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Thread: Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

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    Someone has helpfully provided the actual percentages for the European populations in terms of EN (European Neolithic Farmers), WesternHunterGatherers (old WHG or pre-the Yamnaya migrations) and Yamnaya.
    (For those interested in the breakdown, Yamnaya would be very roughly 1/4 WHG like, 1/4 ANE like, and half "Armenian like". )


    Norway - 30, 16, 54
    Lithuania - 18, 30, 52
    Estonia - 12, 37, 51
    Iceland - 32, 19, 49
    Scotland - 28, 23, 49
    Czech - 35, 16, 49
    Belarus - 25, 28, 47
    Hungary - 39, 16, 45
    Ukraine - 28, 27, 44
    England - 44, 14, 42
    Orkney - 34, 25, 41
    South French - 57, 4, 39
    Croatia - 44, 17, 37
    French - 51, 12, 37
    North Spanish - 59, 10, 31
    Bulgaria - 55, 14, 31
    Tuscany - 72, 0, 28
    Basque - 54, 19, 27
    Bergamo - 63, 13, 24
    Spain - 78, 0, 22
    Greece - 66, 14, 20
    Albania - 65, 18, 17
    Sardinia - 88, 7, 5

    Stuttgart - 94, 6, 0
    Bell Beaker - 38, 16, 46
    Unetice - 24, 33, 43
    Corded Ware - 17, 4, 79


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    I think the Yamna component, just like WHG, will be revised after data north of the Black Sea in Ukraine comes along, as some of these percentages don't make sense. How could Albania have more WHG than France, Spain, England when the Loschbour cavemen was found in Western Europe? Maybe they're mixing up WHG with Yamnaya (who have EHG = ANE + WHG). I think Western Yamnaya will be different than Samara. (Sorry for my ignorance if I miss anything, as I haven't looked at the admixtures in detail)

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    3 members found this post helpful.
    [COLOR=#333333]Klyosov commented: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperIn...6#.VN6CYp2G9g0

    "... the IE speakers (R1a) arrived in the Balkans and further in Europe between the 10th - 8th millennia bp. Gimbutas’ theory is in error when it proposes the formation of territorial, nomadic, pastoral populations speaking PIE languages (collectively named the Kurgan culture), in the 7th millennium bp in the area of the Dnepr and Don basins, the middle and lower Volga basin, the Caucasus and the Ural mountains. In fact, there were no PIEs (R1a) at those times in those territories. The Kurgan theory apparently has inverted the roles of the NIE (R1b) and the IE (R1a). Instead, these cultural features should be ascribed to NIEs (R1b) who migrated westward. Gimbutas claims that IE speakers migrated to Europe three times--first, between 6400 and 6300 ybp; second, around 5500 ybp (from the area North of the Black Sea); third, between 5000 and 4800 ybp (allegedly from the Volga steppes). These claims are unsupportable. There were no IEs (R1a) in the Volga steppes between 5000 and 4800 ybp or earlier; they arrived between 4600 and 4300 ybp. Had they been in the steppes, they would have been moving from Europe eastward."
    But how does Klyosov know that R1b were Non-IE speakers ??? This is just an assumption - based on what?

    This steppe data confirms that R1b (or at least some of them) were IE speakers, and so were R1a (or at least some of them).

    there were no PIEs (R1a) at those times in those territories.

    Just because they did not find R1a in 7 Samara burials (very localized), doesn't mean they were not there.

    We have 9 x R1a in Andronovo (which is descended from Yamna) and 4 x R1a in Corded Ware (also descended from Yamna).

    So logically there should be some R1a among Yamnaya as well, just not among those 7 x R1b from Samara.

    =============================

    When it comes to that Non-IE, Neolithic R1b from Els Trocs in north-eastern Spain:

    The problem with that R1b from Spain is that it tests negative on P297 mutation, which means that this guy was NOT ancestor of great majority of modern European R1b (which is P297+). On the other hand, hunter-gatherer from Samara (6th millenium BC) tests positive on this mutation.

    Here is a map of types of Neolithic and Mesolithic Y-DNA discovered in Europe to date:


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    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post
    [COLOR=#333333]Klyosov commented: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperIn...6#.VN6CYp2G9g0



    But how does Klyosov know that R1b were Non-IE speakers ??? This is just an assumption - based on what?

    This steppe data confirms that R1b (or at least some of them) were IE speakers, and so were R1a (or at least some of them).


    Just because they did not find R1a in 7 Samara burials (very localized), doesn't mean they were not there.

    We have 9 x R1a in Andronovo (which is descended from Yamna) and 4 x R1a in Corded Ware (also descended from Yamna).

    So logically there should be some R1a among Yamnaya as well, just not among those 7 x R1b from Samara.

    =============================

    When it comes to that Non-IE, Neolithic R1b from Els Trocs in north-eastern Spain:

    The problem with that R1b from Spain is that it tests negative on P297 mutation, which means that this guy was NOT ancestor of great majority of modern European R1b (which is P297+). On the other hand, hunter-gatherer from Samara (6th millenium BC) tests positive on this mutation.

    Here is a map of types of Neolithic and Mesolithic Y-DNA discovered in Europe to date:


    thanks for map

    maybe you should place ages on any that are over 5000 years like the R1a and R1b

    here is the others

    G2a in germany = 5206 to 5052

    T1a in germany = 5207 to 5070

    H2 in hungaria = 5710 to 5500

    R1b in spain = 5178 to 5066
    có che un pòpoło no 'l defende pi ła só łéngua el xe prónto par èser s'ciavo

    when a people no longer dares to defend its language it is ripe for slavery.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Someone has helpfully provided the actual percentages for the European populations in terms of EN (European Neolithic Farmers), WesternHunterGatherers (old WHG or pre-the Yamnaya migrations) and Yamnaya.
    (For those interested in the breakdown, Yamnaya would be very roughly 1/4 WHG like, 1/4 ANE like, and half "Armenian like". )
    basically what you and I said ~30% ANE/ ~25-30% WHG / ~40% ENF

    The thing is the orange component is EEF and differs from the "ENF" in Yamna in that way, that it is the first appearance of the West Asian type. While EEF is WHG admixed (~20%), the farmer DNA in Yamna is ANE admixed. 70% ENF + 30% ANE that is what made the "West Asian" component.


    In other words.

    Early European Farmer (EEF)= ~80% Proto-Farmer (ENF) + 20% WHG

    Caucasus_Gedrosia aka "West Asian= ~70% Proto-Farmer (or possibly even EEF itself) + 30% ANE
    Last edited by Alan; 14-02-15 at 11:44.

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    And to the question about R1a*.

    Don't forget all the samples of Yamna were from one valley in Samarra. If we take a look at cultures descend of Yamna, such as Andronovo, Corded Ware. And even some ancient Indo Europeans such as Tocharians. There is absolutely no doubt that R1a will pop up in Yamna And I am pretty convinced allot of other Haplogroups will pop up also.

    Be not suprised if in some regions closer to North Caucasus yDNA T, J and few other pop up.

    Isn't there even allot of T* in some modern Uralic speakers in the region?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Alan View Post
    And to the question about R1a*.

    Don't forget all the samples of Yamna were from one valley in Samarra. If we take a look at cultures descend of Yamna, such as Andronovo, Corded Ware. And even some ancient Indo Europeans such as Tocharians. There is absolutely no doubt that R1a will pop up in Yamna And I am pretty convinced allot of other Haplogroups will pop up also.

    Be not suprised if in some regions closer to North Caucasus yDNA T, J and few other pop up.

    Isn't there even allot of T* in some modern Uralic speakers in the region?
    the T is in

    M. A. Gubina et al, "Haplotype Diversity in mtDNA and Y�Chromosome in Populations of Altai–Sayan Region," "Russian Journal of Genetics," (2012),

    Kazakhs in Kosh-Agachski Raion found 19/49 at 38.8%

    Kazkhs announed IIRC that they where Kazakhs in the year 1490...prior to this they where under the Uzbek banner.........really I am usure who or what is a true Kazakh

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    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    his post #206 stated...no H in europe befor ethe 16th century

    So u were mistaken, would have been good to admit it

    There is not a single ancient Y DNA from the Balkans.

    Thrachians do not live in Hungary

    F* is not H( and even if it is, it is not Thrachian and from the Balkans), it has nothing to do with Gypsies, it is just Balkans are not tested and u were spreading fake info :)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    the T is in

    M. A. Gubina et al, "Haplotype Diversity in mtDNA and Y�Chromosome in Populations of Altai–Sayan Region," "Russian Journal of Genetics," (2012),

    Kazakhs in Kosh-Agachski Raion found 19/49 at 38.8%

    Kazkhs announed IIRC that they where Kazakhs in the year 1490...prior to this they where under the Uzbek banner.........really I am usure who or what is a true Kazakh
    All this region was once Indo_Iranian speaking. Either Turks themselves are "altaified" Irano_Aryans OR they are Altains who mixed and replaced them.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Yaan View Post
    Thrachians do not live in Hungary
    The Thracians lived almost everywhere,including the eastern half of Hungary,Slovakia, Carpathian Poland or parts of Ukraine;
    though,it is quite clear that the Bulgarian ones are the true stars.

    See the article from pg.167(and an interesting map at 181):

    http://www.academia.edu/823512/H._Ci...ba_Iulia_1994_


    For chariotry and Mnogovalikovaya(also named Babino), see Kuzmina's article:

    http://www.google.ro/url?sa=t&rct=j&...,d.d24&cad=rja

    http://www.academia.edu/7837844/Balk...gy_of_Religion


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-c...d_ware_culture

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Diurpaneus View Post
    The Thracians lived almost everywhere,including the eastern half of Hungary,Slovakia, Carpathian Poland or parts of Ukraine;
    though,it is quite clear that the Bulgarian ones are the true stars.

    See the article from pg.167(and an interesting map at 181):

    http://www.academia.edu/823512/H._Ci...ba_Iulia_1994_


    For chariotry and Mnogovalikovaya(also named Babino), see Kuzmina's article:

    http://www.google.ro/url?sa=t&rct=j&...,d.d24&cad=rja

    http://www.academia.edu/7837844/Balk...gy_of_Religion


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-c...d_ware_culture
    There was never Thrachians civilization outside the Balkan( and to a lesser extend Anatolia) :) I hope they will test for male lines remains fro Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia and North Greece, this is what was the Thrachian core :)

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Corded Ware individual I0104, age 2473 - 2348 BCE, is M417 - which is ancestral to 99% of modern R1a (including Z93 and CTS 4385).

    He lived 4350 - 4500 years ago. And according to Underhill 2014, the R-M417 has an estimated TMRCA of 4800 - 6800 years ago, average of 5000.

    While according to Haak 2015 it has an estiated TMRCA of 5800 years ago.

    Anyway, our M417 from Corded Ware lived between 300 and 2500 years after the common ancestor of 99% of modern R1a.

    Moreover, that hunter-gatherer from Karelia from 7000 - 7500 years ago (5000 - 5500 BCE) is ancestral to M417 !!!

    So it seems very probable that common ancestor for 99% of all R1a lived in Europe somewhere between Finland-Russia and East Germany.

    Let's also check Y-DNA from steppe / nomadic cultures, discovered to date:

    Yamnaya - R1b
    =============
    Corded Ware - R1a
    Tocharians - R1a (and Tocharian R1a is M417, but not Z93)
    Andronovo - R1a
    Scythians - R1a

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Gentlemen, I don't know about anyone else, but I'm getting very tired of this chest beating for one ydna haplogroup over another, especially in the R1a versus R1b divisional championships. Did any of you get into this because of intellectual curiosity, or is it just about ethnic rivalry?

    Europe didn't exist as a concept in these times. The line between Europe and Asia wasn't always drawn at the Urals. Anyway, who cares on what side of some imaginary line some samples were found? I'm sure they roamed the whole steppe.

    I mean, it's getting ridiculous. First the Ancient North Eurasians suddenly became Europeans. Then, when it seemed R1 developed in Siberia, that suddenly became Europe. Basal R couldn't have developed in Central or Central/South Asia, even though that's what some academics have said, because then it wouldn't be European. So, it had to develop in "Russia". Never mind that we don't KNOW that yet. If all else fails, then let's just say that R1a and R1b happened to have most of their camps on the west of the Urals, so that definitely makes them European.

    Do people have so little self awareness that they don't see the flaws in this kind of reasoning? Enough.

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    The questions on R1 for the paper is or should be said

    1 - R1a/b where once just R1, where is origin

    2 - Yamnya as per paper is R1b, did R1a reside north or east of this area

    3 - If they ( R1a and R1b ) where together in yamnya at the same time and they migrated westerly into Europe, then why is there no equal % of these 2 big haplotypes in western Europe?


    If I had to make a call, I say R1b was earlier into Yamnya than R1a which concludes that R1 origins where further East, maybe SW China..............we know by Karafet 2014 paper than R origins is SE Asia

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    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post
    [COLOR=#333333]Klyosov commented: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperIn...6#.VN6CYp2G9g0



    But how does Klyosov know that R1b were Non-IE speakers ??? This is just an assumption - based on what?

    This steppe data confirms that R1b (or at least some of them) were IE speakers, and so were R1a (or at least some of them).


    Just because they did not find R1a in 7 Samara burials (very localized), doesn't mean they were not there.

    We have 9 x R1a in Andronovo (which is descended from Yamna) and 4 x R1a in Corded Ware (also descended from Yamna).

    So logically there should be some R1a among Yamnaya as well, just not among those 7 x R1b from Samara.

    =============================

    When it comes to that Non-IE, Neolithic R1b from Els Trocs in north-eastern Spain:

    The problem with that R1b from Spain is that it tests negative on P297 mutation, which means that this guy was NOT ancestor of great majority of modern European R1b (which is P297+). On the other hand, hunter-gatherer from Samara (6th millenium BC) tests positive on this mutation.

    Here is a map of types of Neolithic and Mesolithic Y-DNA discovered in Europe to date:


    you missed oetzi on your map...........exactly same time frame as the G2a in germany ( on your map )

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    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    you missed oetzi on your map...........exactly same time frame as the G2a in germany ( on your map )
    He also missed the four Corded Ware samples from Poland (Neolithic looking) and Germany (R1a) and the three Bell Beaker R1b samples from Germany. Including those samples might have complicated things - the two oldest and most easterly CW samples weren't R1a.

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    No, Z93 is from R1a-S224

    Entire S224 (including Z93) is from M417:


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    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post

    I considered adding Oetzi as well. But Corded Ware is too late for that map.

    Anyway - you can find this data here (they also already added these new samples from Haak 2015):

    http://www.ancestraljourneys.org/adnaintro.shtml

    They have aDNA divided into chronological categories, for example:

    Mesolithic aDNA
    European Neolithic aDNA
    Copper-Bronze Age aDNA

    Oetzi and Corded Ware are included in "Copper-Bronze Age aDNA".

    I added to my map only those from Neolithic and Mesolithic aDNA.

    Should I add also Oetzi to the map ???
    Sorry - I wasn't thinking about the dates and categories of the finds when I made that comment - call it a mental glitch. And now that I am thinking about Neolithic versus Copper Age, I think Oetzi's copper axe justifies putting him in the Copper Age category, rather than the Neolithic.

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    Native people of Europe were not Indo-European.
    This is true for Northern and Central Europe. But in Eastern Europe we now have Mesolithic people with Indo-European haplogroups.

    Adjust your views to these new findings. Take a look at my map of Stone Age haplogroups in Europe again:



    No IE haplogroups in Western and Central Europe. But in Eastern Europe we have them, among native hunters of that area.

    Saami in Northern Europe are native people of that region
    According to most recent studies Saami are a mix of locals with immigrants from North-East Asia. So not entirely native.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post


    This is true for Northern and Central Europe. But in Eastern Europe we now have Mesolithic people with Indo-European haplogroups.

    Adjust your views to these new findings. Take a look at my map of Stone Age haplogroups in Europe again:



    No IE haplogroups in Western and Central Europe. But in Eastern Europe we have them, among native hunters of that area.



    According to most recent studies Saami are a mix of locals with immigrants from North-East Asia. So not entirely native.
    Where did you hear the Mesolithic R1b from Samara was R1b1a-P297+. It didn't say that in the paper. If it does that's huge news because it makes it ancestral to M73 and M269.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Alan View Post
    More like 30/30/40 ANE/WHG/EEF

    According to the paper the Karelians were 60% WHG and 40% ANE. The Near Eastern portion of Yamna was also ANE rich.

    If we now half the 60% WHG we get 30. And since we know the Near Eastern portion was also ANE rich, and they called them "Armenian like" (who have 15% ANE), we can assume 30% WHG also. And the rest was most likely ENF.

    Otherwise they couldn't be closest to Moravians and Lezgins who both have significant percentage of ENF (Lezgins more and Mordovians less).
    I still don't get why you give them such ingh EEF admixture. According to Figuer 2 they so much autosomally closer to Mal'ta boy MM1 and pure ANE than to Neolithic Farmers of Europe. Yamnaya guys are very close and alike the two EHG samples. Some of Yamnaya are very close to ANE source, and some stretched towards EEF, but not far enough. Note that the grey dots from the background are the location of modern population on the chart. Even Corded Ware individuals don't touch the first grey dots, which represent modern Russians and Finns having almost 30% of EEF. From this chart I would guess that Corded Ware were about 20% EEF and Yamnaya at 10%, EEF some of them much less (the sampled region of Yamnaya).


    Figure 2.JPG

    I'm still yet to read most of the paper. Could you post numbers for pages you are taking your numbers from, please.
    Be wary of people who tend to glorify the past, underestimate the present, and demonize the future.

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    K16.JPG
    I finally found the explanation for the colours in the runs.

    "The Early/Middle Neolithic European populations belong almost entirely to the “orange” ancestral
    population from K=2 to K=8, while hunter-gatherers show a relationship to eastern non-Africans from
    K=3 to K=8, consistent with sharing more genetic drift with these populations due to their lack of
    “Basal Eurasian” ancestry2. From K=4 to K=6, the hunter-gatherers and late Neolithic/Bronze Age
    (LN/BA) groups possess some of the “pink” component that is dominant in Native Americans; this
    may reflect either the presence of west Eurasian-related “Ancient North Eurasian” ancestry in Native
    Americans5 or of the same type of ancestry in European hunter-gatherers. An interesting pattern
    occurs at K=8, with all the late LN/BA groups from central Europe and the Yamnaya having some of
    the “light green” component that is lacking in earlier European farmers and hunter-gatherers; this
    component is found at high frequencies in South Asian populations and its co-occurrence in late
    Neolithic/Bronze Age Europeans (but not earlier ones) and South Asians might reflect a degree of
    common ancestry associated with late Neolithic migratory movements (e.g., the ~5,800-year old
    TMRCA of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a-M417 suggests some gene flow affecting both Europe
    and South Asia in this time frame11, although this date is subject to uncertainty due to poor estimates
    of the human mutation rate.)
    At K=9 a European hunter-gatherer ancestral population (“dark blue”) appears; this was not present in
    an earlier analysis of the Human Origins modern populations and a much smaller number of ancient
    individuals2. The inclusion of a large number of ancient hunter-gatherers has probably caused such an
    ancestral population to appear in this analysis. European farmers now appear to be mixture of a Near
    Eastern (orange) and European hunter-gatherer (dark blue) ancestral populations, with an increase in
    the hunter-gatherer ancestry during the Middle Neolithic (reflecting the “resurgence” of such ancestry
    shown in PCA, Fig. 2a) and also during the Late Neolithic. Note, also, the persistent presence of the
    “light green” component that ties LN/EBA groups to South Asia between K=9 and K=15.
    A similar

    (darker green) component also distinguishes LN/EBA groups from earlier ones at K=16; this
    component appears to be highly represented in groups from South Asia, the Near East, and the
    Caucasus. The existence of this component may correspond to the evidence for “dilution” of EHG
    ancestry in the Yamnaya (SI7), showing them to have evenly split ancestry between the “dark blue”
    hunter-gatherer and “dark green” component; the analysis of SI9 also suggests an even split between
    an EHG and a Near Eastern component in the ancestry of the Yamnaya. The “dark green” component
    seems to have been carried from a Yamnaya-related population to the Corded Ware and other Late
    Neolithic and Bronze Age populations of central Europe. A useful topic for future work is to study the
    relationship of LN/BA populations to contemporary South Asians, Caucasian and Near Eastern
    populations and to see if this affinity (in contrast to earlier Europeans) may be related to the dispersal
    of Indo-European languages."

    So orange colour is Early Neolithic EEF, almost like from Lazaridis runs. Blue is not WHG, but European Hunter Gatherer, which is sort of amalgamation of of WHG and ANE. Dark Green is something unusual. It persists in modern Caucasus and South Asians, and in 50% of Yamnaya. It was almost completely missing from Samara HG. It is shows also in LN/EBA sites all over Europe.

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    OK, I can see that our discussion got split into another thread - here it is:

    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...ded-discussion

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post
    K16.JPG
    So orange colour is Early Neolithic EEF, almost like from Lazaridis runs. Blue is not WHG, but European Hunter Gatherer, which is sort of amalgamation of of WHG and ANE. Dark Green is something unusual. It persists in modern Caucasus and South Asians, and in 50% of Yamnaya. It was almost completely missing from Samara HG. It is shows also in LN/EBA sites all over Europe.
    Actually the dark green component was present in Samara HG at about 15% level (if my eyes are not deceiving me looking at this small column in the chart) and then grew to 50% in Yamnaya. I would guess that it was present not to far away feeding Yamnaya with time going by. Influence of population from Caucasus, like Maykop culture?

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post
    K16.JPG
    I finally found the explanation for the colours in the runs.

    "The Early/Middle Neolithic European populations belong almost entirely to the “orange” ancestral
    population from K=2 to K=8, while hunter-gatherers show a relationship to eastern non-Africans from
    K=3 to K=8, consistent with sharing more genetic drift with these populations due to their lack of
    “Basal Eurasian” ancestry2. From K=4 to K=6, the hunter-gatherers and late Neolithic/Bronze Age
    (LN/BA) groups possess some of the “pink” component that is dominant in Native Americans; this
    may reflect either the presence of west Eurasian-related “Ancient North Eurasian” ancestry in Native
    Americans5 or of the same type of ancestry in European hunter-gatherers. An interesting pattern
    occurs at K=8, with all the late LN/BA groups from central Europe and the Yamnaya having some of
    the “light green” component that is lacking in earlier European farmers and hunter-gatherers; this
    component is found at high frequencies in South Asian populations and its co-occurrence in late
    Neolithic/Bronze Age Europeans (but not earlier ones) and South Asians might reflect a degree of
    common ancestry associated with late Neolithic migratory movements (e.g., the ~5,800-year old
    TMRCA of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a-M417 suggests some gene flow affecting both Europe
    and South Asia in this time frame11, although this date is subject to uncertainty due to poor estimates
    of the human mutation rate.)
    At K=9 a European hunter-gatherer ancestral population (“dark blue”) appears; this was not present in
    an earlier analysis of the Human Origins modern populations and a much smaller number of ancient
    individuals2. The inclusion of a large number of ancient hunter-gatherers has probably caused such an
    ancestral population to appear in this analysis. European farmers now appear to be mixture of a Near
    Eastern (orange) and European hunter-gatherer (dark blue) ancestral populations, with an increase in
    the hunter-gatherer ancestry during the Middle Neolithic (reflecting the “resurgence” of such ancestry
    shown in PCA, Fig. 2a) and also during the Late Neolithic. Note, also, the persistent presence of the
    “light green” component that ties LN/EBA groups to South Asia between K=9 and K=15.
    A similar

    (darker green) component also distinguishes LN/EBA groups from earlier ones at K=16; this
    component appears to be highly represented in groups from South Asia, the Near East, and the
    Caucasus. The existence of this component may correspond to the evidence for “dilution” of EHG
    ancestry in the Yamnaya (SI7), showing them to have evenly split ancestry between the “dark blue”
    hunter-gatherer and “dark green” component; the analysis of SI9 also suggests an even split between
    an EHG and a Near Eastern component in the ancestry of the Yamnaya. The “dark green” component
    seems to have been carried from a Yamnaya-related population to the Corded Ware and other Late
    Neolithic and Bronze Age populations of central Europe. A useful topic for future work is to study the
    relationship of LN/BA populations to contemporary South Asians, Caucasian and Near Eastern
    populations and to see if this affinity (in contrast to earlier Europeans) may be related to the dispersal
    of Indo-European languages."

    So orange colour is Early Neolithic EEF, almost like from Lazaridis runs. Blue is not WHG, but European Hunter Gatherer, which is sort of amalgamation of of WHG and ANE. Dark Green is something unusual. It persists in modern Caucasus and South Asians, and in 50% of Yamnaya. It was almost completely missing from Samara HG. It is shows also in LN/EBA sites all over Europe.
    Thanks

    but the orange arrived in central europe before the EHG according to page 25 of the paper, did the blue and green populace mix in yamnya and then follow orange a thousand plus years later?

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