by Semino et al. [35] and Cruciani et al. [45], may instead belong to sub-clade L283. A recent Z631 sub-branch expansion from east to west through the heart of Europe to the UK along with presence in Italy and Spain might be associated with Roman expansion using mercenaries and slaves acquired in the Balkans."
    Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using "next-generation" sequencing data.
    http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/e...802.1.full.pdf

    "Haplogroup J-M241 shows a network with the central and most frequent haplotype being widespread in the Southern Balkans - a likely consequence of a rapid expansion probably started in Neolithic times in Asia Minor [34]. Since the periphery of the network is mainly occupied by haplotypes found outside this region (Apulians, Indians and Nepalese) the present results do not provide any useful evidence for the identification of the J-M241 homeland. On the other hand, the high age estimates in these populations could be due to recurrent gene flow from different sources. Leaving aside Apulians, Indians and Nepalese, the highest ages, compatible with a Neolithic expansion, are obtained in regions around the Black Sea, namely Anatolia (9.1±2 kya) and Bulgaria, in particular its central part (7.8±3 kya). Consequently, in this region, haplogroup J-M241 can be considered as a genetic signal of the expansion of farmers towards Southeast Europe possibly enhanced by the breaching of the Bosphorus Sill and the flood of the Pontic Lake with marine water."
    Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0056779
    Last edited by RHAS; 24-11-13 at 20:07.

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    "J2a-M92 is a well-defined J2a-M67 sub-lineage, with a distribution restricted to Asia Minor, the Balkans and the north-eastern Mediterranean coasts. Frequency and variance maps make plausible an origin in north-western Turkey, where the highest variance is registered, and a subsequent migration to the Balkans and then to the Italian Peninsula."
    Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e-0041252-g002

    "J2 is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region and its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC)."
    Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e.0080293.s007

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    "Today we know little of these earliest Sicilians, though they were probably part of an influx of Neolithic settlers who arrived in the central Mediterranean from the East sometime before 10000 BC, identified genetically with Y Haplogroup J2 (M172). Indeed, it seems that the earliest known inhabitants of Malta arrived from Sicily and they quite literally laid the foundations of a culture which in many ways have been far more sophisticated than anything else in Europe or the Mediterranean region at that time."
    Pyramids in Sicily.
    http://www.bosnian-pyramid.org/italy-vii/

    "Based on the results from the Benelux Y-DNA Project it can be inferred that the Frank`s main paternal lineage was haplogroup R1b-U106, and that they belong overwhemingly the Z381 subclade. They also possesed other typical Germanic lineages like I1, I2a2a and R1a (L664 and Z283 subclades), although their ratio to R1b-U106 would have been 1:2, 1:6 and 1:7 respectivly. Like modern Scandinavians, the Franks also probably carried a substantial amount of R1b-P312 lineages, including the l21, U152 and DF27 subclades, as well as a minority of E-V13, G2a3b1 and J2. Since all these lineages are also typical of popultion of Celtic or Italic (including Roman) descent, is not clear at present what proportion of these lineages in the Benelux can be attributed to the Gauls and the Romans, as opposed to the Franks."
    Eupedia.com - A brief history of the Franks.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/franki...n_europe.shtml

    "Between 600 BCE and 300 BCE the Greeks founded colonies along the Mediterranean coast of France, founding Agde, Mareille, Hyeres and Nice. The ancient Greeks would have brought chiefly haplogroups E1b1b and J2 with them, with also a minority of G2a, J1, R1b-L23 and T. Then came the Romans, who stayed for 500 years in Gaul. The Romans are thought have belonged essentially to R1b-U152, with substantial minorities of E1b1b (probably more E-M123), G2a (especially G2a3b1a), J1, J2 (both J2a and J2b2), and T."
    Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project: Benelux & France.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelu..._project.shtml

    "Nick Donofrio, executive VP of innovation and technology at IBM, which is partnering with National Geographic on the Genographic Project, is a proud Italian. He was stunned when his Y test came back saying he was a member of haplogroup J2,... meaning his ancestors had lived in the Middle East some 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. "You could have pushed me over with a feather," he says. After Donofrio announced his results on IBM's Web site, his in box started filling up with J2 colleagues. "A lot of Armenians have been sending me e-mails saying 'J2 rocks!' "
    Newsweek - In Our Blood.
    http://www.newsweek.com/our-blood-113321

    "Haplogroup J2: (Greco-Anatolian) Bronze Age immigrants – this haplogroup is reasonably common in southern Europe; it may be associated with the Etruscans, the Minoans and the Phoenicians. Its presence across European populations is theorised to have come about via Roman colonisation (including the stationing of Roman troops all over the empire). About 20% of Romans belonged to haplogroup J (probably via Etruscan and Greek ancestors). This haplogroup is apparently associated with bull worship – which was probably not common among early Indo-Europeans. Haplogroup J2 is most common in Turkey and surrounding regions."
    Y-DNA Haplogroups of Europe.
    http://romanpagan.blogspot.nl/2013/0...of-europe.html

    "Y-DNA haplogroep. Vaak voorkomende haplogroepen in West-Europa. J. Typerend voor Zuid-Oost-Europa, meer bepaald Centraal en Zuid-Italië, Griekenland en Romenië. Ook teruggevonden in Frankrijk, Turkije en het Midden-Oosten. Kan in verband worden gebracht met de oude Grieken, de Romeinen en de Pheniciërs."
    Gent University, Heemkring Ansfried - Genetica als hulpwetenschap bij het historisch onderzoek naar de oorsprong van de Kempische bevolking. (Dutch)
    http://www.heemkringansfried.be/down...g_mechelen.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 04-04-14 at 01:10.

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    "By the collapse of the Late Bronze Age societies (approximately 3200 YBP), the Mediterranean Basin underwent different waves of invasion, particularly by the Greeks of the Aegean Sea and, to a lower extent, by Levantine (Phoenicians) groups. Both of them established a set of different colonies along the Mediterranean coasts of Southern Europe and North Africa. The Phoenician colony of Carthage (present-day Tunisia), given its geographic proximity to Sicily, may have played an important role in the colonization of this region. Previous Y-chromosome genetic studies on the Phoenician colonization demonstrated that haplogroup J2 in general, and six haplotypes in particular (PCS1+ through PCS6+), may potentially have represented lineages linked with the spread of the Phoenicians (“Phoenician Colonization Signal”) into the Mediterranean. At this respect, it is worth noting the presence of 4 PCS+ haplotypes (namely PCS1+, PCS2+, PCS4+, PCS5+; [51]) in 9 samples of our Sicilian and Southern Italian dataset, particularly belonging to haplogroups J1-M267 (n = 2), J2-M410* (n = 1), J2-M67 (n = 5), and J2-M12 (n = 2). However, sub-lineages of haplogroup J2 have been also associated with the Neolithic colonization of mainland Greece, Crete and Southern Italy, and our TMRCA estimates for J2-subhaplogroups (ranging from 3271±1157 YBP to 3767±1332 YBP) cannot exclude an earlier arrival of at least some of the J2 chromosomes in Sicily and Southern-Italy during Neolithic times."
    An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e-0096074-t001

    "The excess of haplogroup J2, and PC1+ to PS3+ in coastal Tunisia, the site of Carthage, compared to inland Tunisian populations is exceptionally significant, and suggests that the Roman destruction of Carthage did not eliminate the Carthaginian gene pool."
    Anthropology.net - The Y-Chromosomal Footprint Of Phoenicians Throughout The Mediterranean.
    http://anthropology.net/2008/10/30/t...mediterranean/

    "The results regarding my paternal genetics were identified as belonging to Haplogroup J2 (M172). This genetic marker dates back to roughly 15 000 yrs ago and is found predominately in the Fertile Crescent. Most prevalent in Southern Italy, Turkey, Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus and several other countries around the Mediterranean and Caucasus region, some sources claim that these are the genes of the ancient Phoenicians who may have settled in the Roman Empire long ago."
    Livelearngrow.ca - My Roots.
    http://livelearngrow.ca/category/my-roots/

    "The Tree 11 MITCHELMORE belongs to Haplogroup J2 or J-M172. This group migrated westward from the Middle East about 25,000 years ago, travelling along the north and south Mediterranean coastlines. One hypothesis is that this haplogroup was introduced into the British Isles by Roman soldiers; certainly Italy is one of the European countries with the highest frequency of haplogroup J2 today."
    M*CH*MORE one name study - DNA Results
    http://www.mitchelmore.info/join/dna-results.htm

    "A Lebanese genetic scientist who has been following in 2007 the genetic footprint of the ancient Phoenician civilisation across the Mediterranean has found that close to one-third of modern-day Maltese share a genetic link with the ancient Phoenicians. Thirty per cent of DNA samples taken from Malta have been found to share a common and ancient genetic marker, known as the J2 haplogroup, with the Phoenician civilisation, which had colonised Malta for much of the first millennium BC."
    Blog dei Fenici - One third of Maltese found to have ancient Phoenician DNA.
    http://www.blogdeifenici.it/2014/612...hoenician-dna/

    "Haplogroup J2, in contrast, was present at its highest frequency in the Lebanese population (29.4%) and was significantly more frequent there, than in the remaining Levantine regions (p < 0.05) (Table 1). .... Haplogroup J is believed to have split into J1 and J2 about 18 Kya (Semino et al., 2004). These two sister clades showed distinct histories and geographical localizations with a coastal range that is predominantly J2 and an inland range that is predominantly J1. Chiaroni, King and Underhill, report the same inland vs. coastal divergence pattern of J1 and J2, and correlate the expansion during the rise of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent to the patterns of rainfall distribution (Chiaroni et al., 2008). They suggest that the J2 haplogroup marked agricultural populations that followed the coasts, whereas the J1 haplogroup appears to have fixed in herdsmen populations that remained inland (Chiaroni et al., 2008). The diversified J2 reduced-median network and high coastal frequency suggest a sustained and non-interrupted presence of this haplogroup along the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean."
    Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...09.00538.x/pdf

    "Consistent with previous analyses, coastal Levantine regions were well represented in the J2 network."
    Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...09.00538.x/pdf

    "As for haplogroup J, most Greeks (22.8% Greeks/14.3% Macedonian Greeks) belong to J-M172 and its subclades which is associated with Neolithic population movements."
    Mathildas Anthropology Blog - Greek Y chromosomes by Dienekes.
    http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wor...s-by-dienekes/

    "Interestingly, y-DNA haplogroup J (common in the Caucasus, ancestral to both J2a1h and J2a1b1), along with haplogroup I (common where Germanic languages are spoken) are believed to correspond with the early Cro-Magnon settlement of Europe, while haplogroup R1a is commonly associated with the Indo-European expansion. Hopefully, further deciphering of the Minoan language inscriptions will shed light on the apparent divergence between the genetic and linguistic conclusions reached regarding the Minoan people."
    Kevin Borland - Classification of Minoan language.
    http://kevinborland.blogspot.nl/2011...-language.html
    Last edited by RHAS; 17-05-14 at 03:11.

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    "The same marker was found in unusually high proportions on other parts of the Mediterranean coast where the Phoenicians are known to have established colonies, such as Carthage in today's Tunisia. It's abundantly present in the Iberian peninsula, Zalloua added. In Malta, the ancient DNA type was found in an extremely high 30 percent of samples, he said. We are seeing a pattern of expansion out of the Levant area along the maritime routes the Phoenicians used he said. The J2 haplogroup has been dated using a calculation based on the rate at which DNA mutates."
    Reuters - In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts.
    http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/...59096520070910

    "The excess of J2 (Figure 1B), PCS1+ (Figures 1C and 1D), PCS2+ (Figure 1E), and PCS3+ (Figure 1F) in coastal Tunisia, the site of Carthage, compared with inland Tunisia is particularly salient, because these lineages are considerably more rare in North Africa than in Southern Europe. It also suggests that the Roman destruction of Carthage did not eliminate the Carthaginian gene pool."
    Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean
    http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

    "King et Al noted a strong correlation in precipitation levels and associated levels of J2a (M172+ M410+) within the Middle East, stating:The genetic memory retained in the extant distributions of Y-chromosome haplogroups J1-M267 and J2a-M410 within the FertileCrescent significantly correlates with regional levels of annual precipitation in a reciprocal manner. The statistically significant correlations of Y-chromosome haplogroups, precipitation levels and domestic lifestyle are pronounced. The spatial frequency distribution of haplogroup J2a coincides closely with regions characterised by >400mm of annual precipitation capable of supporting settled agriculture, while haplogroup J1-M267 distributions correlate inversely with semi-arid regions characteristically used by pastoralists. Thus, King et al have established that M410's spread seems to correlate with rainfall. It would then make sense that viticulture would likely mirror this spread since about 400 mm is also the level of annual precipiation required to support the farming of Wine Grapes (General Viticulture, Albert Julius Winkler p 395). And this is what we see; that viticulture mirrors the proposed spread of M172, M410 through the Near east during the bronze age."
    M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/corr...ticulture.html

    "Vlad III The Impaler, also known as Dracula, descended from the dynasty of Basarab, the first rulers of independent Wallachia, in present Romania. Whether this dynasty is of Cuman (an admixed Turkic people that reached Wallachia from the E...ast in the 11th century) or of local Romanian (Vlach) origin is debated among historians. Earlier studies have demonstrated the value of investigating the Y chromosome of men bearing a historical name, in order to identify their genetic origin. ...... The Basarab sample clusters into 11 lineages (Table 2), with six main lineages comprising 82.8% of the samples. Some lineages such as J-M241 and E-V13 are over-represented in the Basarab compared to the general Romanians."
    Y-Chromosome Analysis in Individuals Bearing the Basarab Name of the First Dynasty of Wallachian Kings.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404992/

    Phokaia was a larger Ionic city-state (50 hectares), containing an estimated 6000 individuals including its surrounding chora, its agricultural territory [3,16]. Smyrna, on the other hand, being a smaller polis, may show evidence of indigenous Anatolian admixture likely from neighbouring Lydia with higher frequencies of J2a-Page55 derived chromosomes. The frequency of J2a-DYS445 = 6 in Phokaia (6.5%) is comparable to that of central Anatolia (5.5%).
    The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3068964/

    The Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution in Lebanon, a small Eastern Mediterranean coastal country, shows a coastal-to-inland contrast likely marking post-glacial maximum expansions <20 thousand years ago, and significant historical influences. Historical expansions include the Phoenicians leaving a genetic footprint throughout the Mediterranean still detectable today.
    Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3062011/

    "In addition, J2a is also common, attaining a frequency of 9.7% in Phokaia and 15.5% in Smyrna."
    The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3068964/

    "Ancient Persian people were firstly characterized by the Zoroastrianism. ... The majority of the M410 chromosomes are J2a-Page55 and mainly represented by its main sub-clades M530, M47 and M67. In particular, the recently described J2a-M530 shows high frequencies in the Zoroastrians of Yazd (17.6%) and Tehran (15.4%), and in the Persians of Yazd (17.0%)."
    Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3399854/

    "Also found in Provence is haplogroup E-V13 (3.9%) and J2a-DYS445=6 (7.8%)."
    The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3068964/

    "The West Eurasian component, represented by haplogroups E, G, and J, shows a higher incidence among Tharus (15.9%) than among Indians (7.7%). With the exception of three E3-M35* Eastern Tharus and two G-M201 (one in New Delhi and the other in Andhra Pradesh), the main part of this component is accounted for by haplogroup J (Tharus 14.0%, Indians 5.8%), present only as J2, namely J2-M410* and J2-M241*. Whereas the latter haplogroup is shared by all Indian and Tharu samples, the J2-M410* was found in all Tharus but in only one Hindu of New Delhi, where one sample of its derivative J2-M68 was also present."
    Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720951/
    Last edited by RHAS; 22-05-14 at 01:16.

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    "Lessinia shows different, if not opposite, features. The average genetic distances from other populations (Fst=0.097; see Table S6) is less than one third compared to Luserna, while HD is close to the highest values of our dataset (0.978±0.019; Table S6). The prevalent haplogroup, R1b-M269*, accounts for only one third of the total, the rest represented by different lineages (G-M201, I1-M253, M410-J2A and K-M9), which are associated with twenty-three different surnames."
    Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847036/

    "Il principale ricercatore del progetto Genographic della National Geographic Society, il Dr. Pierre Zalloua, ha trovato J2 in alta proporzione tra i libanesi, palestinesi e siriani. "L’Aplogruppo YDNA degli antichi Fenici è J2, anche identificato come la firma della migrazione umana attraverso il Mediterraneo nel Neolitico o nuova Età della pietra intorno al 6000 a.C., dal Levante in Europa"."
    Liutprand.it - I Primi Popoli Mediterranei.
    http://www.liutprand.it/articoliMondo.asp?id=358

    "Similarly to E-M81, the frequencies of E-M78 and J-M267 decrease in the historical and present-day Canary populations, again highlighting the strong demic impact of the European colonists before the 17th–18th centuries. On the other hand, haplogroups with a comparatively higher European presence such as M172, M201 and M173 (comprising SRY1532 and M17) were only detected in the historical sample, therefore, they most probably reached the islands after the European conquest."
    Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728732/

    "Il restante 20% della popolazione porta gli aplogruppi del Neolitico provenienti dalle popolazioni del Medio-oriente che circa 8000 anni fa cominciarono a migrare verso l’Europa, in ondate successive, lasciando in eredità i loro aplogruppi (E3b, F, J2, G2) alle popolazioni che vivono sulle coste del Mediterraneo."
    Zanichelli.it - Migrazioni genomica.
    http://online.scuola.zanichelli.it/s...i_genomica.pdf

    "Haplogroups G, E and J have been associated with the contribution of Neolithic farmers to the European gene pool.41,45 Decreasing frequencies of haplogroup G from the Middle-East to Europe have been observed with the highest frequency noticed in Georgia. Its frequency in the investigated Croatian population is low with the exception of the most southern and the most distant investigated island Korc caronula (10%), suggesting that the Neolithic spread may have come by sea rather than by land. Haplogroup J was found at low frequencies (0–4%) over all Croatia except of Krk where 11% of the lineages had an insertion at 12f2 locus. This low frequency of J is similar to Croatian northern neighbors Slovenians,33 but it is sharply in contrast to high frequencies of the cluster, often associated with M172,45 in other Mediterranean populations where >20% frequencies are common."
    Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5200992a.html

    "J2: essenzialmente è un aplogruppo originario della Mesopotamia. E’ l’aplogruppo principale delle società che hanno dominato il Mediterraneo. Esso si divide a sua volta in due ramificazioni principali J2A e J2B. La prima ramificazione si è diffusa nel mediterraneo grazie all’espansione dei Greci, dei Romani, dei Fenici, degli Ebrei e degli Etruschi. Ed è quello presente anche come aplogruppo maggioritario in regioni come l’Inguscezia e la Cecenia. L’aplogruppo J2B è meno diffuso, ed è comune nei balcani, soprattutto tra l’Albania, la Macedonia e nel nord dell’India. Quindi probabilmente, l’aplogruppo J2B può al pari di alcune ramificazioni dell’aplogruppo G, far parte delle tribù indoeuropee ariane che invasero l’India. Alcuni ipotesi dicono come questo aplogruppo sia quello degli antichi macedoni di Alessandro Magno, dato che si ritrova nel percorso di conquista nella truppe macedoni."
    Hescaton.com - L’Europa genetica.
    http://www.hescaton.com/wordpress/leuropa-genetica/

    "All Totonacs and 17 Bolivians (61%) had pre-Columbian Y-chromosomes (Q1a3a1). Consistent with historical accounts of male European admixture, 11 Bolivians (39%) carried Y-chromosome lineages that are common in Europe (R1b, J2, G) (Figure1)."
    Genetic analysis of ancestry, admixture and selection in Bolivian and Totonac populations of the New World
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432609/

    "Haplogroups G-P15 (12.3%), E-V13 and J-M410* (both 9.5%), together with R-M269* (7.4%) represent the most frequent lineages found in Sicily and Southern Italy (SSI)."
    An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005757/

    "Only 11 different haplogroups were found with 18 SNPs analyses, and E1b1b1 and R1 haplogroups seem representative of two different meta-populations, Albanians/North Africans and Italians/Indo-Pakistanis; in fact, R1 was the most frequent haplogroup both in Italians (60.80%) and Indo-Pakistanis (38.60%), while E1b1b1 was the most frequent haplogroup both in Albanians (32.50%) and North Africans (57.10%). J2 haplogroup was almost equally represented in each population (ranging from 6.54%, in Italians to 16.87% in Albanians). Other haplogroups were not significantly represented in the data set. Meta-populations described above are concordant with already described European populations (19,20)."
    Y-chromosome polymorphisms and ethnic group – a combined STR and SNP approach in a population sample from northern Italy
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3692336/

    "Yeah, it`s just that J2 isn`t really found in the modern Irish population," says Adam. "it is found in very small percentages in England, mostly areas that used to have a large Roman presence during the Roman conquest of Britain."
    Silver Alert - A Florida Story.
    http://books.google.nl/books?id=-qLxAwAAQBAJ

    "Ten paternal lineages were observed: E1b1b1-M35, E1b1b1a-M78, G-M201, I-M170, J1-M267, J1e1-M367/M368, J2-M172, L-M22, R1a1a-M17, R1b1-P25. The most widespread haplogroup in the sample is haplogroup J1 (68.6%), in particular, J1x(J1a, J1b, J1c, J1e1, J1e2) and J1e1 (65 and 4%, respectively) followed by J2 (9.5%), R1b1 (5%), G, I and R1a1a (4%)."
    The key role of patrilineal inheritance in shaping the genetic variation of Dagestan highlanders
    http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v5...hg200994a.html

    "Roman Empire (150 BC – 400 CE): very likely this era imported most of the modern European J2a, especially to Northwestern Europe. Probably also J2b expanded out of the Balkan to Western Europe mainly in this period. The migration was probably driven by commerce, trade, military movements and (re)settling of free land."
    J2-M172 Haplogroup research - Cultural History
    http://j2-m172.info/links/cultural-history/

    "J2 has been well-studied and can be split into several subgroups, although the modes of individual distribution for those subgroups are not well understood. Many influences, such as Greek and Roman societies, would have played a part."
    Gerardi/Gelardi Family History.
    http://gelardifamily.net/gerardigelardi_dna

    "Il DNA greco/etrusco. L'aplogruppo J2, presente in tutta Europa, è di chiara origine neolitica e mediorientale. Fenici, Etruschi, Grecie da ultimo Romani (e, a nostro parere, anche i Bizantini), contribuirono a diffonderlo in Europa, fermo restando il fondo derivante dall'invasione neolitica. I confini della maggior diffusione di J2 presentano una notevole somiglianza con quelli dell'Impero romano, in accordo con quanto detto in precedenza. Tuttavia, per quanto riguarda la Padania, la sua presenza è piuttosto messa inrelazione con l'influenza etrusca. Un esame della distribuzione di J2 mostra come tale aplogruppo, in Padania, abbia una consistenza relativamente alta solo in una ristretta fascia attorno alla costa adriatica. Nel resto della Padania le percentuali sono paragonabili a quelle dell'area centro europea (ad est) ed iberica (ad ovest). Il pensiero, a nostro parere, non può non andare alle colonie greco-etrusche di Adria eSpina ed anche all'influenza bizantina a Venezia. Ricordiamo che già gli studi di Cavalli Sforza avevano messo in luce una (minoritaria) influenza greca nelle zone considerate. Ci sembra quindi che J2, in Padania, derivi principalmente dal fondo neolitico e, sulla costa adriatica, dal ben noto contributo greco ed etrusco (e bizantino)."
    DNA barbarico (e non) in Padania.
    http://www.academia.edu/7391890/DNA_...non_in_Padania

    "Lo si riscontra nella metà della popolazione europea e lo si può considerare un carattere comune», ha detto Capocasa, illustrando anche l'aplogruppo K, originato in Asia occidentale fra 32 e 40mila anni fa nella zona caucasica, lo stesso a cui appartiene Ötzi, la mummia di 5.300 anni fa trovata con il suo corredo sul ghiacciaio del Similaun e custodita a Bolzano. Nella popolazione di Sappada questo aplogruppo ha una frequenza del 50 per cento. Per l'aplogruppo del cromosoma Y, trasmesso solo dal padre ai figli, la prevalenza è di J2 (24 per cento) e R1b (31)."
    L'Arena.it - Il Dna racconta la vicinanza dei cimbri.
    http://www.larena.it/stories/Home/41...za_dei_cimbri/

    "En 1996, Ornella Semino fut la première à identifier des marqueurs spécifiques du chromosome Y présentant une répartition similaire aux gradients de Cavalli-Sforza. Les haplogroupes J2 et E1b1b furent ainsi décrits comme les premiers marqueurs moléculaires de la néolithisation de l’Europe à partir du Proche Orient (Rosser et al. 2000; Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2000)."
    Universite de Toulouse - La Néolithisation du bassin méditerranéen:Apports de l’ADN ancien.
    http://thesesups.ups-tlse.fr/1392/1/2011TOU30177.pdf

    "Durante il Neolitico i migranti introducono le varianti E3B1 e J2, il 27% delle variazioni genetiche totali, basate sull'analisi dei polimorfismi indicano un chiaro gradiente di distribuzione della popolazione italiana sull'asse nord-sud della penisola. Le variazioni introdotte nel Neolitico non sembrano essere dovute a flussi migratori provenienti dalla Spagna, ma si configurano come migrazioni provenienti dall'Asia o dall'Anatolia attraverso l'attuale area Balcanica: le migrazioni degli indoeuropei."
    Antichi Liguri: dai Primordi ai Megaliti.
    http://sanremomediterranea.blogspot....-megaliti.html

    "- J: la presenza di un suo sottogruppo, J2, nelle colonie greche del sud Italia sembra sia indicatrice di antenati ellenici."
    Genealogia del DNA di Gianni Cordola nato a Condove (Torino - Italia) nel 1947.
    http://www.cordola.it/wp-content/upl...-risultati.pdf

    "Un mot de l'haplogroupe J , cousin du proche orient dont la branche J2 a justement été l'une des diffusions néolithiques avec un peuplement significatif en Italie du sud, d'où les romains l'on diffusé dans leur empire."
    Agora Vox - Une Europe encore floue.
    http://www.agoravox.fr/actualites/eu...re-floue-11258

    "A J2-M172 alcsoportot legnagyobb gyakorisággal a „Termékeny Félhold”, Kaukázus, Anatólia, Balkán, Olaszország, a „Mediterrán medence”, az Iráni plató, Közép-Ázsia és Dél-Ázsia területén lehet megtalálni, korát kb. 18 500 + 3 500 évre becsülik (Nasidze és mtsai, 2003; Semino és mtsai, 2004). Mediterrán területeken való fő elterjedési hulláma a feltételezések szerint egybeesett a mezőgazdaság a neolitikumi elterjedésével (Semino és mtsai, 2004). ...... A fő haplocsoportok magyar populációban történt meghatározása után a markerválsztás úgy történt, hogy a nagy gyakorisággal előforduló fő haplocsoportokon belül vizsgálható legyen azoknak az alhaplocsoportoknak a jelenléte, melyeknek feltételezhető az előfordulása a magyar populációban: E1b1b1-M35; E1b1b1a-M78; E1b1b1b-M81; E1b1b1c-M123, G1a-P20; G2a-P15, I1-M253; I2a-P37.2; I2b-M223, J1a-M62; J2-M172; J2a1-M47; J2a2-M67; J2a3-M68; J2a4-M137; J2a5-M158; J2b-M12 (M102), R1-M173; R1a-SRY10831.2; R1a1-M198; R1b1-P25."
    Magyar populáció genetikai elemzése nemi kromoszómális.
    http://teo.elte.hu/minosites/ertekez...go-zalan_a.pdf

    "Genetska skupina J se je razvila pred 30000 leti na Bližnjem Vzhodu.Iz nje se je pred 15000-22000 leti, verjetno na severu Mezopotamije, razvila J2, ki je značilna tudi za Evropo. To skupino tudi povezujejo z neolitsko ekspanzijo iz severne Mezopotamije oz. pogorja Zagros, ki pa je, morda bolj kot s poljedelstvom, povezana z živinorejo (koze, govedo). Drugi večji val, ki bi lahko v Evropo zanesel J2 skupino, je bil morda metalurški (baker), iz severne Mezopotamije, centralne Anatolije in spodnjega toka Donave. Skupina J2 je povezana tudi s Hetiti, Etruščani, Minojci, Grki, Feničani, Kartažani, Izraeli in z vsemi velikimi pomorskimi ljudstvi bronaste in železne dobe, v manjšem odstotku tudi z Rimljani, Asirci in Perzijci. V Evropi je največ te skupine na Kreti, v Grčiji, Turčiji, južni Italiji, še posebej na vzhodu Sicilije, med evropskimi Judi in Vlahi na Balkanu ter v Albaniji (20-34%). Skupina J2 se deli na dve glavni skupini: J2a (M410) in J2b (M102). Imata precej različno zgodovino. Prvo povezujejo z Etruščani, z grškimi, feničanskimi in rimljanskimi kolonizacijami in migracijami v času Bizantinskega imperija, drugo pa z neolitsko JV Evropo, Balkanom, kasneje z bakrenodobnimi kulturami na Balkanu, v centralni Evropi in Italiji) pa tudi z Indoevropejci, čeprav v zelo majhnem deležu. V Evropi je največ prve na Kreti in v Kalabriji, druge pa v Albaniji, Črni Gori, na Kosovu in v SZ Grčiji."
    Slovensko Rodoslovno Drustvo - Slovenski DNK bazen znotraj Balkana in Evrope.
    http://rodoslovje.si/index.php/sl/do...kana-in-evrope

    "Ród J2 powstał około 18000 lat temu na Bliskim Wschodzie, a największe jego zagęszczenie znajduje się w rejonie Libanu i Syrii – około 25%. Ludność ta rozwijała się w rejonie tzw. Żyznego Półksiężyca – pasa ziemi idącego łukiem od Dolnej Mezopotamii, poprzez podgórze irańskiego Zagrosu, Syrię i Liban ku delcie Nilu. Tam wziął swój początek upraw zbożowych i hodowli bydła. Na terenie Syrii ludność ta stworzyła najstarszą kulturę ceramiczną, tzw. ceramikę impresso lub „cardium pottery” (ceramika kardialna): pierwsze garnki z wypalanej gliny ozdabiano odciskami muszli skorupiaków morskich, zwanych po łacinie cardium (stąd nazwa cardium pottery). Na przełomie mezolitu i neolitu, około 5500 przed Chrystusem, pod wpływem napierających innych plemion ze Wschodu, ludność kultury impresso ruszyła na Zachód, osiedlając się na wyspach Morza Śródziemnego i na południowych nadmorskich krańcach Europy, od Grecji po Hiszpanię, dając im pierwsze zaczątki neolitu z ceramiką i rolnictwem. W Polsce ludności haplogrupy J2 jest ponad 5%."
    Almanach Muszyny - Genetyka odsłania tajemnice pochodzenia ludności w dorzeczu Dunajca i jego sąsiedztwie.
    http://www.almanachmuszyny.pl/spisy/...20odslania.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 05-09-14 at 03:13.

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    Quote Originally Posted by adamo View Post
    J2-M172 is split into two main clades: J2a (M410) which is the predominant variety of J2 and is found across the Middle East, turkey, Crete and parts of Italy. The other is J2b (M12) which is heaviest in the Balkans among Greeks, Albanians and I guess a rare few Bulgarians and Macedonians....after that it's European distribution takes place at very low % although it CAN rarely be found among a few European or even Armenian/middle eastern J2 samples. J2b is present in north-central Italy at a surprising frequency of 9.6% of male lineages....high frequencies are reported in Thessaly, Greece (9%) and Macedonia (7%).....it can also be found on Crete (3% of male lineages.....).it seems to be associated with the Balkan Greeks although they may have spread some J2a as well. j2a on the other hand, is frequent on Crete, in southern Italy and on Anatolia, indicating a movement of people's from turkey towards Italy. Overall, J2, a Mesopotamian genetic marker is found in Africa in a maximum of 8-12% of Egyptian males....8% of Tunisians belong to J2 as well. In Europe, the high's in order are recorded as being; (Marche region of central Italy (35.6%), western Calabria, southern Italy (35.1%), the island of Crete (35%), Tras Os Montes Portuguese Jews (24.5%), Sicilians (23%), Maltese people (21%), mainland Italy (20%), mainland Greece (18%), Cyprus (13%), Canary Islands (10%) etc. in the north Caucasus it is extremely heavy in Ingush people (88%) and among Chechens (57%). It can also be found in 20% of Circassian men. It varies between 20-72% of Georgian male lineages depending on the region with a high in the extreme north near Mount Kazbek. The countrie's average is about 30% though. It can be found in 20-30% of Armenians, between 24-48% of Azerbaijani lineages, and about 25% of Iranian lines. Both Sephardic and Askhkenazi Jews have 15-25%. In turkey 25-30% of men are J2, same for Lebanon and Syria has more towards 20%. Iraq can have as much as 43% J2. J2 was thought to have originated as a Turko-Syrid haplogroup but more evidence is emerging that it originated farther to the north towards Georgia or Armenia, with the first metallurgist civilizations of the Middle East.
    J2b among Greeks is also low about 3%. J2a Anatolian, is the main marker of Greeks. Albanians cluster about 16% J2b.

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    "The Guambiano-speaking group shows both the Q1a3a1a*-M3 (0.483) and the Q1a3*-M346 (0.310) lineages at similar proportions, and the remaining 0.207 of the Y chromosomes belong to the European haplogroups R1b1-P25 and J2-M172. In the Chibcha-speaking group the Native American lineage Q1a3*-M346 is absent, and only four individuals present the M3 derived lineage Q1a3a1a* (0.333), while the non-Native American linages are present at a higher frequency (0.667) and represented by haplogroups R1b1-P25, G-M201, J2-M172, E1b1b1a1-M78 and E1b1b1c-M123 (0.500) that are typical in Europeans, and by two samples from the sub-Saharan African E1b1a1*-M2 haplogroup (0.167). Despite its small sample size, Sub-Saharan haplogroups were detected only in the Chibcha group, similarly to the results obtained for mtDNA."
    Admixture and Genetic Diversity Distribution Patterns of Non-Recombining Lineages of Native American Ancestry in Colombian Populations.
    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0120155

    "The presence of other Y-chromosomal haplogroups: E-V13, E-M81, E-M34, J1-M267, J2-M172, I1-M253, I2-P215 and G2a-P15 would be interpreted as a consequence of the genetic history linked to the Iberian Peninsula, especially, to Andalusia, with a long, prevailing contacts with the Mediterranean world. ... By contrast, the J2-M172 seems to be related to Greek and Phoenicians colonies that were well stablished at least from the first millennium BC in the Peninsula, particularly in littoral Andalusia."
    Surnames and Y-Chromosomal Markers Reveal Low Relationships in Southern Spain.
    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0123098

    "We found only four haplogroups in the Malana population, Haplogroup J2a1h accounted for 60% of all Y chromosomes. Other haplogroups were R1a (about 27%), H (10%), and L (3%). The Bayesian probability was greater than 62% in all the samples. ... Malana, a remote plateau in the upper reaches (altitude 2,633 m) of Parvati valley in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India, is the home of a mysterious group of people commonly known as Malanis (Figure 1). Rosser (1955) described Malana as a hermit village with an aspect of cohesiveness and intense group loyalty that sustains a virulent and suspicious community attitude toward outsiders. Formidable mountain barriers on three sides—namely, Chandrakhani (3,677 m), Deo-Tibba (3,732 m), and Rashol Jot (3,238 m)—coupled with the curious efforts of the people to retain their cultural and social uniqueness have ensured virtual biological isolation of the village from the surrounding societies."
    The Most Ancient Democracy in the World is a Genetic Isolate: An Autosomal and Y-Chromosome Study of the Hermit Village of Malana (Himachal Pradesh, India)
    http://www.bioone.org/doi/10.3378/02..._pub%3Dpubmed&

    "Haplogroup J (samples 763–921) (Figure 7), a cluster of lineages with putative south-west Asian origin and diffusion and with a significant presence in the Mediterranean area, was observed here with its main subgroups represented, J1c-M267 and J2-M172. The two sister clades, J1 and J2, have a dissimilar distribution, possibly reflecting different settlement pathways. J1-M267 has peaks in the Levant and in Northern Africa, while clade J2-M172 has higher frequencies in Anatolia and Mesopotamia, and decreases westwards."
    Detection of phylogenetically informative polymorphisms in the entire euchromatic portion of human Y chromosome from a Sardinian sample.
    http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-05...t_view=classic

    "We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages."
    Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25397702

    "De allerhoogste genetische diversiteit vonden de onderzoekers in Tongeren. En dat heeft toch met Romeinse roots te maken, zij het meer praktisch: “Dankzij de goede wegen, de Romeinse heirbanen, had Tongeren veel contact met het Rijnland, Maastricht en Keulen."
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven - Middeleeuwse Vlaming bleef niet onder de kerktoren.
    http://nieuws.kuleuven.be/node/14793...n=CKFeb-alumni

    "Het grafveld aan de Pasestraat te Borgharen is aangelegd op de locatie van een (hoofd?) gebouw van een Romeinse villa. De keuze voor een dergelijke locatie mag als betekenisvol worden beschouwd, bijvoorbeeld binnen een strategie voor het verwoorden van claims op het landschap via een claim op de woonplaats van vorige bewoners, die als voorouders kunnen zijn beschouwd. ... Daarnaast is voor alle (mogelijk) mannelijke individuen, ook van het voorgaande onderzoek, getracht de Y haplogroep te typeren. Dit was alleen mogelijk voor de individuen 15 en 20, aan wie haplogroep J2 toegekend kon worden. Met onze methode kan J2 niet verder opgesplitst worden. Voor individu 15 is tijdens het vorige onderzoek op basis van het Y-STR-profiel de haplogroep J2a1 voorspeld. Inmiddels kan dit verfijnd worden tot J2a1b (99% waarschijnlijkheid). Voor individu 20 is op basis van het Y-STR profiel de haplogroep J2b voorspeld (100% waarschijnlijkheid). In beide gevallen bevestigen de voorspelde haplogroepen de getypeerde haplogroepen. Y-haplogroep J2 komt bij 2,7% van de Nederlandse mannen voor en is nu dus relatief zeldzaam in Nederland."
    Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - Merovingers in een Villa 2, Romeinse villa en Merovingisch grafveld Borgharen.
    http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/sites/def...en_villa_2.pdf

    "De plus, dans ces études, des comparaisons d’haplotypes entre des sites phéniciens et des sites non‐phéniciens ont permis de déterminer des haplogroupes avec une signature phénicienne : Haplogroupe J2 et particulièrement six short sequence repeat du chromosome Y."
    Universite de Portiers - Multiples conséquences physiopathologiques de mutations et d'allèles complexes du gène CFTR.
    http://nuxeo.edel.univ-poitiers.fr/n...e-4656d5674715

    "The PCA also illustrate the genetic affinity of Levantine populations to Europeans especially Italians. In fact, both groups present relatively high frequencies of J-M172 and share some other lineages in particular I-M170 and T-M70. ... Sousse, particularly, possesses a relatively high frequency of haplogroup J-M172 (~9%) that is absent in all of the remaining Tunisian populations with the exception of Andalusians (~3%). Haplogroup J-M172 has been associated with population movements in the Fertile Crescent during the Neolithic Agricultural revolution. Today, it is very frequent in the Levant, Anatolia and Iran and its recent spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550–300 BC). According to Zalloua and collaborators43 evidence of Phoenician influence in Tunisian is apparent by the presence of the J-M172 Y-chromosome haplogroup in coastal regions considered as areas of Phoenician contact (versus inland). ... The J-M172 haplogroup associated with the Phoenician expansion is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin and Asia. It is thought that the Phoenicians originated in what is today coastal Lebanon and subsequently founded and settled several city-states in the Mediterranean including in North Africa. In Tunisia, their population number was estimated, at the end of their dominion, to be 100 000 compared with 500 000 Berbers. It is important to note that although the most famous city founded by the Phoenicians was Carthage, they also established the settlements of Utique and Sousse. Interestingly, Sousse is the only Phoenician town in Tunisia that has been continuously inhabited since its foundation and it is the only population where the J-M172 Phoenician paternal marker is detected. ... A more recent potential Middle Eastern genetic contribution to the North Africa gene pool may be associated with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Sousse also may have been specifically impacted by the Turkish occupation of North Africa. Yet, the unique presence of J-M172 in Sousse and its absence from other Tunisian regions that were under Ottoman influence argues for J-M172 in Sousse as a Phoenician signal."
    Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa.
    http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v6...hg201499a.html

    "The main haplogroups responsible for the Central/Inner Asian admixture among Hungarians are J2*-M172 (xM47, M67, M12), J2-L24, R1a-Z93; Q-M242 and E-M78."
    Testing Central and Inner Asian admixture among contemporary Hungarians.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468443

    "European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans."
    Ancestral modal Y-STR haplotype shared among Romani and South Indian populations.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609956

    "Our results indicate that approximately 58% of Serbian Y-chromosomes (I1-M253, I2a-P37.2 and R1a1a-M198) belong to lineages believed to be pre-Neolithic. On the other hand, the signature of putative Near Eastern Neolithic lineages, including E1b1b1a1-M78, G2a-P15, J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1a2-M269 accounts for 39% of the Y-chromosome."
    High levels of Paleolithic Y-chromosome lineages characterize Serbia.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310393
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-05-15 at 03:14.

  22. #22
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    "The Toba population has a higher prevalence of haplogroup Q1a3a-M3 lineages when compared with the Colla population (86% vs. 34%) but exhibits a much lower frequency of chromosomes belonging to the haplogroups J2 (2% vs. 14%) and R1b1 (4% vs. 41%) than does the Colla population. ... Two other haplogroups, J2-M172 and T-M70, that are usually present in Western European populations, have also been found in the two Amerindian samples (Rosser et al., 2000; Brio´n et al., 2004; Beleza et al., 2006). ... The presence of European male lineages pervades most Native American populations, although with a very different degree of admixture (Salas et al., 2009). Taken together, European ancestry contributes to 62% of the paternal lineages existing in the contemporary Colla community, represented by haplogroups J2, R1b1, and T, and to 10% of the current Toba community, represented by haplogroups E1b1b1b, J2, and R1b1."
    Male Lineages in South American Native Groups: Evidence of M19 Traveling South
    http://www.researchgate.net/profile/...8b29fd15ef.pdf

    "About 94% of all samples were either of European or Native American ancestry (Figure 76). That is, 65.4% were of European origin comprising R1b1-P25 (including R1b1b2-M269), I-M170 (including I2a2-M26), G-M201, and J-M304 (including J1a-M62 and J2-M172) and 28.3% of Native American origin like P and Q (including Q1a3a-M3)."
    Genetic Ancestry of the Bolivian Population.
    dspace.usc.es/bitstream/10347/13313/1/rep_837.pdf

    "On the other hand, haplogroups with a comparatively higher European presence such as M172, M201 and M173 (comprising SRY1532 and M17) were only detected in the historical sample, therefore, they most probably reached the islands after the European conquest."
    La evolución genetica de las poblaciones humanas canarias: determinación mediante marcadores autosómicos y uniparentales.
    ftp://tesis.bbtk.ull.es/ccppytec/cp330.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 15-05-15 at 17:44.

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    0 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    "Three new haplogroups appeared at the turn of the Middle/ Late Neolithic in Transdanubia, the E1b1b1a1 (M78), the C (M216) and the J2 (M172). .... Haplogroup J2 (M172) has today its highest frequency in the Caucasus and Iraq (Mesopotamia), and in the geographic region of Levant. In early modern genetic studies, J2 (together with F and G) was claimed to be an indicator of the Neolithic expansion (Semino et al., 2000), based on the clinal pattern of its frequency among the modern European and Western Asian populations. The theory has been further specified since the early 2000ies, and frequency distribution plots and surface distribution maps have revealed the J2a (M410) (Sengupta et al., 2006) as a possible marker for early farmers’ eastward migration in Central Asia. Furthermore, the subgroup J2b (M12) has also been suggested as a marker for the European Neolithic expansion (King et al., 2008). Its less frequent occurrence in modern west Turkey (Cinnioğlu et al., 2004), but more frequent appearance in Greece has been even interpreted as an indication for a maritime route of Neolithic colonisation in South Europe (King et al., 2008). It is interesting, that J2 (M172) has not been detected in Neolithic context yet, and it is not present in the western Carpathian Early/Middle Neolithic dataset either. It might have come first with the people of the Late Neolithic cultures into Transdanubia, which means either that it is not the marker for the earliest dispersal of farmers, or that it halted in southeastern Europe for about millennium, before reaching the Carpathian Basin."
    Molecular genetic investigation of the Neolithic population history in the western Carpathian Basin.
    http://ubm.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte...75/pdf/doc.pdf

    "A total of 1057 of the samples were used in an initial pilot genotyping project, which included cell lines from 99 Orcadian samples previously collected by the laboratory. The samples were genotyped with a number of markers that were chosen because they have been used to differentiate populations by many different studies over the years. Specifically, they were: HLA20, 21, 22 (typed at a low-medium resolution, Table 2, Supplementary Table 1), MC1R (R151C (rs1805007) and R160W (rs1805008), the minor alleles of which are associated with red hair23),24, 25 ABO26, 27 (rs7853989, the SNP that differentiates alleles A and B) and the Y chromosome (NRY). The six most common NRY halogroups2 were typed (Table 2) as defined by specific SNPs (R1a1 (rs3908), F(xI/J2/R1) (rs2032652), E (rs9306841), I (rs2032597), J2 (rs2032604) and R1(xR1a1) (rs2032624))."
    People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011127a.html

    "According to most historians, Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy. However, based on some key facts in the discoverer's biography, as well as in the linguistic analysis of his texts, some historians and linguists believe that Columbus could have been of Catalan origin. A Ligurian Columbus would have carried the Colombo surname, whereas he would have been called Colom if he were Catalan. In order to test whether it would be possible to discriminate between a Ligurian or a Catalan origin were Columbus' Y-chromosome haplotype to be retrieved, we genotyped 17 Y-chromosome STRs in 238 Spanish (from Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands) and French Colom men, and 114 North Italian Colombo (from Liguria, Lombardy, and Piedmont). ... Each individual was allocated to a haplogroup using a Bayesian approach11 as implemented in Haplogroup Predictor (http://www.hprg.com/hapest5/), with the ‘Area Selection’ field set to ‘Equal priors’; haplotypes with a posterior probability <95% were left unclassified. J2a1 and its subgroups (J2a1b, and J2a1h) were pooled, as Haplogroup Predictor often failed to discriminate among them with the current 17-STR haplotypes. ... Haplogroups were inferred for each individual based on their STR haplotypes. A previous validation study (see Methods) showed that 302 out of 307 (98.4%) Catalan, Valencian, and Balearic Y-chromosome STR haplotypes could be allocated to a haplogroup, and only three haplogroup assignments (1%) were erroneous: R1b3*, J2, and K(xP) chromosomes were called as R1a, J1, and R1b, respectively. Haplogroup frequencies are shown in Table 1."
    Surname and Y chromosome in Southern Europe: a case study with Colom/Colombo.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011162a.html

    "The compositions and frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups identified by genotyping 23 biallelic loci of its nonrecombining region (YAP, 92R7, DYF155S2, 12f2, Tat, M9, M17, M25, M89, M124, M130, M170, M172, M174, M173, M178, M201, M207, M242, M269, P21, P25, and P37) have been determined in a sample of 68 Belarussians. Eleven haplogroups have been found in the Belarussian gene pool (E, F*, G, I, I1b, J2, N3a*, Q*, R1*, R1a1, and R1b3). Haplogroup R1a1 is the most frequent; it includes 46% of all Y chromosomes in this sample. The frequencies of haplogroups I1b and I are 17.6 and 7.3%, respectively. Haplogroup N3a* is the next in frequency. The frequencies of haplogroups E, J2, and R1b3 are 4.4% each; that of R1* is 3%; and those of F*, G, and Q* are 1.5% each."
    Frequencies of Y chromosome binary haplogroups in Belarussians.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16161635

    "Malana is considered to be one of the first democracies in the world.[citation needed] According to tradition, the residents of Malana are the descendant of Aryans[citation needed], and they acquired their independence during the Mughal reign when the Emperor Akbar walked to the village in order to cure an ailment that he was afflicted with[citation needed]; after having been successfully cured he put out an edict stating that all the inhabitants of the valley would never be required to pay tax. An alternative tradition suggests that Malana was founded by remnants of Alexander the Great's Army. ... There are various legends about their origin. According to one of them, it is believed that they are the descendants of Greek soldiers of Alexander's army. As the legend goes, some soldiers took refuge in this remote land after Alexander left the country and later settled there permanently. This myth is however disputed because there are those who claim that it is the valley of Kalash, in Pakistan that is actually the area in which Alexander the Great's soldiers took refuge. This legend is also inconsistent with the legendary descent of the local people from Indo-Aryans who would pre-date Alexander the Great's soldiers by approximately a thousand years. Recent genetic typing of the Malani population is more consistent with an Indo-Aryan origin with a large proportion of Y-DNA haplotypes J2 and R1a associated with Indo-Aryan influences in South Asia than with a Greek origin which would have a different characteristic mix of Y-DNA haplotypes."
    Wikipedia - Malana Himachal Pradesh
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malana,_Himachal_Pradesh
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-07-15 at 02:46.

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    "Hello all! I'm a writer of several non-fiction books (including 'The Year of Living Biblically' and 'Drop Dead Healthy.' My next book is about genealogy and tracing my roots. And for the finale of the book, I plan to throw the largest family reunion in history. You're invited! All seven billion members of the human family are welcome. ... AJ Jacobs's DNA has been tested for genealogical purposes. It may be possible to confirm family relationships by comparing test results with AJ or other carriers of his ancestors' Y-chromosome or mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree: AJ Jacobs - Family Tree DNA yDNA 111 markers Haplogroup J-PF5456."
    Wikitree - AJ Jacobs.
    http://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Jacobs-2987

  25. #25
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    "The haplogroups J2* and E3b* were on average about 1.5-times more frequent in Germany than in Poland (Table 2, Fig. 1) and haplogroup P*(xR1) was on average 4.3-times more frequent in Germany than in Poland (Table 2, Fig. 1); however, all those haplogroups were overall rather rare and the frequency differences between German and Polish groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The remaining haplogroups, DE*(xE3b), F*(xI,J2,K), and K*(xN3,P), are not necessarily representing monophyletic groups—given the selection of markers analysed here—and potentially contain a number of different haplogroups. Differences between Polish and German groups were statistically significant for F*(xI,J2,K) (Z=2.396, P=0.017), but not for DE*(xE3b), and K*(xN3,P) (P>0.05)."
    Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis.
    http://www.zgms.cm.umk.pl/prace/428-443.pdf

    "A markedly higher frequency of haplogroup J noted at the northern island Krk might be a consequence of the fact that the island was most exposed to the immigrations from the mainland. During the Ottoman invasions to the Balkans population groups from the Adriatic hinterland (Dinarides) and Western Balkan area sought refuge at the eastern Adriatic islands. These populations often referred to as 'Vlachs' or 'Morlachs' included a few families of Romanian origin (sometimes described as descendants of the Roman army veterans as well) who left numerous traces of their presence at Krk."
    Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5200992a.html

    "Recent studies of the Y-chromosomal paternal haplogroups E (M78), J1 (M267) and J2 (M172) strongly suggest continuous Mesolithic, Neolithic and post-Neolithic gene flows within Southeast Europe, and between Europe and the Near East in both directions."
    Facets of the past - The challenge of the Balkan Neo-Eneolithic.
    http://www.cimec.ro/pdf/dl.asp?filen...ithic-2008.pdf

    "The J2-M172 has been associated with different cultures and populations in history, such as Mediterranean/Aegan, Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and Caucasian."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "Worldwide spatial distribution of haplogroup (HG) J2a-M410 coincides with presence of archaeological records of painted pottery and ceramic figurine culture."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "J2b-M102/M12 HG in India comprises largely of J2b2-M241 chromosomes with minor presence of J2b1-M205 in northwest (NW) region."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "J2a-M410 can be seen along the northwest border of South Asia reaching up to South India. However, it shows a drastic decline towards East of India, consistent with our previous study. Unlike J2a-M410, J2b-M102 is concentrated in Eastern India (Fig. 1b)."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "The spatial distribution of J2a-M410 throughout Middle East and Central Asia is overlapped by presence of Neolithic artifacts such as painted pottery and ceramic culture. The earliest precursor known of Indus Valley civilization, Mehrgarh (NW of Indian subcontinent, now in Pakistan), provides one of the oldest (~9KYA) evidences of origin of agriculture and plant domestication suited by early Holocene climate. Additionally, these Neolithic sites of Mehrgarh showed the earliest evidence of transformation of subsistence from hunting-gathering to settled agriculture owing to the idea that the first farmers from Indus were agro-pastoral, and semi-nomadic people. It is interesting to note that the concentration of J2a-M410 over the geography largely mimics the agricultural centres."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "Genetic relatedness of NW Indians with population to West from NW border and remarkable presence of J2-M172 HGs in remote Indian tribes along with other social strata, may represent the early Holocene expansion in NW India (including the Indus Valley) diffusing towards Central Asia and spreading agriculture eastwards to the Gangetic plains during pre-Harappan times (6-7 KYA)."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "A vast arid region of Iran and Afghanistan lies in between Near East and Indus Valley, leaving possibility of rainfall agriculture only in the foothills and cul-de-sac valleys. Yet, the area was not an undefeatable geographical barrier for Neolithic spread. Some sections of the Silk Road (route South of the Caspian sea) connecting Badakhshan (north-eastern Afghanistan and south-eastern Tajikistan) with West Asia, Egypt and India were in use by 5 KYA. Other section of Silk Road connecting Badakhshan to the Mesopotamian plains (the Great Khorasan Road) was in use by 6 KYA. Archaeological evidences support similarities among widely separated Neolithic sites in these regions and plausibility of migration of population."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "J2a1b-M67 and J2a-M92 lineages have been well correlated temporally and spatially with the spread of earliest farmers and Bronze Age cultures in Anatolia, south-eastern Europe and Mediterranean."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "Though, the genealogical ages for Indian J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 are correlating with appearance of agriculture in Indus Valley (~6KYA) and Mehrgarh (~9KYA) and falling well within the Neolithic range, differential presence and distribution of J2-M172 sublineages and other associated HGs depict a complex picture."
    Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.
    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

    "Außerdem ergab die DNAAnalyse, daß der Haplotypus dem Haplotypus J zuzuordnen ist, der durch die genetischen Marker (marqueurs génétiques) 12f2 charakterisiert ist. Dieser Haplotypus weist eine Untergruppe J2 auf, die durch die Marker M172 und M12 determiniert ist."
    Union Civium Europae - Neues vom Turiner Grabtuch. (German)
    http://www.nachrichten-lebensrecht.d...r13kpl0702.pdf

    "Haplogroup J has a wide distribution, straddling the northern and southern Mediterranean coastline, spreading into the Middle East and terminating in India. The most common variant of haplogroup J in Europe is the J2-M172 haplogroup."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "The J-M172 mutation attains low to moderate frequencies in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. It is found at moderate levels in the Mediterranean."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "Reports concerning haplogroup J2-M172 variation in Europe often attempt to find sub-haplogroups of J2a-M410 and J2b-M12/M102 to further explain local population histories. For example, Di Giacomo and others maintains that J2a2a-M92 represents a Bronze Age expansion in ancient Greece (2004: 367). In another example, King and others argue that J2a1h-M319 represents a Bronze Age expansion to Crete from mainland Greece (King et al. 2008: 210-211)."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "In Turkey, the purported source of J2 in Europe, J2a represents about 23% of the gene pool, and about 93% of J2 lineages. J2b, on the other hand, represents less than 2% of the gene pool, and about 7% of J2 lineages. However, in the Balkans, J2b represents 5.45% of the gene pool, and an astonishing 60% of all J2 lineages."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "Interestingly, J2a represents about 40% of the J2-M172 variation in the Balkans, and about 60% of the variation in Greece. J2b, on the other hand, represents 40% of the J2 variation in Greece. Arguably, based on these statistics, J2a and J2b are almost equally represented in Greece and in the Balkans. However, J2a is the overwhelming J2-M172 variant in Italy, as well as on the islands of Crete and Sicily."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "However, I believe the most significant conclusion that can be drawn from the data in Chapters Four and Five is the occasional correlation between the genetic and linguistic diversity. This correlation seems especially robust for Proto-Basque and the Scandinavian I-Group (cf Sections 4.2.1 and 5.7) Germanic languages and the Scandinavian I-Group (cf. Sections 4.2.1 and 5.12), the Western R-Group and Celtic (Sections 4.1.1 and 5.12), the Finno-Baltic N-Group and Uralic languages (Sections 4.3 and 5.6), the Near Eastern J-Group and Proto-Indo-European languages (Sections 4.5 and 5.4), and the European E-Group and Afroasiatic languages (Sections 4.4 and 5.3)."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "Among the migrations that traversed the Iranian corridor was one that carried the J-M172 from the Middle East to Pakistan and India (Regueiro et al 2006: 140). In my opinion, this migration from Anatolia may explain the source of Indo-European languages found in India."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "According to Renfrew, Ancient Proto-Indo-European was spoken by the Linearbandkeramik culture, the initial expansion of agriculture in Europe, a migration that terminated at the southern border of the Germanic homeland at around 5500 to 5000 BC (40-42). The Near Eastern J-Group, as well as the Western and Eastern R-Groups, represent potential contributors to the Danish gene pool during the Neolithic, and by extension, were potentially the first speakers of Indo-European languages in this area. About seven percent of Danes have the J-M172 mutation, the genetic signature of the Near Eastern J-Group and the initial spread of Indo-European language across Eurasia (Sections 4.5 and 5.4)."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "Based on the available genetic data for prehistoric population expansions, it appears that the roots of Germanic languages extend into the Mesolithic (cf. Section 4.2.1 for a discussion of the Scandinavian I-Group). Later population expansions into Scandinavia, the Western European R-Group (cf. Section 4.1.1) and Eastern R-Group (cf. Section 4.1.2), as well as the Near Eastern J-Group (cf. Section 4.5), also made a contribution to the evolution of Germanic."
    Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
    http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.ed...028E_12186.pdf

    "The most common haplogroups in the Faroese sample ~ RIa, RIb, and 11 ~ constitute 42%, 25%, and 21%, of the data set, respectively. Rare haplogroups are also found in the sample at low frequencies. Haplogroup Jl constitutes 4%, Q 3%, Elblb 1%, and 12bl, 12b(xI2bl), 12a(xI2al), L, and N combined make up 5% of the total data set (one individual per haplogroup) (Table 3). Rare haplogroups found in source populations include G2a, J2b, J2alb, and 12al (data not shown). Of the rare haplogroups found in the Faroese, six were found in one or more source population."
    Vikings, merchants, and pirates at the top of the world : Y-chromosomal signatures of recent and ancient migrations in the Faroe Islands.
    http://ir.library.louisville.edu/cgi...00&context=etd

    "Tree branches of of J2 spread west along the Mediteranean. One of these (M102*), like I1b2 and E M78-alpha, appears to have taken the Balkan route (via Albania) to Italy (northern italy in this instance), ending up in Bearnais in south-west France without circuiting Spain. The other two (M67* & M92) can also be traced strongly to Italy, with a more southern centre of gravity."
    The Origins of the British: The New Prehistory of Britain.
    https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=1780337671

    "The overall effect of J2 on Britain was largly similar to E3b and I2b2, in its size and wide southern British distribution, except that J2 is represented in Scotland with the highest frequency of 7,3% in the old Pictish town of Pitlochry and largly missed out on in Wales. Multiple J clusters show founding episodes dating to the Neolithic period in southern Britain."
    The Origins of the British: The New Prehistory of Britain.
    https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=1780337671

    "In competition with the northern J1a gene group, there is geographical evidence that a second main J branch, J2, known as the 'Mediteranean-celtic branch', took the southern route along the coast of the Mediterranean from the Near East via Italy, Sardinia, Spain and portugal, bypassing the Basque Country to the French Atlantic coast. In its distribution thus far, J2 mirrors the spread of Cardial Ware moving west along the Mediterranean. After Brittany, however, J2 jumps across the Channel to the British Isles, where it is now found in particular association with Goidelic-celtic-speaking areas. J2 dates very approximatly to 7000 years in Europe, which within the margin of error, would fit the spread of Cardial Ware. In other word, J2 could be a population marker for the Early Neolithic spread of Cardial Ware pottery along the Mediteranean coast."
    The Origins of the British: The New Prehistory of Britain
    https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=1780337671

    "As expected, the commonest haplogroup is R1b-M269 (43.1%), with highest frequency in the north-west, followed by I1-M253 (13.8%), I2-P215 (9.0%), R1a-M198 (7.5%) and J2-M172 (7.5%)."
    Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing.
    http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/15...comms8152.html

    "Den andra av de två stora haplogrupperna som förknippas med invandrande personer österifrån och sambandet med jordbrukets spridning eller senare perioder, är haplogrupp J. Till skillnad från E som härstammar från norra Afrika, kommer J från området runt Levanten eller Palestina. De undergrupper som är betydande för Europa kommer främst från Anatolien och de uppstod för ungefär 10000-25000 år sedan, men även från Balkan vars ålder på undergrupp J2b1 är runt 8000 år. J2b (mutation J-M12) har stark koppling till E1b1b1 och har en spridning med stora likheter. Den statistiska analysen ger en datering som innebär att den inte spreds från sydöstra Europa till andra delar av södra Europa förrän omkring 2700 f.Kr. eller seklerna närmast därefter. Den saknas helt på Irland och kom sannolikt till de brittiska öarna samtidigt med E1b1b, dels under romersk tid (år 43-410) och dels under anglosaxisk tid (c:a 450-1066)."
    Radio Falköping 90,8 Mhz - Megalitgravar i Europa. (Swedish)
    http://www.fnf.nu/_filer/bagerfeldt/...20Kulturer.pdf

    "Here we report nine ancient genomes (~1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman era York cemetery, bookended by earlier Iron-Age and later Anglo-Saxon burials. ... Strikingly, one Roman skeleton shows a clear signal of exogenous origin, with affinities pointing towards the Middle East, confirming the cosmopolitan character of the Empire, even at its northernmost fringes. ... Sample 3DRIF-26, on the other hand, despite belonging to the same burial context, presented a lineage consistent with haplogroup J2-L228, which has a modern distribution centred on the Middle East, but which is also present in the Caucasus region, the Balkans and Italy."
    Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons.
    http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/16...omms10326.html

    "Sample 3DRIF26 is clearly an exception, both in terms of autosomal variation as in the Ychromosome lineage it presents (J2), common in the Middle East, Caucasus, Balkans and Italy and attributed to neolithic demic migrations or to seafaring Phoenicians."
    Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons - Supplementary Figures.
    http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/16...ms10326-s1.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 20-01-16 at 20:54.

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