The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia
Article (PDF Available) in Current Biology 26:1-8 · October 2016 with 25 Reads

The archaeological documentation of the development of sedentary farming societies in Anatolia is not yet mirrored by a genetic understanding of the human populations involved, in contrast to the spread of farming in Europe [1–3]. Sedentary farming communities emerged in parts of the Fertile Crescent during the tenth millennium and early ninth millennium calibrated (cal) BC and had appeared in central Anatolia by 8300 cal BC [4]. Farming spread into west Anatolia by the early seventh millennium cal BC and quasi-synchronously into Europe, although the timing and process of this movement remain unclear. Using genome sequence data that we generated from nine central Anatolian Neolithic individuals, we studied the transition period from early Aceramic (Pre-Pottery) to the later Pottery Neolithic, when farming expanded west of the Fertile Crescent. We find that genetic diversity in the earliest farmers was conspicuously low, on a par with European foraging groups. With the advent of the Pottery Neolithic, genetic variation within societies reached levels later found in early European farmers. Our results confirm that the earliest Neolithic central Anatolians belonged to the same gene pool as the first Neolithic migrants spreading into Europe. Further, genetic affinities between later Anatolian farmers and fourth to third millennium BC Chalcolithic south Europeans suggest an additional wave of Anatolian migrants, after the initial Neolithic spread but before the Yamnaya-related migrations. We propose that the earliest farming societies demographically resembled foragers and that only after regional gene flow and rising heterogeneity did the farming population expansions into Europe occur.

Interesting that SE-Anatoilia matches Otzi/remendello ..............and I presume Bichon markers
Post-Neolithic contacts between parts of Anatolia and central
Europe are a matter of discussion. Genetic affinity between a
Chalcolithic group in northwest Anatolia represented by Kum6 of
Kumtepe and by a group represented by the Tyrolean Iceman
was earlier explained by gene flow post-dating the earlier stages
of the Neolithic in Europe [6]. But it has alternatively been inter-
preted as the Iceman representing a relic of the first migratory
event from Anatolia [9]. As we have shown in this paper, individ-
uals of the Chalcolithic Remedello group [24] from northern Italy
also share strong affinity with Kumtepe. This pattern may be ex-
plained with one out of four scenarios: (1) Iceman/Remedello
representing a relict population stemming from an early farmer
migratory event, (2) late-Neolithic/Chalcolithic back-migration
from central Europe into Anatolia, (3) a third source-population
admixing with both the population represented by Iceman/Re-
medello and the population represented by Kumtepe, and
(secondary late-Neolithic/Chalcolithic migration from Anatolia.
Because the Iceman/Remedello group is genetically closer to
Chalcolithic Kumtepe than to earlier Anatolian Neolithic popula-
tions, including Boncuklu and Barcın, the first scenario seems
unlikely. The fact that both Iceman/Remedello and Kumtepe
display shared drift with Caucasus hunter-gatherers, indepen-
dent of the Bronze Age Yamnaya expansions [24, 28], also ar-
gues against Iceman/Remedello being a relict population. Sec-
ond, as Kumtepe predates the Iceman/Remedello group by
some 1,300 years, back migration is an unlikely explanation.
Finally, the Tepecik-C¸ iftlik population shows significant affinity
to the Iceman/Remedello group and Kumtepe relative to other
Anatolian and European Neolithic populations (Figure 3D); but
Tepecik-C¸ iftlik also predates Iceman/Remedello by approxi-
mately 3,000 years. This implies gene flow events from Tepe-
cik-C¸ iftlik-related populations into the Kumtepe-related west
Anatolian populations, as predicted by archaeological evidence
[29], and further gene flow that reached northern Italy by the
fourth millennium BC. We propose an additional, yet unde-
scribed, gene flow process from Anatolia into Europe as a better
explanation than a contribution from a hypothetical third source
into Neolithic central Anatolia, Chalcolithic northwest Anatolia,
and Chalcolithic central Europe. Thus, Neolithic population dy-
namics that initiated in the Anatolian region resulted in multiple
waves of expansion and admixture in west Eurasia.