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Thread: Comparing Mesolithic and Neolithic genomes using the Eurogenes K36 calculator

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    Post Comparing Mesolithic and Neolithic genomes using the Eurogenes K36 calculator

    I have run a Yamna genome as well as the Iron-Age Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Hinxton genomes in the Eurogenes K36 calculator. Now is time to have a look at some Mesolithic and Neolithic Europeans.

    Keep in mind that the component names for the Eurogenes K36 admixture are not accurate and do not represent the region of origin, nor even the region where it is the most common today. One of the reasons fro comparing ancient genomes is to try to determine what these components really mean. For more information check the analysis of the K36 components.


    Mesolithic Spain (La Braña, C1a2, U5b2c1, c. 5850 BCE)

    0.00% Amerindian
    0.00% Arabian
    0.00% Armenian
    10.87% Basque
    0.00% Central_African
    0.00% Central_Euro
    0.00% East_African
    0.00% East_Asian
    0.00% East_Balkan
    0.00% East_Central_Asian
    20.37% East_Central_Euro
    0.00% East_Med
    10.99% Eastern_Euro
    33.56% Fennoscandian
    0.04% French
    0.02% Iberian
    0.00% Indo-Chinese
    0.00% Italian
    0.00% Malayan
    0.00% Near_Eastern
    0.00% North_African
    8.11% North_Atlantic
    0.00% North_Caucasian
    16.05% North_Sea
    0.00% Northeast_African
    0.00% Oceanian
    0.00% Omotic
    0.00% Pygmy
    0.00% Siberian
    0.00% South_Asian
    0.00% South_Central_Asian
    0.00% South_Chinese
    0.00% Volga-Ural
    0.00% West_African
    0.00% West_Caucasian
    0.00% West_Med

    What we see here is a major overlap with the Yamna genome. The components are the same except for the North_Caucasus, Volga-Ural, South-Central_Asian and Amerindian in Yamna and the Basque in Mesolithic Spain. The 17% of North Caucasus and 12% of Central_Asian probably correspond to the teal Armenian-like admixture in Yamna, while the Amerindian and Volga-Ural reflect the Paleolithic Siberian (or ANE) origins of R1a and R1b people, as well as the presence of haplogroup Q1a in the Khvalynsk culture alongside R1a and R1b, and the proximity of N1c tribes in the Volga-Ural region, where population exchange would have taken place during the Khvalynsk and Yamna periods.

    This confirms that the East_Central_Euro, Eastern_Euro, Fennoscandian, North_Atlantic and North_Sea components represent Mesolithic admixtures (WHG, SHG, EHG). However the geographic descriptions do not match the actual geographic distributions or prehistoric locations. For example, Spanish La Braña had more Eastern_Euro and Fennoscandian than the Yamna genome from Russia.


    Mesolithic Luxembourg (Loschbour, I2a1b, U5b1a, 6100 BCE)

    0.00% Amerindian
    0.00% Arabian
    0.00% Armenian
    8.26% Basque
    0.00% Central_African
    0.00% Central_Euro
    0.00% East_African
    0.00% East_Asian
    0.00% East_Balkan
    0.00% East_Central_Asian
    20.35% East_Central_Euro
    0.00% East_Med
    10.17% Eastern_Euro
    38.97% Fennoscandian
    0.00% French
    0.01% Iberian
    0.00% Indo-Chinese
    0.00% Italian
    0.00% Malayan
    0.00% Near_Eastern
    0.00% North_African
    8.99% North_Atlantic
    0.00% North_Caucasian
    13.25% North_Sea
    0.00% Northeast_African
    0.00% Oceanian
    0.00% Omotic
    0.00% Pygmy
    0.00% Siberian
    0.00% South_Asian
    0.00% South_Central_Asian
    0.00% South_Chinese
    0.00% Volga-Ural
    0.00% West_African
    0.00% West_Caucasian
    0.00% West_Med

    This Loschbour sample is very similar to La Braña. They both represent Western European Hunter-Gathers (WHG).


    Mesolithic Sweden (Motala6, U5a2, c. 5750 BCE)

    0.00% Amerindian
    0.00% Arabian
    0.00% Armenian
    0.00% Basque
    0.00% Central_African
    5.95% Central_Euro
    0.00% East_African
    0.00% East_Asian
    0.00% East_Balkan
    0.00% East_Central_Asian
    43.70% East_Central_Euro
    0.00% East_Med
    2.31% Eastern_Euro
    10.01% Fennoscandian
    0.00% French
    0.00% Iberian
    0.00% Indo-Chinese
    0.00% Italian
    0.00% Malayan
    0.00% Near_Eastern
    0.00% North_African
    19.59% North_Atlantic
    0.00% North_Caucasian
    18.44% North_Sea
    0.00% Northeast_African
    0.00% Oceanian
    0.00% Omotic
    0.00% Pygmy
    0.00% Siberian
    0.00% South_Asian
    0.00% South_Central_Asian
    0.00% South_Chinese
    0.00% Volga-Ural
    0.00% West_African
    0.00% West_Caucasian
    0.00% West_Med

    Another proof that the K36 component names were seriously mislabelled. Mesolithic Scandinavians didn't have a lot of Fennoscandian but rather East_Central_Euro , North_Atlantic and North_Sea. The only difference with the Mesolithic Spaniard above is the absence of 'Basque', which appears to be a specifically SW European Mesolithic component (perhaps associated with mtDNA H1?).


    Pitted Ware / Late Mesolithic Sweden (Ajvide58, I2a1, U4d, c. 2400 BCE)

    0.73% Amerindian
    0.00% Arabian
    0.00% Armenian
    4.34% Basque
    0.00% Central_African
    3.69% Central_Euro
    0.00% East_African
    0.00% East_Asian
    0.00% East_Balkan
    0.00% East_Central_Asian
    17.85% East_Central_Euro
    0.00% East_Med
    14.34% Eastern_Euro
    26.12% Fennoscandian
    5.40% French
    0.17% Iberian
    0.00% Indo-Chinese
    0.00% Italian
    0.00% Malayan
    0.00% Near_Eastern
    0.00% North_African
    7.92% North_Atlantic
    0.00% North_Caucasian
    19.45% North_Sea
    0.00% Northeast_African
    0.00% Oceanian
    0.00% Omotic
    0.00% Pygmy
    0.00% Siberian
    0.00% South_Asian
    0.00% South_Central_Asian
    0.00% South_Chinese
    0.00% Volga-Ural
    0.00% West_African
    0.00% West_Caucasian
    0.00% West_Med

    This sample is over 3000 years younger than the other Mesolithic samples above. It is contemporary to the last Megalithic cultures in western Europe and Early Bronze Age in central and eastern Europe, as well as in southern Scandinavia (Battle-Axe culture). Yet it does not show any sign of intermingling with either Neolithic farmers or Bronze Age Steppe invaders. Autosomally it is intermediary between WHG (Mesolithic Western Europe) and SHG (Mesolithic Scandinavia). It possess both the French and Central_Euro components found in all later Scandinavians, but absent from WHG and from the Yamna culture.


    Early Neolithic European (LBK Stuttgart, T2c1b, c. 5150 BCE)

    0.00% Amerindian
    1.59% Arabian
    0.00% Armenian
    0.00% Basque
    0.00% Central_African
    0.00% Central_Euro
    0.00% East_African
    0.00% East_Asian
    2.66% East_Balkan
    0.00% East_Central_Asian
    0.00% East_Central_Euro
    14.83% East_Med
    0.00% Eastern_Euro
    0.00% Fennoscandian
    0.00% French
    16.23% Iberian
    0.00% Indo-Chinese
    34.79% Italian
    0.00% Malayan
    0.65% Near_Eastern
    2.42% North_African
    0.00% North_Atlantic
    0.00% North_Caucasian
    0.00% North_Sea
    0.00% Northeast_African
    0.00% Oceanian
    0.00% Omotic
    0.00% Pygmy
    0.00% Siberian
    0.00% South_Asian
    0.00% South_Central_Asian
    0.00% South_Chinese
    0.00% Volga-Ural
    0.00% West_African
    0.00% West_Caucasian
    26.82% West_Med


    We've got some completely different admixture here, including a bit of Arabian, Near_Eastern and North_African. But the components in this genome match mostly southern European regions in the K36 labels (once again, it doesn't indicate the place of origin).

    Let's also check Dodecad K12b

    0.00% Gedrosia
    0.00% Siberian
    3.78% Northwest_African
    0.06% Southeast_Asian
    54.87% Atlantic_Med
    0.23% North_European
    0.00% South_Asian
    0.00% East_African
    10.80% Southwest_Asian
    0.00% East_Asian
    30.26% Caucasus
    0.00% Sub_Saharan


    So far the French component is at 0% in Mesolithic, Neolithic and Yamna samples. Where could it have come from? Another distinct Mesolithic population?
    Last edited by Maciamo; 20-01-17 at 10:49.
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