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Thread: African MtDna Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula

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    4 out of 4 members found this post helpful.

    African MtDna Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula

    This is a long awaited look at the issue, and particularly because they looked at whole mtDna sequences.

    Candela L. Hernandez et al:
    Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139784

    Abstract
    "Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of “migratory routes” in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians—from Huelva and Granada provinces—and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia."


    They're much clearer in the actual body of the paper, where they posit two peaks of migration, one about 10,000 ybp, and one in the historic era.
    Thus, the most parsimonious model for the oldest demographic events and migrations across the Mediterranean Basin, based on mtDNA evidence, is the following: after 20 ky, U6 lineages had an extensive population expansion in northwest Africa, associated with the emergence of the Iberomaurusian industry in the Maghreb; this pool was further enriched by sub-Saharan L lineages, especially L1b, which began to arrive in North Africa in the beginning of the African Humid Period (AHP, ~11–5.5 ky BP) [57]; U6 and L lineages were introduced from northwest Africa into Iberia in the post-glacial period, most probably by the time of the Younger Dryas/beginning of the Holocene. The opening of the trans-Saharan communications with the African Humid Period, also allowed the southern migration of U6 sequences, and its local expansion as detected in the BSP for lineages observed in sub-Saharan Africa.

    "The recent migration peaks identified in the FA of U6 and L lineages could be associated with the Islamic rule of Iberia and the slave trade period, respectively. The HVS-I FA attributes a comparatively lower proportion of these recently introduced sequences into Iberia when compared with the post-glacial one: 1/3 vs 2/3, respectively. The analysis performed by [26] on the phylogeography of L sequences observed in Iberia and remaining Europe pointed to 65% of its introduction in recent times (Romanization period, Islamic expansion and Atlantic slave trade), and 35% at older times, as earlier as 11ky. The complete sequence based FA for U6 agrees more with these results, attributing a half-half proportion of sequences in both periods, showing the higher resolution of complete mitogenomes. The historical-based expectation of a higher proportion of newly introduced U6 lineages in Andalusia was confirmed: 70% against 30% in the earlier migration."
    Put more simply,based on the complete sequences and phylogeography, the split would be 50/50 ancient and modern, except for Andalusia, where it's a 30/70 ancient/historical era mix.


    What I don't think is totally explained is the split between Western and Eastern Andalusia, unless there was a differing migration during the relocations after the Reconquista:

    "Western Andalusians from Huelva show a distinctive African influence (11.8% of the total mtDNA variability) compared to those from the eastern part of the region (Granada province) where the proportion of African maternal haplogroups is much less pronounced (3.6%)".

    They also used a very extensive collection of mtDna from all around the Mediterranean Basin to do some contour maps not only of U6a and L1b, which are in the body of the paper, but of all the African mtDna.


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    0 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    I always thought that there was Mesolithic migration from Africa to Europe through Gibraltar. IIRC there was some West African or SSA signal in WHG or even SHG. I'll try to find a moment tomorrow to read this in full.
    Be wary of people who tend to glorify the past, underestimate the present, and demonize the future.

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    it looks like remnants of mtDNA indicate pré-Berber migrations, while all Y DNA involved has been whiped out

    Berbers are E-M81 and YFull estimates their TMRCA to be a mere 2100 years

    apart from E-M81 Berbers and J1 Arab Muslims there is not much other Y DNA left in nortwestern Africa




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    J1 is not exclusively arab, only J1c3 is. Sarno calculated that J1 in south Italy and Sicily is:
    However, the estimated age for Sicilian and Southern-Italian J1 haplotypes refers to the end of the Bronze Age (32611345 YBP), thus suggesting more ancient contributions from the East.
    Sicilians and mainlander Southern Italian phenotype galleries.

    http://italicroots.lefora.com/topic/1111/Re-Groups-of-Sicilians
    http://italicroots.lefora.com/topic/375/Southern-italians-how-we-really-look

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    They're proposing a 50/50 split based on the whole mtDna sequences for a Muslim Era/early migration for Iberia as a whole, and 70/30 for Andalucia, which makes sense given how long it was under Muslim rule and the frequency in part of it.

    As for the y that was involved I don't know. The mtDna for U6 as a whole matches the one for E-M81 very well, although I don't know how that can be if E-M81 is that young.

    MtDna U6

    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna U6.jpg

    This is the one for U6a:
    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna U6a.jpg

    This is L1b:
    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna L1b.jpg

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    I think the M1 map is very interesting as well.

    Attachment 7475

    It looks as if it's from a different part of North West Africa. It also looks as if it originally came from the east. I've always thought the whole Phoenician/Carthaginian thing was a bit overblown given the Phoenicians were traders, not colonists, and therefore probably a very male only mediated flow if any, but maybe the Carthaginians were different? That is around the area of the largest Carthaginian settlements isn't it?

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    Weren't carthaginians of phoenician origins?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Hauteville View Post
    Weren't carthaginians of phoenician origins?
    Yes, they were, but there's some indication they were a mixed Phoenician/Berber empire. Once the Levant was conquered I think the dynamic changed. They were on their own, as it were, trying to establish a new homeland.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthage

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    They're proposing a 50/50 split based on the whole mtDna sequences for a Muslim Era/early migration for Iberia as a whole, and 70/30 for Andalucia, which makes sense given how long it was under Muslim rule and the frequency in part of it.

    As for the y that was involved I don't know. The mtDna for U6 as a whole matches the one for E-M81 very well, although I don't know how that can be if E-M81 is that young.

    MtDna U6

    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna U6.jpg

    This is the one for U6a:
    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna U6a.jpg

    This is L1b:
    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna L1b.jpg
    afaik the Muslims that conquered first southern Spain were from the Omajade dynasty, who used to rule in Baghdad, but were expelled by fundamentalistic Muslims
    those Omajade fugitives were mainly military men and had little women with them
    they took the daughters of the beaten Visigoth rulers as hostages but had children with them
    it has been told many Morish rulers dyed their hair to show they were genuine Morish and to conceal their blondness

    in the 11 th century the Omajades in Spain were expelled by the fundamentalistic Almohavides from Morroco

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I think the M1 map is very interesting as well.

    Attachment 7475

    It looks as if it's from a different part of North West Africa. It also looks as if it originally came from the east. I've always thought the whole Phoenician/Carthaginian thing was a bit overblown given the Phoenicians were traders, not colonists, and therefore probably a very male only mediated flow if any, but maybe the Carthaginians were different? That is around the area of the largest Carthaginian settlements isn't it?
    the Phoenicians were traders, but when they were expelled from Lebanon by the Assyrians, they founded Carthago

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    I can not see M1 map.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    the Phoenicians were traders, but when they were expelled from Lebanon by the Assyrians, they founded Carthago
    Not only Carthage. They established emporiums through the Mediterranean basin.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Hauteville View Post
    I can not see M1 map.
    Sorry, let me try it again.

    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna M.jpg

    It's probably just gene flow from a slightly different part of northwest Africa.

    I was just musing based on the fact that the M1 shows up where it does in Spain and you
    see it in Tunis.


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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    the Phoenicians were traders, but when they were expelled from Lebanon by the Assyrians, they founded Carthago
    Legend has it that it was internal feud that prompted queen Dido to leave Tyre and search for a new homeland and not foreign occupation

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dido

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Yes, they were, but there's some indication they were a mixed Phoenician/Berber empire. Once the Levant was conquered I think the dynamic changed. They were on their own, as it were, trying to establish a new homeland.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthage
    I presume this is correct also the Berber population in the new Phonetician home (later to be named Carthage) would overwhelm the new phonetician arrivals which at some point must have mixed. i believe that the J1 commonly found in these areas today are not just an addition with the rise of Islam but can also be through very ancient migrations

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    Quote Originally Posted by Maleth View Post
    Legend has it that it was internal feud that prompted queen Dido to leave Tyre and search for a new homeland and not foreign occupation

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dido
    I certainly like that version better. :)

    Poor Dido, no happy ending for her...

    This is my favorite painting of her and Aeneas.

    http://harvardmagazine.com/sites/def...F14_09_001.jpg

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    Quote Originally Posted by Hauteville View Post
    J1 is not exclusively arab, only J1c3 is. Sarno calculated that J1 in south Italy and Sicily is:
    where did you see that J1c3 was exclusively arab?

    There where no arabs in north-africa until after the fall of the Roman empire, so my guess for J1c3 , if arab was still in the arabian peninsula
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    I also think this map of the distribution of mtDna L3f is interesting.
    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna L3f.jpg



    That hotspot in France is pretty close to a hot spot of E-M81 in France. Perhaps this one makes sense as a recent Muslim Era trail that somehow wound up in France. I don't know if it's from the earliest foray up from Spain directly in the early days or the later one that came directly up the coast from the Mediterranean.


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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    where did you see that J1c3 was exclusively arab?

    There where no arabs in north-africa until after the fall of the Roman empire, so my guess for J1c3 , if arab was still in the arabian peninsula
    The Phoenicians were probably descendants of the Canaanites. We don't have ancient dna from the Canaanites, so we can't be certain what they carried. J2a is one good bet, but I wouldn't rule out certain clades of J1. I don't think all of it in the Levant is solely from the period after the "Arab" conquests, just as I don't think all of it in East Africa is that late.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    where did you see that J1c3 was exclusively arab?

    There where no arabs in north-africa until after the fall of the Roman empire, so my guess for J1c3 , if arab was still in the arabian peninsula
    J1c3 is the dominant Y-DNA of semite speaking peoples.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I certainly like that version better. :)

    Poor Dido, no happy ending for her...

    This is my favorite painting of her and Aeneas.


    http://harvardmagazine.com/sites/def...F14_09_001.jpg
    Lovely painting that is. :) Always heard the Dido story as a child. Legend (local) also has it here that she visited Malta and contemplated in building her new city here, but it was far too small for her aspirations. Maybe its not a far fetched story considering its believed that it was the Phoenicians who founded the old town of Maleth (todays Mdina) some 700BC and two temples existed already in the entrance of the two largest harbours, Astarte and Melqart. Punic tombs are found all over the Islands.

    http://www.mellieha.com/places_inter...punictombs.htm

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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I certainly like that version better. :)

    Poor Dido, no happy ending for her...

    This is my favorite painting of her and Aeneas.

    http://harvardmagazine.com/sites/def...F14_09_001.jpg
    That is a lovely painting indeed :). I always heard of the Dido version as a child. Legend (local) also has it that she visited Malta and contemplated in building her new city here, but it was eventually too small for her aspirations. Maybe its not a far fetched story considering that Malta was already an important Phoenician out post with two temples one dedicated to Astarte (todays fort St Angelo no remains left just documentation) and other to Melqart (today just the foundations remain). Also it was the phonecians who founded the first town Maleth (Maleth/Melita/Malta) which gave Malta its name. Also Punic style burial are found all over the Islands.

    http://www.mellieha.com/places_inter...punictombs.htm

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    Quote Originally Posted by Maleth View Post
    Legend has it that it was internal feud that prompted queen Dido to leave Tyre and search for a new homeland and not foreign occupation

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dido
    what's the catch ?

    I'm sure the Roman writers must have given a twist to history to demonise Carthago and justifie their own wars

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    The Phoenicians were probably descendants of the Canaanites. We don't have ancient dna from the Canaanites, so we can't be certain what they carried. J2a is one good bet, but I wouldn't rule out certain clades of J1. I don't think all of it in the Levant is solely from the period after the "Arab" conquests, just as I don't think all of it in East Africa is that late.
    The Canaanites were Semites, so E-M123.
    I guess J2a was in the Levant before arrival of the Semites, they were ousted by the Semites and then some of them fled to the Lebanon shores.
    Ugarit was a Semititc city and the most important harbor for trade between Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean, it was destroyed by the Sea Peoples.
    Many Semitic traders from Ugarit fled south toward the villages at the Lebanon shores and mixed with the local J2a.
    This mixture of E-M123 and J2a were the Phoenicians. There may have been some J1 with that too.
    Anyway if there is still some Phoenician DNA left it should be mainly E-M123 and probably as a second J2a with maybe a small minority of J1.

    But I think most of J1 in northern Africa except Egypt is from Muslim Arabs.
    The reason is the TMRCA of only 2100 years for E-M81.
    At a given point, not so long ago the Berbers must have erased virtualy all other male DNA in the area.
    It is known that the conquerer Muslim Arabs came in great numbers to live in or near the cities, while the Berbers remained the majority in the more rural areas.
    It would help if we had a breakdown in subclades of the J1 people living in northern Africa.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I also think this map of the distribution of mtDna L3f is interesting.
    Hernandez et al spatial distribution of mtDna L3f.jpg



    That hotspot in France is pretty close to a hot spot of E-M81 in France. Perhaps this one makes sense as a recent Muslim Era trail that somehow wound up in France. I don't know if it's from the earliest foray up from Spain directly in the early days or the later one that came directly up the coast from the Mediterranean.

    Before they were beaten by Karel Martel, many Muslim looters roamed through southern France.
    They may have raped some women in the process, but they wouldn't have left any mtDNA.

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