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Thread: Corded Ware Culture Signals Population Change in Europe

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    3 members found this post helpful.

    Corded Ware Culture Signals Population Change in Europe

    The study is not yet available, but this is the abstract from a Lazaridis and Haak et al paper to be read at the ASHG Conference in October:

    Capture of 390,000 SNPs in dozens of ancient central Europeans reveals a population turnover in Europe thousands of years after the advent of farming. I. Lazaridis, W. Haak, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, D. Reich.

    To understand the population transformations that took place in Europe since the early Neolithic, we used a DNA capture technique to obtain reads covering ~390 thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of different archaeological cultures of central Europe (Germany and Hungary). The samples spanned the time period from 7,500 BP to 3,500 BP (Early Neolithic to Early Bronze Age periods) and most of them were previously studied using mtDNA (Brandt, Haak et al., Science, 2013). The captured SNPs include about 360,000 SNPs from the Affymetrix Human Origins Array that were discovered in African individuals, as well as about 30,000 SNPs chosen for other reasons (that are thought to have been affected by natural selection, or to have phenotypic effects, or are useful in determining Y-chromosome haplogroups). By analyzing this data together with a dataset of 2,345 present-day humans and other published ancient genomes, we showthat late Neolithic inhabitants belonging to the Corded Ware culture were not a continuation of the earlier occupants of the region.Our results highlight the importance of migration and major population turnover in Europe long after the arrival of farming.

    So, as per the paper, the third genetic wave to hit Europe has now been proven to have been manifested in Corded Ware Culture. I'm sure there will be lots of goodies in the paper. I can't wait to read it.

    Thanks to Dienekes for giving excerpts on his blog about all the upcoming papers.


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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    The study is not yet available, but this is the abstract from a Lazaridis and Haak et al paper to be read at the Conference in October:

    To understand the population transformations that took place in Europe since the early Neolithic, we used a DNA capture technique to obtain reads covering ~390 thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of different archaeological cultures of central Europe (Germany and Hungary). The samples spanned the time period from 7,500 BP to 3,500 BP (Early Neolithic to Early Bronze Age periods) and most of them were previously studied using mtDNA (Brandt, Haak et al., Science, 2013). The captured SNPs include about 360,000 SNPs from the Affymetrix Human Origins Array that were discovered in African individuals, as well as about 30,000 SNPs chosen for other reasons (that are thought to have been affected by natural selection, or to have phenotypic effects, or are useful in determining Y-chromosome haplogroups). By analyzing this data together with a dataset of 2,345 present-day humans and other published ancient genomes, we showthat late Neolithic inhabitants belonging to the Corded Ware culture were not a continuation of the earlier occupants of the region.Our results highlight the importance of migration and major population turnover in Europe long after the arrival of farming.

    So, as per the paper, the third genetic wave to hit Europe has now been proven to have been manifested in Corded Ware Culture. I'm sure there will be lots of goodies in the paper. I can't wait to read it.

    Thanks to Dienekes for giving excerpts on his blog about all the upcoming papers.
    Yep, could bring lots of excitement, can't wait either.

    So, as per the paper, the third genetic wave to hit Europe has now been proven to have been manifested in Corded Ware Culture.
    Well, they might have been new to Central Europe (Germany and Poland area), but coming from Ukraine possibly (Yamna/Maykop cultures) makes them Europeans too. I hope they've tested someone from Yamna or other steppe culture to let us know where they were from, finally.
    Be wary of people who tend to glorify the past, underestimate the present, and demonize the future.

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    This paper will be online in a month?!!

    [QUOTE/]So, as per the paper, the third genetic wave to hit Europe has now been proven to have been manifested in Corded Ware Culture.[QUOTE]

    I'm a perfectionist so this is just a minor correction. Corded ware was not the first or only introduction of ANE ancestry into "Europe".

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post

    Well, they might have been new to Central Europe (Germany and Poland area), but coming from Ukraine possibly (Yamna/Maykop cultures) makes them Europeans too. I hope they've tested someone from Yamna or other steppe culture to let us know where they were from, finally.
    I'd like to see Corded ware, Yamna, Andronovo, and Urnfield genomes.

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    Great find, Angela. I wonder how much detail will be forthcoming for those of us who won't be attending the conference. Hopefully, the paper will be published immediately after the conference, but that doesn't usually seem to be what happens.

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    Given what we know from the recent farmer study (and others prior) I don't think there are going to be any surprises about who the corded ware men were[spoiler]They are y DNA R1a[/spoiler]. Lactose tolerance and other physical characteristics will be very interesting though.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by motzart View Post
    Given what we know from the recent farmer study (and others prior) I don't think there are going to be any surprises about who the corded ware men were[spoiler]They are y DNA R1a[/spoiler].
    Right, but it will be interesting nonetheless to see if they are R1a-Z280, R1a -Y2395, R1a-CTS4385, R1a-L664, or some extinct line. Also, it will be quite informative to learn the the percentages of ANE, WHG, and EEF, along with lactose tolerance and pigmentation as you mentioned.

    I also wouldn't be surprised if there was some I1 mixed in there also.

    Finally the drought of summer is over and some exciting papers are on the way!

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    Quote Originally Posted by motzart View Post
    Given what we know from the recent farmer study (and others prior) I don't think there are going to be any surprises about who the corded ware men were[spoiler]They are y DNA R1a[/spoiler]. Lactose tolerance and other physical characteristics will be very interesting though.
    All very interesting issues, no doubt, but the most interesting question for me is how do they break down autosomally, i.e. in terms of EEF/ANE/WHG, as well as in terms of comparisons with modern populations? Given that Lazaridis is one of the lead authors, let's hope they provide all of that information.

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    Quote Originally Posted by motzart View Post
    Given what we know from the recent farmer study (and others prior) I don't think there are going to be any surprises about who the corded ware men were[spoiler]They are y DNA R1a[/spoiler]. Lactose tolerance and other physical characteristics will be very interesting though.
    Not only R1a* at all. If I am not wrong, three yDNA where identified so far. two R1a* and one either J,I or E*.

    But it seems that Corded Ware brought R1a* into Europe. It would be interesting to know if Corded Ware wasn't just an extensdion of Proto_IndoIranian

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    Quote Originally Posted by Alan View Post
    Not only R1a* at all. If I am not wrong, three yDNA where identified so far. two R1a* and one either J,I or E*.

    But it seems that Corded Ware brought R1a* into Europe. It would be interesting to know if Corded Ware wasn't just an extensdion of Proto_IndoIranian
    I was always thinking about Corded Ware as mixture of Yamna hunter-gatherers and Cucuteni farmers. Yamna rich in R1a and Cucuteni J2 and other farmer haplogroups like G and E.

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post
    I was always thinking about Corded Ware as mixture of Yamna hunter-gatherers and Cucuteni farmers. Yamna rich in R1a and Cucuteni J2 and other farmer haplogroups like G and E.
    Cucuteni farmers were sedentary.
    Corded Ware were mobile herders just like Yamna, alltough some corded ware finally settled indeed.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Alan View Post
    Not only R1a* at all. If I am not wrong, three yDNA where identified so far. two R1a* and one either J,I or E*.

    But it seems that Corded Ware brought R1a* into Europe. It would be interesting to know if Corded Ware wasn't just an extensdion of Proto_IndoIranian
    The samples from Corded Ware sites simply show that initially the R1a brought by the newcomers was mixed with some Neolithic farmer ancestry, and while R1a became quite dominant in parts of Eastern Europe, it didn't wipe out other haplotypes - Eastern Europe is still somewhat of a mixture, although G2 certainly seems to have dwindled a lot.

    My guess is that Proto-Indo-Iranian is just an extension of Corded Ware DNA.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Aberdeen View Post
    My guess is that Proto-Indo-Iranian is just an extension of Corded Ware DNA.
    Are you serious? What happened to the Germanic and proto-Germanic folks, lol! Germans speak Germanic and NOT some kind of Iranic. You will find Iranic speakers in Kurdistan, Iranian Plateau and South Central Asia. As far as I know proto-Iranic people were J2a and (West-Asian type of) R1a + some other minor haplogroups like G2 etc.

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post
    Well, they might have been new to Central Europe (Germany and Poland area), but coming from Ukraine possibly (Yamna/Maykop cultures) makes them Europeans too. I hope they've tested someone from Yamna or other steppe culture to let us know where they were from, finally.
    Folks that Indo-Europized Yamna came from Maykop. And it has been proven many times from different fields that folks than belonged to the South-Central Caucasian Maykop culture came from the Iranian Plateau, not far from the south of the Caspian Sea.

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post
    I was always thinking about Corded Ware as mixture of Yamna hunter-gatherers and Cucuteni farmers. Yamna rich in R1a and Cucuteni J2 and other farmer haplogroups like G and E.
    Yamna people had 75%-80% mtdna like the European Neolithic mtdna, and 20-25% Hunter-gatherer mtdna

    Yamna

    BEN3 : H33c
    KAL1 : N1a1a
    KAL2 : H*
    MAJ3 : U5a1
    MAJ4 : U5b2
    MAJ5 : X2h (?)
    NIK1 : T1a
    NIK7 : H (rCRS)
    OLE1 : T2
    OLE7 : J2b
    OVI2 : K
    OVI3 : U/K
    PEJ1 : U5a1
    PES7 : H1a1 or H5a1j
    POD1 : W6
    POD2 : T2
    POP1 : T2a1b
    POP3 : U2e
    POP4 : U5a1
    RIL3 : K1
    SUG2 : I1a
    SUG6 : H1, H3 or H6
    SUG7 : H (rCRS)
    SUG8 : H (rCRS)
    TET2 : U4a1
    VIN2 : T1a
    VIN5 : T1a
    VIN12 : T1

    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...k-pigmentation

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    Cucuteni farmers were sedentary.
    Corded Ware were mobile herders just like Yamna, alltough some corded ware finally settled indeed.
    And farmers are known to move and settle new areas, even far away.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Robert6 View Post
    Yamna people had 75%-80% mtdna like the European Neolithic mtdna, and 20-25% Hunter-gatherer mtdna

    Yamna

    BEN3 : H33c
    KAL1 : N1a1a
    KAL2 : H*
    MAJ3 : U5a1
    MAJ4 : U5b2
    MAJ5 : X2h (?)
    NIK1 : T1a
    NIK7 : H (rCRS)
    OLE1 : T2
    OLE7 : J2b
    OVI2 : K
    OVI3 : U/K
    PEJ1 : U5a1
    PES7 : H1a1 or H5a1j
    POD1 : W6
    POD2 : T2
    POP1 : T2a1b
    POP3 : U2e
    POP4 : U5a1
    RIL3 : K1
    SUG2 : I1a
    SUG6 : H1, H3 or H6
    SUG7 : H (rCRS)
    SUG8 : H (rCRS)
    TET2 : U4a1
    VIN2 : T1a
    VIN5 : T1a
    VIN12 : T1

    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...k-pigmentation
    Are you talking about 75% in variety of mtDNA or frequency of all farmer haplogroups to HGs.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Goga View Post
    Are you serious? What happened to the Germanic and proto-Germanic folks, lol! Germans speak Germanic and NOT some kind of Iranic. You will find Iranic speakers in Kurdistan, Iranian Plateau and South Central Asia. As far as I know proto-Iranic people were J2a and (West-Asian type of) R1a + some other minor haplogroups like G2 etc.
    I wasn't entirely serious, no. I was responding to what I thought was a ridiculous comment with another ridiculous comment. It's clear that R1a split between Asian and European on the steppes, right about where the Indo-European homeland is assumed to be, and that one branch moved to Iran and became Indo-Iranians and another branch moved into Europe. It appears that the Corded Ware folk brought R1a to Europe, and they seem to have been closely related genetically to the Indo-European R1a types who later followed the same path, branishing bronze weapons, apparently after undergoing some major cultural change, the process of which still doesn't seem to me to be all that clear. But I know you want to believe that everything happened on Mount Zagros, and if you were a christian you'd no doubt believe that the garden of eden was located there.

    As has been discussed elsewhere, German developed rather late in the game, as a result of the fusion of IE and non-IE languages, so references to early proto-Germans are of dubious validity, IMO.

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post
    Are you talking about 75% in variety of mtDNA or frequency of all farmer haplogroups to HGs.
    75%-80% of Yamna people had mtDNA haplogroups close to Balkanian Neolithic mtDNA haplogroups

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    Quote Originally Posted by Aberdeen View Post
    It's clear that R1a split between Asian and European on the steppes, right about where the Indo-European homeland is assumed to be, and that one branch moved to Iran and became Indo-Iranians and another branch moved into Europe.
    100% impossible! Why? Because the ancestral R1a* to the European types of R1a and the Asian types of R1a has been found around the Zagros Mountains and NOT in the steppes. And what is your 'proof' of the R1a split in the Steppes? Facts don't lie. But you can still believe in fairytales with you wishful thinking...

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    Quote Originally Posted by Aberdeen View Post
    The samples from Corded Ware sites simply show that initially the R1a brought by the newcomers was mixed with some Neolithic farmer ancestry, and while R1a became quite dominant in parts of Eastern Europe, it didn't wipe out other haplotypes - Eastern Europe is still somewhat of a mixture, although G2 certainly seems to have dwindled a lot.

    My guess is that Proto-Indo-Iranian is just an extension of Corded Ware DNA.
    I wouldn't be so sure about that. It will be interesting to find out if the individual was actually J* If so, this is initially the prove that J* was part of the Indo European expansion into Europe because no where else was J* jet identified.

    As I said in the past and it is getting more and more clear J* expanded most likely during Bronze and Iron Age.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Robert6 View Post
    Yamna people had 75%-80% mtdna like the European Neolithic mtdna, and 20-25% Hunter-gatherer mtdna

    Yamna

    BEN3 : H33c
    KAL1 : N1a1a
    KAL2 : H*
    MAJ3 : U5a1
    MAJ4 : U5b2
    MAJ5 : X2h (?)
    NIK1 : T1a
    NIK7 : H (rCRS)
    OLE1 : T2
    OLE7 : J2b
    OVI2 : K
    OVI3 : U/K
    PEJ1 : U5a1
    PES7 : H1a1 or H5a1j
    POD1 : W6
    POD2 : T2
    POP1 : T2a1b
    POP3 : U2e
    POP4 : U5a1
    RIL3 : K1
    SUG2 : I1a
    SUG6 : H1, H3 or H6
    SUG7 : H (rCRS)
    SUG8 : H (rCRS)
    TET2 : U4a1
    VIN2 : T1a
    VIN5 : T1a
    VIN12 : T1


    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...k-pigmentation
    Interesting no HV* there but 10% HV* in Andronovo, Corded Ware and some Scandinavian culture which its name I don't remember. Another thing which Andronovo and Corded Ware share.

    But it might also be just be a sample bias in the Yamnaya samples. Since N* and H* was found so logically their should be some HV* too (child of N* and mother of H*)

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    This is rank speculation, but I thought I would just put it out there. If ANE existed along a sort of front from the Baltic (with some Mesolithic leakage laterally west into places like Scandinavia) all the way down to at least Iran/Afghanistan, is it possible that the "Indo-European" signal in the northern part of that range (i.e. Corded Ware) was dominated by R1a, but in Iran and the Caucasus was also J2, or at least that J2 became an ANE bearing lineage?

    I ask, because it seems that the ANE component is actually higher in the Caucasus and certain areas of the Near East than it is in Europe, and J2 has not yet been found in a Neolithic context in Europe. Then there's the fact that the Neolithic samples in Europe totally lack the ANE component. What if metal ages J2 also brought ANE to southern Europe? Is that possible? I've been saying for years that the Neolithic farmers who went to Europe from the Middle East, if indeed they were all that different from the inhabitants of, say, the Aegean of the Mesolithic, were different from the Middle Easterners of today, and not just because of some more recent SSA in the Levant and further south. I think the arrival of ANE bearing people may be the larger difference.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Alan View Post
    Interesting no HV* there but 10% HV* in Andronovo, Corded Ware and some Scandinavian culture which its name I don't remember. Another thing which Andronovo and Corded Ware share.

    But it might also be just be a sample bias in the Yamnaya samples. Since N* and H* was found so logically their should be some HV* too (child of N* and mother of H*)
    I think part of the problem with the analyses of the "H" mtDna lineages is that "H" is treated as a monolithic entity. It isn't, and the distribution in Europe varies depending on the subclade. What I think is pretty clear is that it has a star burst pattern centered on the Middle East. However, I find it totally plausible that it started to move in the late Mesolithic in various directions. So, it may have reached Europe with different migrations at different times.

    I've also been saying for ages that mtDna is very much linked to health and fitness, and we already have preliminary results indicating that "H" may confer some selective advantages.

    Ed. I hasten to add that I have no personal stake in the matter. I am U2e, and we seem to have lost out in the survival sweepstakes!

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Robert6 View Post
    75%-80% of Yamna people had mtDNA haplogroups close to Balkanian Neolithic mtDNA haplogroups
    It means that this is how they became farmers. They took EEF genetic admixture, and predisposition to farming lifestyle, from farmers' women overwhelmingly. I suppose paternal line was mostly hunter-gatherer R1a. Having both traits, predisposition to farming (digestion of starches and repetitive work) and hunters' predispositions to living in colder climate of higher latitudes, they became first successful farmers who spread in whole Central-East-North Europe and stayed there forever. First true hybrid, farmers of the north. In contrast to pure Neolithic EEF farmers from south who spread North during warm periods and retreated south during cold spells.
    Last edited by LeBrok; 13-09-14 at 02:47.

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