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Thread: Ice Age , Sahara desert, Earth's wobble and the Gulf Stream

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.

    Ice Age , Sahara desert, Earth's wobble and the Gulf Stream



    How the Earth was made


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    BBC Europe - A Natural History 2 - Ice Ages



    I don't agree with this video as people were living in Moscow area during the Ice Age so it was not so bleak. In summer the tundra must have bloomed somewhat.

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    How the Sahara desert was made



    This was the video that convinced me the Earth's wobble, the creation of the Gulf Stream as a result of the volcanic material connecting North America to South America ended the Ice Age. Both the Ice Ages and the Sahara desert form a 20,000 or 40,000 year cycle after 3 million years when the Gulf of Mexico was closed off around that time. The heat of the Sahara warmed the Gulf Stream that ended the Ice Age. It was 5,000 years ago when the Sahara became fully desert probably around that time when all the ice and snow began to melt. Notice the Black Sea Deluge was around 5,000 (BC?)years ago. China also experienced massive floods from the melting from the Himalayas.

    Earth's wobble

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_precession

    http://www.astrobio.net/topic/solar-...earths-wobble/

    http://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusi...ed-the-sahara/

    http://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusi...ed-the-sahara/

    http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread394987/pg1

    This wobble means the North Pole moves. When the North Pole is farther south towards the Sahara. It tilts the sunshine towards the Sahara and brings the winds from the oceans along the equatorial path of the earth's rotation so the rains fall on the Sahara plains thus greening the Sahara and cooling the Earth as the Atlantic Ocean has less heat so the Gulf Stream is cooler. The Ice Age may form as the Sahara is due to change to a green grassland in 15,000 years. Ice Age is due in 15,000 years.
    Last edited by oriental; 25-04-15 at 20:53.

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    Paleo-rivers of the Sahara may have aided human migration.

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130911184712.htm


    http://www.livescience.com/39575-anc...s-existed.html

    http://www.livescience.com/21070-gre...iry-farms.html

    Those involved with the human evolution should look at the role the Sahara played.
    Last edited by oriental; 25-04-15 at 00:18.

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    Quote Originally Posted by oriental View Post
    Paleo-rivers of the Sahara may have aided human migration.

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130911184712.htm


    http://www.livescience.com/39575-anc...s-existed.html

    http://www.livescience.com/21070-gre...iry-farms.html

    Those involved with the human evolution should look at the role of the Sahara played.
    the Persian Gulf :

    http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/657397

    the Nile :

    https://www.google.be/url?sa=t&rct=j...85076809,d.ZGU

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    NOVA What triggers the Ice Age?

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/cause-ice-age.html

    What causes Ice Ages


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    Ice Age certainty 2050 (maybe NOT)


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    Dan Britt Orbits and Ice Ages The history of climate



    One must remember that human activity such as desertification and burning of fossil fuels warms up the earth. The desert areas have increased as deforestation increases and this heats up the atmosphere. It is not just the greenhouse gas effect.

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    climate is not stable, it changes all the time, with or without human activity
    a new ice age would be much more catastrophical to humans than global warming
    i'm sure humans will end up trying to manipulate and controll the global climate

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    climate is not stable, it changes all the time, with or without human activity
    a new ice age would be much more catastrophical to humans than global warming
    i'm sure humans will end up trying to manipulate and controll the global climate
    Last couple of million of years was extremely cold, very unusual, due to very depleted level of CO2. By releasing of sequestered CO2 humans will save plants, themselves, and return Earth into more normal state. I really hate when life giving CO2 is called pollution.
    Funny how things work out sometimes.
    Be wary of people who tend to glorify the past, underestimate the present, and demonize the future.

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    it changes all the time, with or without human activity
    According to Dr. Dan Britt we are already in the Ice Age according to historical charts. It is human activity that keeping the earth warm.

    End the Ice Age (by Tim Tyler)
    http://timtyler.org/end_the_ice_age/

    According to Tim Tyler global warming is preventing the Ice Age glaciation. If ice and snow cover the earth there would be a rapid cooling effect as the white snow cover reflect most of the sun's radiation away from the earth.

    Mystery of the Ice Age
    https://answersingenesis.org/answers...f-the-ice-age/

    The puzzle of coexisting warm and cold climate animals

    Ice Age fossils often display a strange mix of animals that would not be expected to coexist. Remains of animals adapted to the cold are found much farther south than expected. Warmth-loving animals are found as fossils much farther north than they would venture today. Yet, they apparently thrived in the Ice Age environment. This peculiar mixture of animals has been given a special name — disharmonious associations.
    These disharmonious associations were the rule rather than the exception. This mix of cold-tolerant and warm-tolerant animals occurred over the whole Northern Hemisphere,24 including Siberia, Alaska, and the Yukon Territory.25 Disharmonious associations are also found in the Southern Hemisphere.26

    Disharmonious associations apply not only to large mammals, but also to small mammals, plants, insects, birds, amphibians and reptiles! Graham and Lundelius27 write:
    Late Pleistocene communities were characterized by the coexistence of species that today are allopatric [not climatically associated] and presumably ecologically incompatible. … Disharmonious associations have been documented for late Pleistocene [Ice Age] floras … terrestrial invertebrates … lower vertebrates … birds … and mammals.
    One of the most outstanding examples is the existence of hippopotamus fossils associated with fossils of reindeer, musk oxen, and woolly mammoths found in England, France, and Germany.28 Sutcliffe29 states:
    Finding conditions so favourable the hippopotamus (today an inhabitant of the equatorial regions) had been able to spread northwards throughout most of England and Wales, up to an altitude of 400 meters [1,300 feet] on the now bleak Yorkshire moors.
    Furthermore, hippo fossils are not rare but rather common in England:
    Remains of hippopotamuses are known from probably about a hundred localities within England and Wales.30
    In North America too, most late Pleistocene faunas and floras are disharmonious.31 Reindeer mingled with warmth-loving animals as far south as Alabama and Georgia. Badgers, black-footed ferrets, ground sloths, camels, and giant beavers that prefer temperate climates are found much farther north in Alaska in association with woolly mammoths and other cold-tolerant animals.32
    Disharmonious associations have garnered much controversy. Although difficult to explain, most scientists have now accepted that the disharmonious associations during the Ice Age are real.33 The reason for the dilemma is that an Ice Age climate is assumed to have been much colder than present-day climates. However, the evidence from the Ice Age fossils instead implies an equable climate with mild winters and cool summers. This climatic deduction from observed fossil evidence is disconcerting, as Kenneth Cole34 realizes when considering very cold Ice Age computer simulations:
    Although paleoecologists often conclude that past climates were equable, it is difficult to create equable climates in continental interiors using climate circulation models.
    The explanation of disharmonious association during the Ice Age has resulted in over 150 years of controversy. Cole35 again writes:
    One of the longest-running philosophical debates in paleoecological interpretation concerns the importance of mixed, or disharmonious, assemblages which represent past communities with no modern analog. These mixed assemblages challenge our world view. … Mixed assemblages are usually explained by invoking past climates more “equable” than that of today.
    Indeed, disharmonious associations do challenge the mainstream Ice Age world view. There does not appear to be any likely solution to this enigma on the horizon.
    Mass extinctions at the end of the Ice Age

    It is difficult enough to accept that animals, as well as plants and insects, were disharmonious during the Ice Age. But scientists also are faced with explaining why this mix of animals came to an abrupt end with mass extinctions at the close of the Ice Age — at a time the climate was supposed to be warming and the living area expanding.
    Not only did the woolly mammoth die out in Siberia at the end of the Ice Age, it died out everywhere. Tolmachoff36 summarizes the problem of the disappearance of the woolly mammoth:
    We must explain the extinction of an animal which was living in great numbers, apparently very prosperously, over a large area, in variable physicogeographical conditions to which it was well adapted, and which died out in a very short time, geologically speaking.
    One slightly unexpected turn of events has recently occurred. Whereas scientists believed the woolly mammoth became extinct at the very end of the Ice Age, fossils of mammoths have been discovered on Wrangel Island north of Siberia in the Arctic Ocean that have been dated to about 2000 BC by carbon-14.37 So apparently the woolly mammoth managed to survive past the end of the Ice Age on an isolated island. It is possible that the carbon-14 dates are wrong, or that the Ice Age ended around 4,000 years ago.
    Many of the other animals of the mammoth steppe became extinct or disappeared from whole continents at the same time as the woolly mammoth. In North America alone, 135 species in 33 genera of large mammals disappeared.38 Twenty-two genera of birds went extinct from North America at the end of the Ice Age.39 Other continents were hit hard with extinctions during and soon after the Ice Age, including South America and Australia. In all, 167 genera of large mammals greater than 100 pounds (45 kg) disappeared from entire continents.40 Why?
    Scientists do not know why the extinctions occurred, and the question has tortured their minds for more than 200 years! Mass extinctions at the end of the Ice Age, when the climate and environment was improving, remains an enigma to this day. Ward41 writes:
    This great extinction — truly a mass extinction — represents one of paleontology’s most fundamental mysteries.

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    The disharmonius animals living in the Ice age could be explained thus:

    Climate scientist Gavin Schmidt, of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, explained that around 8,000 years ago, the Earth’s orbit was slightly different to how it is today. The tilt changed from around 24.1 degrees to the present-day 23.5 degrees.
    “Additionally, the Earth had its closest approach to the Sun in the northern hemisphere (with) summer in August,” Schmidt said. “Today, that closest approach is in January. So, summertime in the north was warmer back then than it is now.”
    The changes in the Earth’s orbital tilt and precession (or the wobbling motion) occur because of gravitational forces emanating from other bodies in the solar system. To understand exactly what happens, picture a spinning top when it is slightly disturbed. Just like a top, the Earth too wobbles slightly about its rotational axis. This tilt changes between roughly 22 and 25 degrees about every 41,000 years, while the precession varies on about a 26,000-year period. These cycles have been determined by astronomers and validated by geologists studying ocean sediment records.
    - See more at: http://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusi....OKK077kp.dpuf
    The earth's radius is approximate 4,000 miles. The tilt is measured in degrees from the vertical of the ecliptic plane. Sin 1 = approx. .072524. 1 degree in latitude is approximately 70 miles = .072524 * 4,000 miles.

    The cyclic deviation is 22 to 25 degrees i.e. 3 degrees which is roughly equal to 210 miles. what this means is that the Tropic of Cancer is moved up north 1.5 degrees from the median 23.5 degrees which is 105 miles north in the northern hemisphere and 105 miles south in the southern hemisphere. During the Ice Age the summers were hotter and winters colder as the sun moved farther north in summer and farther south in winter plus the sun's radiation was greater. The warm-climate fauna would move farther north during summer and in winter the cold-weather fauna would migrate farther south in winter. Thus when they died they seemed to appear in the same location in the Ice Age.

    In addition since the sun's radiation covered a larger surface area of the earth the density of energy was lower thus the overall atmospheric temperature was lower. Then as the largest land mass near the equator is the Sahara which was green at the time also helped keep the temperature low.
    Last edited by oriental; 28-04-15 at 20:56.

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    The Alps were underwater at one time as sea shells are found in the mountains. The salt mines in Poland indicate salt accumulated at the bottom of the sea when it dried.



    The African plate pushed up the sea to form the Alps and Italy is part of the African plate as it is south of the Alps.
    Last edited by oriental; 27-04-15 at 21:26.

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    Salzburg (salt mountain) mines


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    Salzburg - Sound of Music


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    Famous Austrians Adolf Hitler, Amadeus Mozart, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austrian princess Marie Antoinette who became Queen of France, Georg von Trapp and Arnold Swartzeneggar.

    Mozart's music is what elicited Julie Andrews to sing

    Last edited by oriental; 27-04-15 at 21:29.

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    Flooded kingdoms of the Ice Age


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    Flooded kingdoms of the Ice Age III


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    Milankovitch cycles

    http://www.skepticalscience.com/Milankovitch.html

    The ice ages climate temperature trendline indicates that the sun's radiation is decreasing incrementally.

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    The resilient earth

    I finally read what this website was propagating. I think this guy is using science in a political way. He is ignoring human activity.

    http://theresilientearth.com/?q=content/confirmed-orbital-cycles-control-ice-ages

    Last edited by oriental; 27-04-15 at 20:41.

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    Now Gavin Schmidt of NASA mentions that 8,000 years ago when the Sahara turned into a desert the tilt was 24.1 degrees and that today’s tilt is 23.5 degrees. 24.1-23.5 = 0.6 degree. The Milankovitch cycle for the axial tilt is 41,000 years from 21.5 degrees -> 24.5 to 21.5 degrees which is 6 degrees. Each degree takes 41,000/6 = 6833 years to complete. Then from 24.1 degrees to 23.5 degrees = 0.6 degree which is 0.6*6833 = 4,099 years. So it has to be 24.1 degrees over the hump 24.5 degrees in the cycle when the Sahara turned into a desert. 24.1 degrees -> 24.5 ->24.1 to 23.5 degrees i.e. 1.6 degrees. 1.6 * 6833 = 10,932 years. But I ignored the precession which gives the cycle that frilly appearance. Anyway it is approximate.
    The LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) was 20,000 to 19,000 years ago and the Younger Dryas was 12,500 to 11,500 years ago. So we can try to envision which part of the cycle the LGM was in.
    Today’s axial tilt is 23.5 degrees so 20,000 years ago is nearly equal to half of the axial cycle. As shown above the 8,000 years for drying of the Sahara was just over the hump 24.5 degrees so it was from 21.5 degrees to 24.5 degrees when LGM and the Younger Dryas (drying period) occurred as well of the desertification of the Sahara. Note the tilt is measured from the vertical of the elliptic plane so increasing the tilt means going down from the North pole. So the cooling period was shrinking of the tropical region as the sun oscillated from 21.5 degrees north (Tropic of Cancer) to 21.5 degrees south (Tropic of Capricorn).
    Now we are at 23.5 degrees and going to 21.5 degrees which is increasing the tropical zone as the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn are moving outwards so there is a warming of the earth till the sun reaches 21.5 degrees and starts increasing in axial tilt from 21.5 degrees to 24.5 degrees which would be the cooling period. 23.5 – 21.5 = 2 degrees which translate to 6833*2 = 13,766 years. So the cooling starts approximately 14,000 years from now and hopefully not another Ice Age.
    Now this calculation I did only shows the energy input to earth from the sun. The eccentricity shows the path the earth takes around the sun oscillating from near circle to an ellipse. This shows the sun’s radiation would vary as the earth distance from the sun varies.
    The axial tilt shows where the sun’s path is along the earth’s surface in effect dictates the tropical region's size and the precession is the North pole going in circles every 23,000 per cycle which gives a zig-zag pattern to the path of the sun as it oscillates between the Tropics.
    The Milankovitch cycles only shows the energy input of the sun to the earth so it is not a complete view of the Ice Ages. The distribution of energy in the form of ocean and wind currents which change with the configuration of the continents which are not constant due to tectonic plate mechanics. Vegetation affects distribution as it moderates temperature over land surfaces as it absorbs sunlight and animals start living there so it is warmed by the animals at night. Then there is the heat loss from cloud and snow cover and greenhouse gases (which slows the heat loss). These would be difficult to include in the equations but must be adjusted for each period in earth’s history.

    Eccentricity
    The first of the three Milankovitch Cycles is the Earth's eccentricity. Eccentricity is, simply, the shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This constantly fluctuating, orbital shape ranges between more and less elliptical (0 to 5% ellipticity) on a cycle of about 100,000 years.These oscillations, from more elliptic to less elliptic, are of prime importance to glaciation in that it alters the distance from the Earth to the Sun, thus changing the distance the Sun's short wave radiation must travel to reach Earth, subsequently reducing or increasing the amount of radiation received at the Earth's surface in different seasons.

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/LABUSE~1.002/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.jpg[/IMG]

    Today a difference of only about 3 percent occurs between aphelion (farthest point) and perihelion (closest point). This 3 percent difference in distance means that Earth experiences a 6 percent increase in received solar energy in January than in July. This 6 percent range of variability is not always the case, however.When the Earth's orbit is most elliptical the amount of solar energy received at the perihelion would be in the range of 20 to 30 percent more than at aphelion. Most certainly these continually altering amounts of received solar energy around the globe result in prominent changes in the Earth's climate and glacial regimes. At present the orbital eccentricity is nearly at the minimum of its cycle.



    Axial Tilt
    Axial tilt, the second of the three Milankovitch Cycles, is the inclination of the Earth's axis in relation to its plane of orbit around the Sun. Oscillations in the degree of Earth's axial tilt occur on a periodicity of 41,000 years from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees.

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/LABUSE~1.002/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG]

    Today the Earth's axial tilt is about 23.5 degrees, which largely accounts for our seasons. Because of the periodic variations of this angle the severity of the Earth's seasons changes. With less axial tilt the Sun's solar radiation is more evenly distributed between winter and summer. However, less tilt also increases the difference in radiation receipts between the equatorial and polar regions.
    One hypothesis for Earth's reaction to a smaller degree of axial tilt is that it would promote the growth of ice sheets. This response would be due to a warmer winter, in which warmer air would be able to hold more moisture, and subsequently produce a greater amount of snowfall. In addition, summer temperatures would be cooler, resulting in less melting of the winter's accumulation. At present, axial tilt is in the middle of its range.



    Precession
    The third and final of the Milankovitch Cycles is Earth's precession. Precession is the Earth's slow wobble as it spins on axis. This wobbling of the Earth on its axis can be likened to a top running down, and beginning to wobble back and forth on its axis. The precession of Earth wobbles from pointing at Polaris (North Star) to pointing at the star Vega. When this shift to the axis pointing at Vega occurs, Vega would then be considered the North Star. This top-like wobble, or precession, has a periodicity of 23,000 years.

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/LABUSE~1.002/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.jpg[/IMG]

    Due to this wobble a climatically significant alteration must take place. When the axis is tilted towards Vega the positions of the Northern Hemisphere winter and summer solstices will coincide with the aphelion and perihelion, respectively.This means that the Northern Hemisphere will experience winter when the Earthis furthest from the Sun and summer when the Earth is closest to the Sun. This coincidence will result in greater seasonal contrasts. At present, theEarth is at perihelion very close to the winter solstice.

    Eccentricity


    The first of the three Milankovitch Cycles is the Earth's eccentricity. Eccentricity is, simply, the shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This constantly fluctuating, orbital shape ranges between more and less elliptical (0 to 5% ellipticity) on a cycle of about 100,000 years. These oscillations, from more elliptic to less elliptic, are of prime importance to glaciation in that it alters the distance from the Earth to the Sun, thus changing the distance the Sun's short wave radiation must travel to reach Earth, subsequently reducing or increasing the amount of radiation received at the Earth's surface in different seasons.




    Today a difference of only about 3 percent occurs between aphelion (farthest point) and perihelion (closest point). This 3 percent difference in distance means that Earth experiences a 6 percent increase in received solar energy in January than in July. This 6 percent range of variability is not always the case, however. When the Earth's orbit is most elliptical the amount of solar energy received at the perihelion would be in the range of 20 to 30 percent more than at aphelion. Most certainly these continually altering amounts of received solar energy around the globe result in prominent changes in the Earth's climate and glacial regimes. At present the orbital eccentricity is nearly at the minimum of its cycle.

    Axial Tilt


    Axial tilt, the second of the three Milankovitch Cycles, is the inclination of the Earth's axis in relation to its plane of orbit around the Sun. Oscillations in the degree of Earth's axial tilt occur on a periodicity of 41,000 years from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees.




    Today the Earth's axial tilt is about 23.5 degrees, which largely accounts for our seasons. Because of the periodic variations of this angle the severity of the Earth's seasons changes. With less axial tilt the Sun's solar radiation is more evenly distributed between winter and summer. However, less tilt also increases the difference in radiation receipts between the equatorial and polar regions.


    One hypothesis for Earth's reaction to a smaller degree of axial tilt is that it would promote the growth of ice sheets. This response would be due to a warmer winter, in which warmer air would be able to hold more moisture, and subsequently produce a greater amount of snowfall. In addition, summer temperatures would be cooler, resulting in less melting of the winter's accumulation. At present, axial tilt is in the middle of its range.

    Precession


    The third and final of the Milankovitch Cycles is Earth's precession. Precession is the Earth's slow wobble as it spins on axis. This wobbling of the Earth on its axis can be likened to a top running down, and beginning to wobble back and forth on its axis. The precession of Earth wobbles from pointing at Polaris (North Star) to pointing at the star Vega. When this shift to the axis pointing at Vega occurs, Vega would then be considered the North Star. This top-like wobble, or precession, has a periodicity of 23,000 years.




    Due to this wobble a climatically significant alteration must take place. When the axis is tilted towards Vega the positions of the Northern Hemisphere winter and summer solstices will coincide with the aphelion and perihelion, respectively. This means that the Northern Hemisphere will experience winter when the Earth is furthest from the Sun and summer when the Earth is closest to the Sun. This coincidence will result in greater seasonal contrasts. At present, the Earth is at perihelion very close to the winter solstice.
    http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/imag...lankovitch.htm
    Last edited by oriental; 28-04-15 at 03:40.

  22. #22

  23. #23
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    I hope it becomes a reality as I think the Persian Gulf is the most important civilization as it is from it that the non-African society emerged.

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    I decided to revise my analysis of the Ice Age here instead of editing the earlier posting which had some errors. I ought it would better to show my writing "with warts and all" as the saying goes as I make modifications to my thoughts. Here is my update

    [QUOTE]Now Gavin Schmidt of NASA mentions that 8,000 years ago when the Sahara turned into a desert the tilt was 24.1° and that today’s tilt is 23.5°. 24.1° - 23.5° = 0.6°. The Milankovitch cycle for the axial tilt is 41,000 years from 21.5° -> 24.5° to 21.5° degrees which is 6°. Each degree takes 41,000/6 =6,833 years. Then 24.1° to 23.5° = 0.6 degree which is 0.6 * 6833 = 4099 years. So it has to be 24.1° over the hump 24.5° in the cycle when the Sahara turned into a desert. 24.1° -> 24.5° ->24.1° to 23.5° i.e. 1.6 degrees. 1.6 * 6833 =10,932 years. But I ignored the precession which gives the cycle that frilly appearance. Anyway it is approximate.

    The LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) was 20,000 to 19,000 years ago and the Younger Dryas was 12,500 to 11,500 years ago. So we can try to envision which part of the cycle the LGM was in.

    Today’s axial tilt is 23.5° so 20,000 years ago is nearly equal to half of the axial cycle. As shown above the 8,000 years for drying of the Sahara was just over the hump 24.5° so it was slope from 21.5° to 24.5° when LGM and the Younger Dryas (drying period) occurred as well of the desertification of the Sahara. Note the axial tilt is from the vertical of the elliptic plane so increasing the tilt means the North Pole is approaching the equator.

    The axial tilt today is 23.5° and heading towards 21.5°. The less tilt the closer the Tropics are to the equator. The tropical region is therefore shrinking and so it is cooling. The cooling occurs from the shrinking of the tropical region till the sun oscillates finally from 21.5° north (Tropic of Cancer) to 21.5° south (Tropic of Capricorn).

    Note: One needs a globe to help visualize this axial tilt and the Tropics which mark the maximum angle from the equator during summer and winter. I got confused and had to look at my small globe many times.

    Now we are at 23.5° and going towards 21.5° which is decreasing the tropical zone. As the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn are moving inwards there is a cooling of the earth till the sun reaches 21.5° and then starts increasing in axial tilt which would begin the heating period. 23.5° – 21.5° = 2° which translate to 6833 * 2 = 13,766 years. We are in the middle of the Ice Age so the Ice Age ends approximately 14,000 years from now and hopefully ending the Ice Age.

    The coldest time would be when the sun moves from 22.5° -> 21.5° back to 22.5° that period of 2 degrees the tropical region is smallest for 2 * 6,833 or 13,666 years. The hottest would be at 23.5° -> 24.5° back to 23.5° for another 13,666 years with the tropical region at its widest. The Ice Ages could extend through both periods as snow and ice cover would deflect most of the sunshine.

    The various ways out of the Ice Age would be to absorb the sunlight with a huge volcanic eruption which could happen with thick ice pressing bending the rocks and soil on a volcano as it builds up pressure internally. The combined pressure would prematurely cause an eruption. Greenhouse gases could be released. The ash would spread over the snow and darken the surface as well as melt some of the snow. The caldera of the volcano could alter wind patterns.

    Volcanic deposits could create barriers and divert warm equatorial ocean currents up north e.g. the Gulf of Mexico was closed off and the Gulf Stream was created 3 million years ago.

    The drying of the Sahara into a full blown desert would also help by heating the atmosphere during the day and inducing hurricanes which would spread warm over a large area. Of course, the tropical region was free from snow and ice most of the time through the Ice Ages.

    The Sahara was dried (24.1°) up during the warmest period from 23.5° -> back to 23.5° (the present period) lasting 13,666 years. We are at the end of the warming period with widest tropical region and will start to shrink. There is a lag as it takes time to cool so the earth is warming plus the human activity may also be adding heat to the earth.

    Now this calculation I did only shows the energy input to earth from the sun. The eccentricity shows the path takes around the sun oscillating from near circle to an ellipse. This shows the sun’s radiation would vary as the earth distance from the sun varies.

    The axial tilt shows where the sun’s path is along the earth’s surface in effect the tropical region and the precession is the North Pole going in circles every 23,000 per cycle which gives a zigzag pattern to the path of the sun as it oscillates between the Tropics.

    The Milankovitch cycles only show the energy input of the sun to the earth so it not a complete view of the Ice Ages. The distribution, or circulation, of energy in the form of ocean and wind current change with the configuration of the continents which are not constant due to tectonic plate mechanics.

    Vegetation affects distribution as it moderate temperature over land surfaces as it absorbs sunlight and animals start living there so it is warmed by the animals at night. Then there is the heat loss from cloud and snow cover and greenhouse gases (which slow the heat loss). These would be difficult to include in the equation but must be adjusted for each period in earth’s history.

    [/QUOTE]
    Last edited by oriental; 30-04-15 at 02:11. Reason: readabilty and notations, errors and grammar

  25. #25
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    Eccentricity
    The first of the three Milankovitch Cycles is the Earth's eccentricity. Eccentricity is, simply, the shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This constantly fluctuating, orbital shape ranges between more and less elliptical (0 to 5% ellipticity) on a cycle of about 100,000 years.These oscillations, from more elliptic to less elliptic, are of prime importance to glaciation in that it alters the distance from the Earth to the Sun, thus changing the distance the Sun's short wave radiation must travel to reach Earth, subsequently reducing or increasing the amount of radiation received at the Earth's surface in different seasons.

    Today a difference of only about 3 percent occurs between aphelion (farthest point) and perihelion (closest point). This 3 percent difference in distance means that Earth experiences a 6 percent increase in received solar energy in January than in July. This 6 percent range of variability is not always the case, however. When the Earth's orbit is most elliptical the amount of solar energy received at the perihelion would be in the range of 20 to 30 percent more than at aphelion. Most certainly these continually altering amounts of received solar energy around the globe result in prominent changes in the Earth's climate and glacial regimes. At present the orbital eccentricity is nearly at the minimum of its cycle.
    Last edited by oriental; 28-04-15 at 23:26. Reason: readability

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