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Thread: Ancient Genomics of Neolithic to Bronze Age Baikal Hunter-Gatherers

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    Ancient Genomics of Neolithic to Bronze Age Baikal Hunter-Gatherers

    [330] Ancient Genomics of Neolithic to Bronze Age Baikal Hunter-Gatherers
    Damgaard, Peter de Barros (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen), Jeremy Choin (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen), Andrzej Weber (Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta), Martin Sikora (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen) and Eske Willerslev (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen)
    Genome-wide data from hunter-gatherer populations of the Upper Paleolithic to Neolithic has provided unprecedented insight into the human evolutionary and demographic trajectory. However such datasets have hitherto been largely confined to Western Eurasia. The sole representative of Inner Asian past populations post-dating the split between paleolithic Europeans and Asians, as well as paleolithic Siberians and East Asians, are the Mal’ta and Afontova Gora individuals, the Ancient North East Asian (ANE) branch, clouding the dating of the population split, and subsequent admixture events, between ANE and East Asian hunter-gatherers. Our genome data (~1X) reveal that Baikal Hunter-Gatherers (BHG) are an uncharacterized genetically homogeneous branch of Inner Asian hunter-gatherers, displaying highest shared genetic drift with present-day East Asians. Targeted sampling strategies coupled to excellent biomolecule preservation has permitted the generation of an advantageous sample size dataset (n = 31), rendering possible to estimate allele frequencies within these groups, thereby optimizing population tests. BHG model as an excellent proxy for an Inner Asian source population admixing into the late Bronze Age Andronovo groups, becoming Iron Age steppe nomads. With genomes allowing for kinship analyses, pathogen detection and strontium ratios, coupled to archaeological interpretative approaches we extend possible means to elucidate behavioral processes and cultural transformation.
    Good to see the Baikal-Hokkaido Archaeological Project collaborating with a top-rate palaeogenomics lab. The Middle Holocene Cis-Baikal region has preserved well-stratified habitation sites and formal hunter-gatherer cemeteries of continental importance, which continue to lend remarkable insights into Neolithic South Siberian social configurations and ecological strategies.
    The archaeology and earlier ancient uniparental marker work (mtDNA and Y-DNA from Early Neolithic Kitoi and Late Neolithic–Bronze Age Isakovo/Glazkovo samples) suggested an interesting discontinuity across the Middle Neolithic — maybe involving shifts in relatedness to ancestral Yeniseians. However, if Kitoi and succeeding Late Neolithic groups were both members of a homogeneous “BHG”, these cultural transformations and uniparental lineage turnovers must belie a bigger picture of substantial genome-wide continuity, potentially going as far back as the Mesolithic.
    “Andronovo” would be a disagreement with the recent model in Unterländer et al. (2017), Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe, doi:10.1038/ncomms14615.
    Here Iron Age eastern Scythians were instead modeled as “Yamnaya”1 + East Eurasian (Han and Nganasan were adequate stand-ins but it stands to reason that this was something more like BHG).
    82nd annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (Vancouver, BC, Canada: March 29–April 2, 2017)

    Who were Inner Asia HG?
    I think they were related with Sagsai Culture and maybe chandman people, where lived in western Mongolia at bronze age. They were classifed as UP type people. Moreover, this chandman is anthropologically connected to XiounNu(Hun) and finally ancient Turk. XioungNu also had R1a-z93 and Q1a2.

    Sagsai Culture, 1400-900 BC
    Q1a3a-L54, Q1a3a-L54, Q1a3a-L54, R1a-Z93, R1a-Z93, R1a-Z93, C-M130
    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...evo-was-R1b1a2

    What emerges in this tree is a distinct clustering of the Bronze Age Chandman, Mongol Turk, and Xiongnu Egiin Gol samples with theAinu and ancient Jomon of Japan.
    -Individuals from early Neolithic Lokomotiv and Shamanka II were found to possess haplogroups K, R1a1 and C3, and individuals from Late Neolithic-bronze Ust’-Ida and Kurma XI were found to belong to haplogroups Q, K and unidentified SNP (L914).
    Last edited by johen; 13-03-17 at 22:01.

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    The Lokomotiv HGs that were R1a1 had no WHG share so?
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    who is the author?
    do you have a link?

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    Quote Originally Posted by berun View Post
    The Lokomotiv HGs that were R1a1 had no WHG share so?
    A few had mtDNA U5a as well. They definitely had some WHG and or ANE admixture but I guess they were overwhelmingly East Asian-like.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    who is the author?
    do you have a link?
    http://sarkoboros.net/2017/03/ancien...s-at-saa-2017/

    but just abstract:

    Damgaard, Peter de Barros (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen), Jeremy Choin (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen), Andrzej Weber (Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta), Martin Sikora (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen) and Eske Willerslev (Center for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Fire Haired14 View Post
    A few had mtDNA U5a as well. They definitely had some WHG and or ANE admixture but I guess they were overwhelmingly East Asian-like.
    But ANE is that new characterized BHG ?

    If EHG = WHG + ANE it would mean that they came from Siberia?

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    interesting, but useless to speculate, wait till after the conference

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    Quote Originally Posted by berun View Post
    But ANE is that new characterized BHG ?

    If EHG = WHG + ANE it would mean that they came from Siberia?
    The abstract states BHG is closely related to East Asians.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Fire Haired14 View Post
    The abstract states BHG is closely related to East Asians.
    It would be nice to get GedMatch kit for these, to figure out what East Asian they mean? SE Asian, NE Asian, Siberian, Beringian or even American?
    Be wary of people who tend to glorify the past, underestimate the present, and demonize the future.

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    Quote Originally Posted by johen View Post
    [330] Ancient Genomics of Neolithic to Bronze Age Baikal Hunter-Gatherers
    82nd annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (Vancouver, BC, Canada: March 29–April 2, 2017) “BHG model as an excellent proxy for an Inner Asian source population admixing into the late Bronze Age Andronovo groups,
    1. I think,whether andronovo(R1a-z93) genetic admixture originated in west or East cannot help but depend upon their cranial analysis, b/c yamna and afanasievo genetic admixture is similar.

    First of all, srubna(R1a-z93) and Poltavka(R1a-z94) skulls resemble afanasievo’s. I have no cranial analysis of sintashta(R1a-93). Srubna series is seriously close to afanasievo.

    Afanasyeva Gora and the pooled Minusinsk series are closest to the late Catacomb of the Lower Dnieper, whereas the series from Kurota II in the Altai, is closest to Poltavka. These results are matched by archaeological facts which, according to S.V. Tsyb (1981, 1984), evidence the importance of Poltavka and Catacomb cultures in Afanasyev origins.
    There is research(2011) regarding THE ORIGINS OF THE ANDRONOVO (FEDOROVKA) POPULATION:
    Conclusions
    As a result, we can make certain statements regarding the origin of the Andronovo (Fedorovka) population of southwestern Siberia, primarily that of the forest-steppe area of the Altai.
    (1) The predominantly robust Proto-European Caucasoids associated with the Andronovo (Fedorovka) culture were migrants from westward territories, the most likely source of migration being Kazakhstan.
    (2) The gracile dolichocranic, relatively narrow-faced Mediterraneans apparently descended from an earlier people who were associated with Samus–Seima-type cultures, specifically those inhabiting the southern and southwestern part of the distribution area of the Yelunino culture Rudny Altai and possibly regions lying even further south.
    (3) Craniometric indications of gene flow to the Andronovo (Fedorovka) population of the Altai forest-steppe from Western Siberian Mongoloid groups, specifically those belonging to the Ob-Irtysh Mongoloid variety, are minor. The primary source of admixture was clearly located in the northern part of the sub-taiga belt of Western Siberia. This is traceable mostly in female Andronovo crania from the Altai. The apparent intermediate source was the Andronovo (Fedorovka) population of the Baraba forest-steppe. Generally, in the eastern part of the Andronovo distribution area, the Western Siberian Mongoloid admixture appears to increase in a northern direction..
    2.Authors mentioned that androno people came from Kazakstan, altai and the baraba steppe. The important part is proto Europoid with the very low face from Kazakstan. However, they did not explain very well about them but simply said that the ancesotors of andronovo people lived in Kazarstan before middle Bronze.

    Discussion
    The origin of the Andronovo variant of the Proto-European trait combination appears to be the least disputable. Its wide distribution was evidently associated with the spread of the Andronovo (Fedorovka) culture from a single area. Because admixture seldom if ever results in the decrease of the facial height (Bunak, 1980), very low faces of the Andronovo people support the idea that this population originated in a single region, and that isolation was the major factor in its origin (Alekseyev, 1961). While the idea that the ancestors of the Andronovo (Fedorovka) people lived in Kazakhstan before the Middle Bronze Age (Ibid.) appears plausible, it cannot be supported by available data at present.
    3. Problem is there was no anthroplogical data that western people entered Kazarstan during bronze age, BUT AFANASIEVO.

    Noteworthy okunevtsev certain similarity with the population era of Kalmykia and the Astrakhan bronze right bank. The skulls from burial pit culture of this region characterized Caucasoid features and brahikraniey. In this series are artificially deformed skull, the shape of which is similar to the strain Okunev. Unfortunately, significant gaps in the cranial materials Neolithic-bronze from the territory of Kazakhstan and Iriuralya, intermediate territory between Siberia and South Eastern Europe, did not allow us to determine the path of movement of European workers.
    Paleoanthropological materials from the Bronze Epoch are now not substantial. The available skulls belong either to Andronov Culture in general, or to its late period. The paleoanthropological material cannot be stratified into chronological periods of the Andronov Culture because of the lack of exact dating. Only one male skull from Ust-Narym (East Kazakhstan) is dated by Neolithic time. That skull, like the fragmentary Neolithic female skull found by E.I.Ageeva and A.G.Maksimova (1959) at Jelezinka village in the Pavlodar area, in opinion of V.V.Ginzburg (1956), has Afanasiev features. Another female skull from the I.V.Sinitsyn excavation at the Saikhin station (Ural area) belongs to the Timber-Grave Culture. It was described by Firshtein (1958) and typologically, as points the author, is close to a Mediterranean type.
    Later, G.F.Debets (1948) studied four more skulls (2 male and 2 female) from the Bronze Age, received from the basin of the r. Nura (Central Kazakhstan). Most of them were in a bad preservation state. The paleoanthropological material from the territory of Kazakhstan allowed G.F.Debets to establish some characteristic attributes in the physical shape of local population during the Bronze Epoch. In his opinion, during that period lived the tribes of the Andronov variation of the proto-European race, whose representatives had massive mezocranial skulls, low and wide face, sharply projecting nose, low eye-sockets, considerably developed nose bridge. Genetically, he connected that variation with Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnon type "in a broad sense of this word". At the same time, proceeding from morphological similarity of the Andronov Culture population in Kazakhstan with the population of same culture of Minusinsk depression, F. Debets (1948) suggested an extremely interesting theory that the Andronov component formed in the Kazakhstan steppes, and from there penetrated into the Minusinsk depression.
    Debets describes the people of Afanasievo as being very tall and strong. The skull shows a pronounced dolichocephaly, very prominent nasal bones, a rather low face, low orbits, and a very broad forehead. All these characteristics make the Afanasievo people very different from the former inhabitants of Cisbaikalia and probably of all people of the Siberian taiga. They show that we find here Europoide types which are somewhat different from the modern representatives of that race. Many features, especially the broad face, remind us of the Cromagnon type. It is doubtless an old form. The people are rather similar to those of the western »pit graves». The skeletal material of the Andronov o culture5 ) (Pis. X I , XIV ) is a variety of the Afanasievo type. There is, however, a series of characteristic differences: 1. The face is still lower, which implies an increase in the nasal index and a decrease in the orbital index. 2. The skull is somewhat shorter and broader, so that the cranial index increases. (The Andronovo people are mesocephalic). 3. The forehead is straight, possibly in connection with the general change in the cranial structure. This type has probably immigrated into the Minusinsk region and gave agriculture a more important position. On the other hand, this type is spread as far as the Pontic steppes.
    4. So the andronovo R1a-z93 people with the other R1a-z93 people was genetically concerned with Altai people, especially Afanasievo. And the result of this research will be greatly anticipated.

    ==> Another mistery of relationship between two warlords of andronvo and seima-turbno Krotovo, just like afanasievo and okunevo; “kinship.”
    The Late Krotovo culture was dated to the18–19th centuries BC, the Andronovo complex (Fedorovo stage) to the 15–18th centuries BC, and the Mixed Andronovo complex dated to the 15–17th centuries BC.
    ------
    We have 3 types of populations with different cultural signatures in the studied area: migrants(Andronovo culture, particularly its Fedorovo stage); aborigines (Late Krotovo culture); and complexes that were formed as a result of kinship interaction between migrants and aborigines (Mixed Andronovo culture).
    The likely direction of the migration of the Andronovo (Fedorovo) culture bearers into the Baraba forest-steppe (first half of the 2nd millenium BC; from anthropological and genetic data). On the territory of Baraba, the migrants coexisted with the indigenous late Krotov population and interacted with them at the level of material culture (Molodin et al., 2009), mitochondrial DNA (Pylypenko et al., 2009), and genetic contacts

    - The andronovo people at early stage practiced cremation like seima-turbino people. I think this tradition continued to ancient turk and later slav people.

    The Stary Tartas 4 site [in some sources Staryi Tartas] is represented by burial mounds (kurgans).All burials belong to the Andronovo culture. The basic burial practice is cremation, and only a few children were inhumed. The site was investigated from 1994 to 1998, with 19 kurgans excavated (Molodin et al. 2002).
    Last edited by johen; 25-03-17 at 23:47.

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